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and ecclesiastical sense, not in the primitive and classical, which is also the scriptural sense in the Gospels and Acts. Thus the learned Academicians della Crusca, in their Vocabulary, interpret the Italian predicare, not by the Latin prædicare, its etymon, but' by concionari, concionem habere ; terms certainly much nearer than the other to the import of the word used in the other two languages mentioned, though by no means adapted to express the sense of xnpvogelv in the historical books. This is another evidence of what was observed in a former Dissertation 225

that a mistake, occasioned by supposing the word in the original, exactly correspondent to the term in the common version, by which it is usually rendered, is often confirmed, instead of being corrected by recurring to translations into other modern tongues, inasmuch as from the same, or simi. lar causes, the like deviation from the original import, has been produced in these languages, as in

Our OWI),

§ 14. I SHOULD now examine critically the import of the word ευαγγελιζω, often rendered in the same way with xmpvoow. But what might have been offered on this subject, I have in a great ¡measure anticipated, in the explanation I gave of the name evayyedcov. It would have been impossible to consider the noun and the verb separately, without either repeating the same observations and criticisms on

225 Diss. II. P. III. $ 6.

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each, or, by dividing things so closely connected, injuring the illustration of both. I shall therefore here, after referring the reader to that Dissertation 226 which is pretty full, point out, in the briefest manner, the chief distinctions in meaning, that may be remarked between this word, and xnpvoow, already explained.

The former always refers to a message or news in itself good and agreeable, the latter does not require this quality in the subject. What would come under the denomination of xaxayyeria, bad news, may be the subject of xnpuyua, proclamation, as well as good news. We say, with equal propriety, κηρυσσειν πολεμον as κηρυσσειν ειρηνην, to proclaim war, ás to proclaim peace. Nay, Jonah's cry through the streets of Niniveh, Yet forty days and Niniveh shall be overthrown, is denominated xmpuyua both in the Old Testament and in the New. But this is no where, nor indeed could be, styled evayye2lov, glad tidings.

A second difference is, the word xmpvoow implies that the notification is made openly to many, whereas the word ευαγγελιζομαι may not improperly be used, in whatever way the thing be notified, publicly or privately, aloud or in a whisper, to one or to many. Thus, in regard to the important and agreeable message delivered by Gabriel to Zacha. rias the father of John the Baptist, when the latter was alone in the sanctuary offering incense; the

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archangel says 227, I am sent, evayyanuoao Sai Gol Tauta, to show thee these glad tidings. And it is said of Philip, when in the chariot with only the Ethiopian eunuch 128, ευηγγελισατο αυτω τον Ιησεν. He preached to him Jesus. The term preached, by which our translators have rendered the word, does not in this place reach the meaning of the Greek word, nor does it answer to the ordinary acceptation of the English. It does not reach the meaning of the Greek, as the quality of the subject, its being good news, is not suggested. Nor is the English word proper here; for this teaching was neither public, nor have we reason to believe it was a continued discourse. It is much more probable, that it was in the familiar way of dialogue, in which he had begun, that Philip continued to instruct this stranger in the doctrine of Christ.

Another distinction seems to arise from the original import of the words, though I will not say that it is uniformly observed. It is, that the word evayyeausn relates to the first information that is given to a person or people, that is, when the subject may be properly called news. Thus, in the Aets, it is frequently used for expressing the first publication of the Gospel in a city or village, or amongst a particular people. In regard to the word xnpvoow, there is no impropriety in speaking of the same thing as repeatedly proclaimed among the same people. Thus the approach of the reign of God was, in fact, pro

227 Luke, i. 19.

228 Acts, viii. 35,


claimed to the Jews in our Saviour's lifetime, first by the Baptist, then by our Lord himself, afterwards by the Apostles, and lastly by the seventy disciples. I shall only add, that the word evayyeaizouar is sometimes, though not often, used more indefinitely for teaching and preaching in general 229. In one place 23), it is rendered by our translators declared. But in the Gospels, it always preserves the primitive signification. When, therefore, we find it there coupled with the verb didaoxw, we are not to understand the terms as synonymous, but as intended to acquaint us that the teaching mentioned was accompanied, or perhaps introduced, with an intimation of the approaching reign of the Messiah. · The most obvious things are sometimes the most apt to be overlooked by ingenious men. We should otherwise think it unaccountable that men, eminent for their attainments in sacred. literature, should be so far misled by the ordinary meaning of a phrase in the translation, as entirely to forget the proper

import of the original expression. I am led to this reAection by observing, in a late publication 231, the following remark on Luke xx. 1.

« Διδασκοντος αυτα --και ευαγγελιζομενε. Why this specifica“tion of preaching the gospel? Did he not always

preach the gospel when he taught the people? “ Hence I conclude, that xai evayyeaisquevs should “ be thrown out as a marginal reading, founded per

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230 Rer. x. 7. Acts, xiv. 15. Gal. i. 23.

231 Bowyer's Conjectures.

“haps on Matth. iv. 23. or ix. 35.” Doubtless, according to the import of the English phrase, he al. ways preached the Gospel when he taught, inasmuch as his teaching consisted either in explaining the doctrine, or enforcing the precepts of the Christian religion, which is all that we mean by preaching the gospel. But his teaching, though it was sometimes, was not always, (as is manifest from his whole history,) attended with the intimation above mentioned, which, in that history, is the only thing implied in evayyerisquevo. A close version of the words removes every difficulty. One day, as he was teaching the people in the temple, and publishing the good tid. ings. In my judgment, this last circumstance was the more worthy of being specified here by the Evangelist, as it has probably been that which then incensed 'the chief priests, and prompted them to demand of him in so peremptory a manner to show his warrant for what he did. To say that the reign of the Messiah was about to commence, would be accounted by them very presumptuous, and might be construed into an insinuation, that he himself was the Messiah, a position which we find them soon after pronouncing blasphemy: and in any case they would consider the declaration (which was well known not to originate from them) as an attempt to undermine their authority with the people.

Hence I also will take the liberty to conclude, that the common way of rendering the Greek verb, by the aid of consecrated words, not only into English, but into Latin, and most modern languages,

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