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is righteous in all his ways, and holy, chasid, in all his works, would have been more truly, as well as intelligibly and emphatically rendered, The Lord is just in all his ways, and bountiful in all his works. There is not equal reason for translating in the same manner the Greek hosios, when applied to God in the New Testament. Though hosios, in the Septua. gint, commonly occupies the place of chasid, it does not always. It is sometimes employed in translating the Hebrew words On tham, perfect, and 70 jasher, upright. Once it is used for this last term when applied to God 185. Those words, therefore, foti uovos 'oolos 186, in an address to God, ought to be translated, for thou alone art perfect, rather than bountiful or gracious. The addition of uovos to the other epithet, is a sufficient ground for this prefe. rence. The context also favours it. But, in the more common acceptation of the term oolos hosios, there is this difference between it and 'aylos hagios, as applied to God, that the latter appellation represents the Deity as awful, or rather terrible; the former as amiable. The latter checks all advances on our part. We are ready to cry with the men of Bethshemesh 187, Who is able to stand before this holy God? The former emboldens us to approach. Thus they are so far from being synonymous in this application, that they may rather be contrasted with each other. As to their import, when applied to
185 Deut. xxxii. 4.
186 Rev, xv. 4.
187 i Sam, vi, 20.
men, the word åyios, in the best sense, still retains so much of its origin, as to appear rather a negative character, denoting a mind without stain ; whereas the term 'oouos is properly positive, and implies, in its utmost extent, both piety and benevolence.
$ 20. In regard to the manner of translating kadosh in the Old Testament, and hagios in the New; when all circumstances are considered, I think it safest to retain very generally the common version holy. The same remark holds nearly also of th: conjugates. It is very true that the sense of the riginal, in many places, does not entirely the meaning which we affix to that word. But it is certain, on the other hand, that we have no one word that answers so well in all cases. To change the term with each variation in meaning, would be attended with great inconveniency, and, in many cases, oblige the translator to express himself either unintelligibly, and, to appearance, inconsequentially, or too much in the manner of the paraphrast. On the other hand, as the English term holy is somewhat indefinite in respect of meaning, and in a manner appropriated to religious subjects, nothing can serve better to ascertain and illustrate the scriptural use than such uniformity ; and the scriptural use of a word hardly current in common discourse, cannot fail to fix the general acceptation. But this would not hold of any words, in familiar use, on ordinary subjects. With regard to such, any deviation from the received meaning would, to common readers,
prove the occasion of perplexity at least, if not of error. But chasid in the Old Testament, and hosios in the New (except when used substantively, where it may be rendered saint), ought, when it respects the disposition towards God, to be translated pious ; when it respects the disposition towards men, gracious, kind, humane.
Κηρυσσειν, ευαγγελιζειν, καταγγελλειν, AND διδασκειν.
The only other specimen I shall here give of words supposed to be synonymous, or nearly so, shall be κηρυσσειν, ευαγγελιζειν, καταγγελλειν, and διδασκειν, all nearly related, the former three being almost always rendered in English to preach, and the last to teach. My intention is, not only to point out exactly the differences of meaning in these words, but to evince that the words whereby the two former are rendered in some, perhaps most, modern languages, do not entirely reach the meaning of the original terms ; and, in some measure, by consequence, mislead most readers. It happens, in a tract of ages, through the gradual alterations which take place in laws, manners, rites, and customs, that words come, as it were, along with these, by imperceptible degrees, to vary considerably from their primitive signification. Perhaps it is oftener than we are aware, to be ascribed to this cause, that the terms employed by translators, are found so feebly to express the meaning of the original.
2. The first of the words above mentioned, κηρυσσειν, rendered to preach, is derived from κηρυξ, rendered preacher, whence also xnpuyua, rendered a preaching. The primitive xnpuš signifies properly both herald and common crier, and answers exactly to the Latin word caduceator in the first of these senses, and to præco in the second. The verb xnpvogelv is accordingly to cry, publish, or proclaim authoritatively, or by commission from another, and the noun xnpuypa is the thing published or proclaimed. The word xnpuč occurs only twice in the Septuagint, and once in the apocryphal book F.cclesiasticus, and evidently means in them all crier. The other sense of the word, namely, herald, or messenger of important intelligence between princes and states, is nearly related, as the same persons had often the charge of carrying such embassies, and of proclaiming war or peace : but it is not quite the same. In the New Testament the word seems to partake of both senses, but more evidently of that of crier. And to this sense the derivatives κηρυσσω and κηρυγμα, more properly accord than to the other : for, to discharge the office of herald is,
in Greek, κηρυκευειν, and the office itself κηρυκευσις. . But these words, though frequent in classical wri. ters, are not found in Scripture. The word xnpuš occurs but thrice in the New Testament, once in each of the Epistles to Timothy 188, wherein Paul calls himself κηρυξ και αποςολος ; and once it is used by the Apostle Peter, who, speaking of Noah, calls him 189 κηρυξ δικαιοσυνης. The word κηρυγμα occurs but in three places in the Septuagint, and imports in them all proclamation or thing proclaimed. In one of those places it relates to that made by the Prophet Jonah, through the streets of Nineveh, called, as in the Gospel, preaching 19, and in another *9, is, in the common version, rendered proclamation. In the New Testament it occurs eight times, and is always rendered preaching. In two of those places it relates to Jonah's proclamation in Nineveh. The verb xmpvoow occurs in the New Testament about five and twenty times, always in nearly the same sense : I proclaim, prædico, palam annuncio.
In at least twelve of these cases it relates solely to proclamations made by human authority, and denotes in them all to warn, or, by crying out, to advertise people openly of any thing done or to be done, or danger to be avoided. This may be called the primitive sense of the word, and in this sense it will be found to be oftenest employed in the New Testainent.
188 1 Tim. ii. 7. 2 Tim. i. 11. 189 2 Pet. ii. 5.
190 Jonah, iii. 2. 191 2 Chron. Xxxvi. 22.