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“ Maurice had now to act a part entirely new; “ but his flexible genius was capable of accom

modating itself to every situation. The moment “ he took arms, he was as bold and enterprising " in the field, as he had been cautious and crafty

in the cabinet. He advanced by rapid marches " towards the upper Germany. All the towns “ in his way opened their gates to him. He “ reinstated the magistrates whom the Emperor “ had deposed, and gave possession of the “ churches to the protestant ministers whom he “ had ejected. He directed his march to Augsburg; and, as the imperial garrison, which was

inconsiderable to think of defending it, retired immediately, he took possession of “ that great city, and made the same changes " there as in the towns through which he had “ passed *.”

Thus, after three days and a half, did the spirit of life enter into the witnesses, and they stood

Meanwbile great fear fell upon them that saw them. 66 No words can express

the Emperor's astonishment and consternation at events so unexpected. He saw

He saw a great “ number of the German princes in arms against “ him, and the rest either ready to join them,

or wishing success to their enterprize; while " he, through negligence and credulity, which " exposed bin no less to scorn than to danger,

upon their feet.


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* lrad neither made, nor was in a condition to “ make, any effectual provision for crushing his “ rebellious subjects. Part of his Spanish troops “ had been ordered into Hungary against the “ Turks; the rest had marched back to Italy

upon occasion of the war in the dutchy of Parma. The bands of veteran Germans had

been dismissed because he was not able to pay “ them, or had entered into Maurice's service “ after the siege of Magdebury; and he remained

at Inspruck with a body of soldiers hardly strong enough to guard his own person *.”

In this perilous situation he placed all his hopes in negociating. Maurice, conscious of his own talents, and designing merely to amuse the Emperor, readily agreed to an interview with his

brother Ferdinand, the King of the Romans, in the " town of Lintz in Austria. The conference pro

duced no accommodation, but Ferdinand, encouraged by his apparently pacific disposition, proposed a second interview at Passau on the 26th of May, when a truce should commence and continue to the 10th of June, in order to give them leisure for adjusting all the points in dispute.

Maurice readily assented; and, having rejoined his army on the 9th of May, since sixteen days yet reinained for action before the commencement of the truce on the 26th, he put his

* Hist. of Charles V, vol, iii. p. 227.



troops in motion the next morning, and resolved to venture upon an enterprize, the success of woich would be so decisive as to render the negociations at Passau extremely short, and entitle him to treat upon his own terms. Accordingly he marched directly at the head of his army towards Inspruck, and advanced with the most rapid motion that could be given to so great a body of men. Such indeed was his rapidity, that he entered that town only a few hours after the Emperor and his attendants had quitted it. Charles was informed of the approaching dan

ger late in the evening; and, knowing that nothing could save him but a speedy flight, le

instantly left Inspruck without regarding the “ darkness of the night or the violence of the “ rain which happened to fall at that time, and, “ notwithstanding the debility occasioned by the

gout, which rendered him unable to bear any “ motion but that of a litter, he travelled by the " light of torches, taking his way over the Alps

by roads almost impassable. His courtiers and « attendants followed him with equal precipita“ tion, some of them on such horses as they could hastily procure, many of them on foot,

and all in the utmost confusion. In this mise“ rable plight, very unlike the poinp with which si Cha les had appeared during the five preceding

years as the conqueror of Germany, he arrived " at length with his dejected train at Villach in s Carinthia, and scarcely thought himself secure

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even in that remote, inaccessible, corner *." Similar was the fear which likewise fell upon the other enemies of the protestants.

" It was no sooner known at Trent that Maurice had taken " arins, than a general consternation seized the “ fathers of the council. The German prelates «immediately returned home, that they might “ provide for the safety of their respective ter“ ritories : the rest were extremely impatient to be gone :” and the legate dismissed the assembly t.

4. The witnesses however were not only to stand again upon their feet, but afterwards to ascend into heaven in the very sight of their enemies. This heaven is doubtless only a symbolical heaven ; and the ascension of the witnesses into it denotes simply their formal recognition as an ecclesiastical body. Hitherto 'they had only stood upon their feet ; but now they were to ascend triumphantly into heaven : they were firmly to establish themselves, as an acknowledged church, in direct opposition to their enemies who beheld them, the first beast and his instigator the second beast.

After the flight of the Emperor from Inspruck, as there now remained only three days to the

commencement of the truce (with such nicety " had Manrice calculated his operations), he set s out for Passau, that he might meet Ferdinand

* Hist, of Charles V. vol. iii. p. 232.

† Ibid. p. 233.

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on the day appointed *.” Here, in the presence of the Imperial ambassadors, the Duke of Bavaria, the Bishops of Saltzburgh and Aichstadt, the ministers of all the Electors, and the deputies from most of the considerable princes and free cities, he opened the negociation. After a long discourse in which he explained the motives of his own conduct, be limited his demands, in the name of his associates, to three articles, agreeably to the manifesto, which he had published when he took up arms: that the Landgrave of Hesse should immediately be set at liberty; that the grievances in the civil government of the Einpire should be redressed; and that the Protestants should be allowed the public exercise of their religion without molestation. Firm and haughty as Charles was by nature, he found it necessary to bend; and signified his willingness to make concessions on his part, if Maurice, in return, would abate somewhat of the rigour of his demands. That prince, unwilling again to commit all to the doubtful issue of war, repaired forthwith to Passau, and signed the treaty of peace. Its chief articles were, that the Landgrave should be set at liberty; that a diet should be held within six months, in order to deliberate concerning the most proper and effectual method of preventing for the future all disputes about religion; that, in the mean time, neither the

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of Cla

V. vol, jii, p. 233.


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