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ments briefly expressed, and the practical maxims of great value scattered through its pages. As an illustration of this remark the following may be offered.

“Oh Time! than gold more sacred.

Part with it as with money, sparing: pay
No moment but in purchase of its worth.
And what its worth, ask death-beds; they can tell."

"Tis greatly wise to talk with our past hours

And ask them what report they bore to heav'n."

" Earth's highest station ends in 'Here he lies;
And 'Dust to dust,' concludes her noblest song."

"The grand morality is love of Thee."

lo A Christian is the highest style of man."

“Believe, and show the reason of a man;
Believe, and taste the pleasure of a god;
Believe, and look with triumph on the tomb."

“That life is long which answers life's great end:
The time that bears no fruit deserves no name.
The man of wisdom is the man of years."

“And all may do what has by man been done.
The more our spirits are enlarged on earth,
The deeper draught shall they receive of heaven."

It has been objected to this poem that it often indulges in a strain too gloomy; an objection which is fully presented and considered in the following “Estimate of the Writings of the Author," and therefore it may now be sufficient just to enter our dissent from the objections, and to adduce in the author's vindication a few of the beautiful and triumphant lines with which he brings his poem to a close;


showing, that whatever effect it may have produced on other minds, it had not an unhappy one on his own; and giving us to understand that the complaint of gloominess must be ascribed to an exclusive attention to certain portions, the subjects of which could truthfully be endowed with no other characteristics, and to a neglect of those other portions which raise the enraptured and Christian mind to the very heavens, in joyful anticipations of what he describes as existing there, and in grateful thank-offerings to the Divine benevolence.

“Then, farewell, Night! Of darkness, now no more :
Joy breaks, shines, triumphs : 'tis eternal Day.
Shall that which rises out of nought complain
Of a few evils, paid with endless joys?
My soul! henceforth in sweetest union join
The two supports of human happiness,
Which some, erroneous, think can never meet;
True taste of life, and constant thought of Death;
The thought of Death, sole victor of its dread !
Hope be thy joy, and probily thy skill;
Thy Patron He, whose diadem has dropp'd
Yon gems of heaven ; eternity thy prize."

In taking up the productions of any distinguished author there is naturally and universally felt a strong desire to learn something of his history and character: if he be a writer of genius, it is advantageous to most readers also, to be furnished with a critical account of his writings, as a preparation for reading them with an intelligent appreciation of the excellencies and defects, or as a means of awakening the attention to all those qualities and objects that are intrinsically most deserving of it. The author of the present edition has therefore deemed it important to draw up a memoir of Dr. Young, though the materials for it are by no means abundant. He has availed himself of all he could command, and has embodied more


particulars of interest than are to be found in any one of the published accounts he has seen. Perhaps he may be charged with occupying too much space in exhibiting one particular phase of the poet's character, but it was one that has awakened more curiosity, and has needed more explanation than any other. Besides, in offering this explanation incidents in themselves Worthy of attention are brought to view, and thus a double end has been accomplished.

The “ Critical Estimate” that follows the memoir is made up chiefly of those criticisms from other authors, which he has judged most suitable to convey a correct and comprehensive view of the characteristic traits of the writings to which they relate ; arranged in a convenient order, and connected by such observations of his own as seemed to be required to place them in a just point of view.

In the preparation of the “Notes,” the path is an untrodden one, and as it lies through many an obscure, wild, and intricate forest, and abrupt defile, while it also traverses many a beautiful garden, and commands many a sublime and picturesque view of nature and of redemption, the office of a guide is felt to be one that might advantageously have been confided to a person of higher qualifications ; but as none such have appeared, or proffered their services, it is hoped the present attempt will be met with indulgence. If the annotator has fallen into mistakes himself, and has thus misled others in any part of the way, his only apology is, that he has put forth an honest and faithful endeavour to show his readers just what the “ Night Thoughts” contain, clearing away all obstructions to a full and close view of the objects both of beauty and of deformity, of sublimity and of insignificance. Many a thoughtful and many a pleasant hour has been passed in this endeavour ; but the author enjoys the additional satisfaction of having provided. welcome and needful assistance to future readers of the immortal “Night

Thoughts." To them, in the act of reading, he would give the same advice which the poem gives in selecting a friend; "pauseponder-sift.” He would advise that at least a few minutes be devoted almost daily to the perusal of its eloquent pages; and that a fair trial be made, in the careful reading of the whole work, of its adaptation to enlarge and adorn the intellect, to improve the taste, to guide the affections and the voluntary powers, and to place before us those realities and those truths which it chiefly concerns us, as beings framed for immortality to know and to consider.



This distinguished poet was born at Upham, in Hampshire (England), in June, 1681, his father being then rector of a church in that town, and a Fellow of Winchester College, but subsequently he was appointed chaplain to William and Mary, the sovereigns of Great Britain, and previous to his death, in 1705, was preferred to the deanery of Salisbury.

The higher branches of his education Young pursued in colleges of great repute and distinguished advantages-first at Winchester College, and afterwards at the University of Oxford. In 1708, he was nominated by Archbishop Tennison to a law fellowship in AllSouls, having owed these privileges in part to the merits of his father, yet in a good measure also to his own intellectual progress and scholar-like deportment. We must not conceal the report, however, that while connected with the last-named institution, his conduct was by no means irreproachable, and that he was not the ornament of religion and morality which he afterwards became.

There is some reason to believe that the disparaging report to which we have referred may have originated simply from the fact that he there became intimate with the younger Duke of Wharton, and that he was not ashamed to accept and enjoy the patronage as well as the companionship of this eccentric and dissolute nobleman, whom Pope, perhaps with some exaggeration, many years after thus portrayed:

“Wharton, the scorn and wonder of our days,
Whose ruling passion was the lust of praise ;
Born with whate'er could win it from the wise

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