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has produced an association in the minds of men strong enough to mislead critical, as well as ordinary readers; else men of letters, like Dr. Owen and Mr. Bowyer, had never fancied that there is here either a tautology, or so much as a redundancy of words. I further conclude, that if we were to proceed in the way proposed by the former of these critics, and to expunge whatever in Scripture we dislike, or imagine might be spared, it is impossible to say what would be left at last of the divine oracles. The re. marker, if he would act consistently, ought also to throw out as a marginal reading κηρυσσων το ευαγγελιον, which is coupled with διδασκων in the two places of Matthew referred to. We may not be able to discover the meaning or the use of a particular expression ; for who can discover every thing? but let us not be vain enough to think, that what we do not discover, no other person ever will 232

g 15. The only other word in the New Testament that can be said to be nearly synonymous with either of the preceding, is xatayyaaaw annuncio, I announce, publish, or promulgate. It is an intermediate term between κηρυσσω and ευαγγελιζομαι. . In regard to the manner, it implies more of public notice than is necessarily implied in evayyežisqual, but less than is denoted by xmpvoow. In regard to the subject, though commonly used in a good sense, it does not express quite so much as ευαγγελιζομαι, ,

282 Diss, XII. Part II. §. 13, 14.

but it expresses more than xnpvoow, which generally refers to some one remarkable fact or event, that may be told in a sentence or two. Accordingly both these words, καταγγελλω and ευαγγελιζομαι come nearer to a coincidence in signification with Sidaoxw than κηρυσσω does.

§ 16. The word evayyaalsnis, rendered evangelist, occurs only thrice in the New Testament. First in the Acts 233, where Philip, one of the seven deacons is called an evangelist ; secondly, in the Epistle to the Ephesians 234, where evangelists are mentioned after apostles and prophets, as one of the of fices which our Lord, after his ascension, had appointed for the conversion of infidels, and the establishment of order in his church ; and, lastly, in the injunction which Paul gives Timothy to do the work of an evangelist 235. This word has also obtained another signification which, though not scriptural, is very ancient. As evayyehov sometimes denotes any of the four narratives of our Lord's life and sufferings, which make a part of the canon, so evangelist means the composer. Hence Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, are called evangelists.

8 17. As to the word didacxelv, it may suffice to observe, that it can hardly ever be wrong translated into Latin by the verb docere, or into English by the verb to teach; and that it was mentioned in the

233 Aets, xxi. 8.

234 Eph. iv. 11.

235 2 Tim. iv. 5.

title, not on account of any difficulty occasioned by it, but solely for the sake of suggesting my purpose to show that, far from being coincident, it has not even so great an affinity in signification to the other words there mentioned, as is commonly supposed. But, as the supposed coincidence or affinity always arises from mistaking the exact import of the other words, and not from any error in regard to this, a particular explanation of this term is not necessary.

DISSERTATION THE SEVENTH.

INQUIRY INTO THE IMPORT OF CERTAIN TITLES OF HONOUR OCCURRING

IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.

I Intend, in this Dissertation, to offer a few re. marks on those titles of honour which most frequently occur in the New Testament, that we may judge more accurately of their import, by attending, not only to their peculiarities in signification, but also to the difference in the ancient Jewish manner of applying them, from that which obtains among the modern Europeans, in the use of words thought to be equivalent.

PART I.

Κυριος. .

Nothing can be more evident, than that, ori. ginally, titles were every where the names, either of offices, or of relations, natural or conventional, insomuch that it could not be said of any of them, as

may be said, with justice, of several of our titles at present, those especially called titles of quality, that they mark neither office nor relation, property nor jurisdiction, but merely certain degrees of hereditary honour, and rights of precedency. Relation implies opposite relation in the object. Now, when those persons, for whose behoof a particular office was exercised, and who were consequently in the opposite relation, were very numerous, as a whole nation, province, or kingdom, the language commonly had no correlate to the title expressing the office; that is, it had not a term appropriated to denote the people who stood in the opposite relation.

But when there was only a small number, there was a special term for denoting the relative connection in which these also stood. Thus the terms, king, judge, prophet, pontiff, hardly ad. mitted any correlative term, but the general one of people. But this does not hold invariably. With us the correlate to king is subject. In like manner, offices which are exercised, not statedly, in behalf of certain individuals, but variously and occasionally, in behalf sometimes of one, sometimes of another, do not often require titles correlative. Of this kind are the names of most handicrafts, and se. veral other professions. Yet, with us the physician has his patients, the lawyer his clients, and the tradesman his customers. In most other cases of re. lation, whether arising from nature, or from convention, we find title tallying with title exactly. Thus, VOLI

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