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books. The style, too, exhibits occasional marks of negligence; and the lecturer, in sketching a history of interpretation, finds it somewhat difficult to repress his feelings as a Protestant controversialist.
His Appendix is by far the more curious and excellent part of his pamphlet. In these concluding pages he aims at vindicating the opinion which he formerly expressed concerning the Received Version of the Bible; and his success is complete. He does not inform us in reply to what work of periodical criticism his observations are made: we believe that it is the Quarterly Review.
The M. Professor shews, with great historical exactness, and by an ample induction, that in the Public Version a considerable regard was paid to preceding English translations, one of which, in particular, [Tyndal's,] was taken in some degree from Luther's. Of King James's Translation he thinks that it was as faithful a representation of the original Scriptures as could have been formed at that period; and that it is most unjust to accuse him of representing this version as a compilation of second-hand translations: its revision he strenuously recommends.
We cannot, by any abridgment of his remarks, place before our readers with sufficient clearness his proof of the fact that Tyndal adopted Germanisms, some of which are still retained in our authorized version. An extract will be preferable:*
"It cannot appear extraordinary, if an English translator, who followed Luther so closely as Tyndal did, should occasionally adopt a German idiom. Now there is nothing which more distinguishes the structure of the German from that of the English language than the position of the nominative case and verb in affirmative sentences. To make this intelligible to an English reader, and at the same time to contrast the English with the German idiom, let us take some familiar English example: for instance, I rode yesterday from Cambridge to Huntingdon,' which might be expressed in German by 'Ich ritt gestern von Cambridge nach Huntingdon.' But if Gestern be placed at the beginning of the sentence, the German idiom requires that the nominative be put after the verb, though the sentence is not interrogatory, but affirmative. A German, therefore, would say, Gestern ritt ich von Cambridge nach Huntingdon, though an Englishman, if he began the sentence with yesterday, would still say, Yesterday I rode,' &c. And if he said, 'Yesterday rode I from Cambridge to Huntingdon,' he would use a Germanism.
"Now there are many such Germanisms in our English Bible, though their deviation from the common English style is generally overlooked, because we are accustomed to them from our childhood. ↑
"Examples which originated in Tyndal's Translation, and were transferred to the King's are, 1 Cor. ix. 22, To the weak became I; xii. 31, and yet shew 1; 2 Cor. vii. 13, exceedingly the more joyed we."§
Happy shall we be, if, continuing to deliver and to publish his lectures, Bishop Marsh affords us an early opportunity of again expressing our respect for him, in his character of Lady Margaret's Professor.
Pp. 58, 59.
+ For ourselves we can truly say that our attention has been now called for the first time to this peculiarity. Newcome, indeed, in his Hist. View of Eng. Bibl. Translations, p. 328, notices many "unpleasing collocations of words," but does not seem to be aware of their source and nature.
It will be a useful employment (we speak from experience) to compare together such examples, i. e. Luther's and Cranmer's and the Received Version.
§ Among the instances not pointed out by the M. Professor are, Acts. xi. 16, 25, xiii. 18, 44.
FROM THE DUTCH OF WITHUYS.
OUR life is a day-dream,
A dream, and no more;
We laugh, sport, dance, play, dream;
With sunset 'tis o'er :
The dawn of the morrow
The idle relying
On days that flit by;
To stop them;-they haste
The pilgrim o'ertaken
And sorrows awaken
The clouds o'er his head.
The rush and the riot
Has quench'd all his light-
The pilgrim, arisen,
REASONS FOR MUTUAL ENCOURAGEMENT AND CO-OPERATION, IN PROMOTING THE KNOWLEDGE AND DIFFUSION OF THE GREAT PRINCIPLES OF UNITARIANISM; WITH A SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION.
[This article, the conclusion of which will appear in the succeeding number, forms the chief part of a discourse delivered on the first Anniversary of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. The Preacher was requested by the Committee to print it, for the purpose of extending an acquaintance with the objects of the Association, and of showing the motives which, he thought, should influence Unitarian Congregations in general to unite with it, and individuals to afford it their pecuniary aid. The state of his health at the time, and for a long period afterwards, operated to prevent his compliance; but the views he then stated may not be deem-ed unseasonable now; and he submits them to the readers of the Monthly Repository, with the desire that they may contribute to promote that spirit of union and mutual aid, which he trusts is increasing among us, and which, united with the exemplification of the practical influence of our great principles, must extend effectually the knowledge and reception of them.]
THOUGH various errors, which once deformed the sacred system of Christianity, have yielded to the gradual progress of the human mind; and others have become extinct, or have lost much of their influence, through increasing knowledge of the Scriptures; still, the present period of the Christian church is not characterized by "the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God." We may, however, reasonably look forwards, with full conviction, to a time, when all men shall possess that knowledge which our Saviour pronounced to be life eternal, in the faith and obedience of the "ONLY TRUE GOD;" when in the name of Christ every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess him to be Lord, to the glory of GOD even the FATHER. To this issue the language of prophecy points; and so also does our best knowledge respecting the perfections of God. However much, in his unsearchable dispensations, error, and evil the offspring of error, may be made to bring about great and good ends, those means cannot in themselves be good; and under the all-perfect and all-powerful government of infinite wisdom and love, they must ultimately cease.
Whenever that period arrives, in which, on the great points of Christian doctrine, there will be unity of faith, then will there exist that union of spirit which unity of faith should ever cherish.—It is indeed a cheering and a just persuasion, that such union of spirit is more extensive than unity of opinion. The Church of Christ includes members of every denomination. Wherever there is the spirit of Christ-the spirit of love and piety and righteousness,— and it brings forth (as if genuine it must do) the fruits of a Christian life and conversation, there is a member of that holy community whose names are enrolled in heaven, and who will hereafter be found there, even if, through the narrow creeds of men, excluded from the "communion of saints" on earth. It is no slight recommendation of those views which Unitarians regard as the teachings of gospel truth, that they enable us to offer such a disciple (whether or not he can receive it) the right hand of Christian fellowship; and that they are hostile to that narrow bigotry which confines the affections, which warps the judgment, and which cramps the exertions of charity.
While we check in our own hearts, and if need be among each other, all approaches to that baneful disposition, have we no sufficient motives to strive earnestly to promote the progress of what we believe "the faith once de
livered to the saints"? If we will do nothing for what we deem the truth, while thousands around us are doing every thing they can against it, how can we claim a relationship to him who came to bear witness to the truth? -God's time is doubtless best; but he employs human agency to bring about his great and good purposes: and though that agency should be carefully directed according to his will, and guided by the pointings of his providence, yet ought we ever to be on the watch to observe and follow those pointings, and never to allow personal considerations of ease, of interest, or of honour, to cause us to slight or to neglect them.
The great principles which form the bond of union among Unitarian Christians, may be viewed as matters of barren speculation, interesting as truths, but unconnected with any important practical results. If this be just, then may we be permitted to leave them to work their way in the world, and give ourselves no trouble in disseminating them,-not even so much as in promoting and extending the discoveries of modern philosophy. But it is not just. The question at issue between the Unitarian and his fellow-christian is not one of names or strifes of words: it respects the attributes and dispensations, the worship and the requirements of Jehovah; it respects the terms of salvation. It may appear unimportant to those who observe the devout, benevolent and holy lives of numbers who embrace prevalent doctrines; forgetting that this is because the influence of those doctrines is overpowered by that of the great practical principles of the gospel, which Unitarianism includes, nay, in which it mainly consists. It may also appear unimportant to those who observe the inefficaciousness of those principles in the lives of many Unitarian professors; forgetting that the moral influence of doctrines often bears little proportion to the convictions of the understanding, or even to their intrinsic excellence; and that if this be an argument against Unitarianism, it will equally hold against the value of Christianity itself. And it may appear unimportant to those who view religion altogether with indifference, and, like Gallio, care for none of these things. But surely it cannot be thus viewed by him who observes how error leads to error; and how much errors which appear, and perhaps are, harmless to one, are really noxious to others who perceives that truth is, by the nature given to man by his Maker, healthful to the soul as light is to the body: who believes that revealed truth must be enlightening and sanctifying to the human race; and that whatever obstructs the reception or the influence of it, must, in that proportion, be baneful. Nor can the question at issue be deemed unimportant by those who observe that it is not merely whether there are Three Objects, or only One Object of religious worship and supreme affection; (though, whether viewed in itself, or in its connexions and consequences, this is an inquiry of great moment;) but also, whether the Father of all is to be regarded as essentially merciful and the sole First Cause of our salvation; or whether we owe all our inestimable blessings as Christians to Christ Jesus, as being procured for us by his appeasing the wrath of God, or satisfying his justice, or enabling him to exercise his mercy to the repentant sinner;whether or not religion consists in the vital, practical principle of godliness, or the fear of the Lord;-whether or not faith in Christ consists in the cordial reception of his divine authority, operating to produce obedience to his laws, the imitation of his example, and grateful attachment to his service;— whether or not we shall be judged according to our own works, and bear our own burden;-whether or not in every nation he that feareth God and worketh righteousness, (according to the light which Providence affordeth him,)
will be accepted by him.-On some or other of these points most of our brethren will be found to leave us, who leave the simpler faith that God is ONE, and HE ALONE to be worshiped.
Candid Christians, of all persuasions, if they would consent to keep close to the Scriptures, might unite together with mutual edification; and they would find that they are nearer than they had imagined: but with those who follow the creeds and systems of men, and guide their worship and their services by them, the Unitarian has too little common ground for the engagements of religious worship. Thus separated from the prevalent denominations of Christians, ought we not to cherish fellowship among each other? Is Unitarianism so frigid a system that the genial spirit of the gospel must lose in it its warmth and its energy? If so it is not Christianity.
We may learn much from those who, as we think, have less light than ourselves. It matters not where we see what is good; it should, if practicable, be our desire to imitate it. It should be nothing to us, whether the good example be set by the Wesleyan, the Calvinist, the Moravian, the Evangelical, or the Orthodox Churchman. If the Unitarian be not above the prejudices of names, he at least ought not to wonder that his opponents are not. I doubt not that the time will come when Unitarians, generally, will manifest no small portion of that zeal, which at present seems to exist most where, as we believe, it is most without knowledge; and when the Unitarian body, and its various individual communities, shall shew much of the genuine character of the Church of Christ in its best periods;-when they shall set that example which is now often set them, of zeal for the glory of God, of cordial union with their brethren, and of earnest desire to promote the best interests of all around them. That it is not so as yet, may be the subject of reproach, and sometimes of self-reproach, but not of despair. Within the recollection of those who have not passed the middle of life,-and still more of those who themselves laboured, (with others who have gone to their rest,) in comparatively dark discouragement,-the dawnings of a brighter day have increasingly shewn themselves in our horizon. But that it is not yet fully come, should operate to urge us to embrace all feasible plans which have in view to strengthen one another's hands, and warm one another's hearts. If sometimes these appear to cooler calculators (perhaps themselves too much biassed by the wisdom of the world) to be in a great measure the offspring of enthusasm, let them, on their part, produce one thing great and good which has been achieved without enthusiasm somewhere: let them remember, too, that there is an enthusiasm which the understanding cherishes and approves; as well as that which is the wild-fire of the feelings and the imagination: and instead of chilling it with their excessive caution, let them, partaking a little of its generous glow, aid it with the direction of their soberer judgment.
The caution of benevolent prudence, and the cheering influence of faith and hope, must be united in all objects having directly in view the diffusion of truth and righteousness, as well as in all others which respect human wellbeing. The darkest appearances often are, in the order of Divine Providence, the precursors of results on which benevolence must dwell with delight. At that all-important juncture, when "from the sixth hour darkness was over the whole land till the ninth hour," hope seemed ended, and to the eye of sense all was finished. It was finished, but in a far different import. As far as respected the personal services of the Saviour on earth, the work was done. The seed was sown. It was so sown that the genial influences of heaven might be confidently looked for. It was sown in tears, it was watered with blood; but he knew that it would be reaped in joy. He knew the great