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spiracy was as steadily directed against all regular government, as its anti-christian part was against all religion. Before Mr. Kett’s exposition therefore can be allowed to be well-founded, he must point out in what manner Infidelity " caused the ** earth and all them which dwell therein to wor" ship the beast whose deadly wound was healed;" that is to say, in what manner Infidelity caused the whole world to devote themselves to the apostate principles upheld by the beast. He may possibly say, that Buona partè has now taken those apostate principles under his special protection, and has formally entered into a league with the Pape. This however is not the point. The question is not what an ambitious individual has done, merely to serve inis own purposes : but what Infidelity has done, that Infidelity which set up the atheistical republic, or the image (as Mr. Kett supposes) of the beast. Now Infidelity placed itself in direct opposition to all religion; and what Buonaparte has done has been simply to avail 'himself of the wild confusion excited by Infidelity. The favour therefore, which he has shewn to Popery, can by no ingenuity be construed into an act of that Intidelity which was the parent of French democracy. Since Infidelity then has shewn the most determined hostility to the first beast, whether the Papacy or the divided Roman empire be symbolized by that beast, how is it possible that Infidelity can be the Biocond boast - This will be yet more evident, when we oonsider that St. Jotm, with a view to give us an insight into the true character of the second beast, styles him a false prophet *. Now, since a true prophet is one, who professes himself a servant of God, and who either delivers true predictions, or who faithfully preaches the Gospel of Christ t; a false prophet must be one, who equally professes himself a servant of God, but who either. delivers false predictions, or who garbles and corrupts the Gospel of Christ. It is evident therefore, that Infidelity cannot be the false prophet of the Apocalypse; because it answers to neither of these descriptions of a false prophct. Infidelity indeed zealously propagated the doctrines of a false philosophy, and is consequently a false teacher: but it certainly cannot be styled, with any pro priety, a false prophet; because, so far from claim, ing a divine commission, like Popery and Mohanmedism, it' came as an absolutely independent teacher, ridiculing even the very, existence of a Deity. Accordingly, we find, that St. Peter, when foretelling the atheists of the last days, carefully préserves the distinction between false prophets and false teachers. He observes, that, as there were false prophets among the ancient people of God, who imposed upon them with pretended commissions from heaven; so there should be false teachers amung' the Christians of the last days, who privily
Compare Rev. xix. 20. with Rev. xii. 13, 14. # This last is a signitication of the word peculiar to the New Testament. . I have already noticed it, and therefore it is su. perfluous to say any thing more upon the subjects,
should bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them *. If then these teachers. were to deny the Lord that bought them, it is plain that they could not come in his name like the false prophets of Israel. Hence St. Peter, with the strictest propriety, termis the ancient; impostors false prophets ; 'but describes the modern ones, as being only false teachers—In addition to these objections, I might inquire with what justice the French Republic can be denominated an image of the beast : but, since it has been shewn that Infidelity cannot be the second beast, it is superfluous to discuss that part of Mr. Kett's scheme which is only subordinate.
2. Mr. Galloway's system is nearly allied to that of Mr. Kett, though in some particulars it differs materially from it. He supposes; that the earth, out of which the beast arose, is France; that the beast himself is the French Republic; that his head is the legislature; that his two horns are the two committees of safety; that the fire, which he brought down from heaven to earth; is the wrath of God; that the wonders, which he performed, are the victorįes of France; that the image, which he set up, and to which he gave life and speech, is the prostitute goddess of reason and liberty; that his mark is the cap of liberty and the tri-coloured cockade; and that the number 666, the number also of a man, must be sought for in the name of
2 Peter ii. 1.
the last French monarch Louis, when Latinized, Ludovicus *.
The first objection to Mr. Galloway's interpretation is the same as one that has already been made to Mr. Kett's. It represents the second beast, as hostile, instead of friendly, to the first : for Mr. Galloway, like Mr. Kett, supposes the first boust to be the Popacy. This objection Mr. Gal. loway struggles, and (I think) ineffectually strugghes, to remove: me at least all lvis arguments have only served to convince, . that it never can be removed either by himself or by Mr. Kett: and, be it again observed, the objection is equally forcible, whether the first beast be the Papacy, or the diwided Roman Empire.---The second objection is, that without the least authority he propounces the earth in this particular part of the prophecy to meam France. The earth, as is sufficiently evident from the general context, means throughout the whole Apocalypse the Roman Empine. This appears pro
where more clearly than in the present chapter, where all they that dwell upon the earth are described as worshipping, or devoting themselves to the apostate principles of, the ten-horned beast *. Yet does Mr. Galloway declare, that the earth, in a subsequent part of this very chapter, means France-The third objection is, that the French Republic cannot be denominated a false prophet. The second beast however is the false prophet of the Revelation. Therefore the French Republic cannot be the second beast-The fourth objection is, that, if the wonders performed by the second beast mean only the French victories, it does not appear how he could deceive them that dwell upon the earth with such wonders as these. The miracles, wrought by the beast, are immediately connected with his bringing down fire from heaven, and his giving life and utterance to an image, and by these miracles, thus performed, he is said to deceive the world. Such is the simple assertion of the prophet; an assertion, which no critical art can torture to mean Gallie military exploits The last objection, which I shall make, is to the notion, that we are to seek for the number of the beast in the name Ludovicus. This notion is untenable even according to Mr. Galloway's own scheme. He supposes, that the number 666 is the number of the second beast, of that beast in short which he conceives to be the French Republic. Let us for a moment allow
* Rev, xiii. 3, 8,