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APPENDIX.

CLASSES OF VERBS.

A. Verbs are regarded either as Transitive or Intransitive. They are regarded as Transitive, when they denote actions which operate directly on some object : all others are regarded as Intransitive. They may be known by this test :

In Latin, if a verb is followed by a noun in the Accusative, it is Transitive; all others are Intransitive.

In English, if a verb is followed by a noun without a Preposition, it is Transitive ; all others are Intransitive.

B. Of Intransitive verbs some denote actions that need not operate on any object at all. These therefore need not be followed by any noun at all : as Ambulo, 'walk.' Others again denote actions which have to do with some object indirectly. These therefore need to be followed by some noun to complete the sense : as, Cedo mulieri, 'I yield to the woman’; Cesso opere, 'I cease from work.' There is indeed no hard line between these sorts of verbs. Take Rideo, ‘ I smile. It is enough to say, “The father smiles': so far Rideo is like Ambulo. But if I wish to name the object on which the father smiles, I put the noun naming it in the Dative: as, Pater ridet puero, ' The father smiles on the boy'; and thus Rideo becomes like Cedo.

C. Exactly the same may be said of Transitive verbs. Some denote actions that operate directly on one object. These therefore need to be followed by one noun in the Accusative : as, Porto puerum, 'I carry the boy.' Others again denote actions which have to do with some other

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object indirectly. These therefore need to be followed by some other noun to complete the sense : as, Do librum mulieri, I give a book to the woman'; 'Libero puerum periculo, 'I free the boy from danger.' But here again there is no hard line between the sorts. If I say, Servus facit arma, “The slave makes arms,' facio is like porto : but, if I name the object for which he makes them, I put the noun naming it in the Dative; as, Servus facit arma domino, “The slave makes arms for the lord’: and thus facio becomes like do.

D. In English there is no need to distinguish between these different classes of Intransitive or Transitive verbs, all the difference being shown by the use of Prepositions. Nor in Latin is it absolutely necessary. It might be enough to say-Whether the verb be transitive or intransitive : if the action is spoken of as operating at; that is, as in any way affecting or concerning, not moving, an object; put the noun in the Dative case : if the action is spoken of as operating from an object, put the noun in the Ablative case. But in Latin there are so many verbs, both Transitive and Intransitive, chiefly in consequence of their being compounded with Prepositions, which require special cases, that it is convenient for the pupil to distinguish the classes from the first ; in order that, when he meets with a verb, he may know to which class he ought to refer it, and therefore what construction may be expected with it.

E. Again, of Transitive verbs some denote actions which operate on material objects, as ‘kill,' carry,' give,' and the like : while others denote actions which operate on objects not material, especially on actions; and therefore are followed by those nouns which name actions, as the Infinitive Mood: as “I begin to sing,' 'I try to dance,' 'I dare to fight,' and the like. As these verbs are subject to peculiar constructions in Latin, they also must be carefully noted and classified.

F. It appears then from what has been said, both here and in Part I., that verbs may be divided into the following Classes.

I. Intransitive Verbs.

1. Verbs like Ambulo, walk' (I. II. III.): that is, Intransitive verbs, which denote actions that do not operate on any object, and which therefore are not necessarily followed by any noun : as,

Dominus ambulat.

The lord walks. 2. Verbs like Cedo, “yield' (V. B.): that is, Intransitive verbs, which denote actions that operate on one object indirectly, not moving, but operating at or round it, and which therefore are followed by one noun in the Dative : as,

Dominus cedit mulieri.

The lord yields to the woman. 2. a. Verbs like Pareo, obey,' (V. B.): that is, verbs which in Latin are Intransitive exactly like Cedo, being followed by the Dative; but in English are Transitive, being followed by a noun without a preposition (A.): as,

Dominus paret mulieri.

The lord obeys the woman. 3. Verbs like Cesso, 'cease' (VIII., A. b.): that is, Intransitive verbs, which give the idea of 'motion from; as verbs which denote ceasing, want, origin, and the like; and which are therefore followed by a noun in the Ablative : as,

Dominus opere cessavit.

The lord ceased from work. 4. Verbs like Utor, 'use' (VIII. S.): that is, verbs which in Latin are Intransitive, being followed by the Ablative; but in English are Transitive, being followed by a noun without a preposition : as,

Dominus utitur gladio.

The lord uses a sword. These are the four Deponent verbs, Fruor, “enjoy,' Fungor, “discharge,' Potior, 'obtain,' and Utor, “Úse.'

5. Verbs like Misereor, pity' (VII. D.): that is, verbs which in Latin are Intransitive, being followed by the Genitive; but which in English are Transitive, being followed by a noun without a preposition: as,

Dominus pueri miseretur.

The lord pities the boy. 5. a. Verbs like Pudet, “it shames' (VII. T.): that is, Impersonal verbs which are followed by the Genitive : as,

Dominum pudet sceleris.

The lord is ashamed of his crime. These are the five Impersonals, Miseret, 'it pities,' Piget, it irks,' Pænitet, “it repents,' Pudet, “it shames,' Tædet, it disgusts.

II. Transitive verbs, followed by common nouns.

1. Verbs like Porto, "carry' (IV.): that is, Transitive verbs, which denote actions that operate on one object directly, and which are therefore followed by one noun in the Accusative : as,

Dominus puerum portat.

The lord carries the boy. 2. Verbs like Do, 'give' (V. B. b.): that is, Transitive verbs, which denote actions that operate on two objects, on one directly, on the other indirectly, and which are therefore followed by two nouns, one in the Accusative, the other in the Dative : as,

Dominus dat librum puero.

The lord gives a book to the boy. 3. Verbs like Libero, 'free' (VIII. A. (6.): that fis, Transitive verbs, which give the idea of ‘motion from, and which are therefore followed by two nouns, one) in the Accusative, the other in the Ablative : as,

Dominus puerum periculo liberavit.

The lord freed the boy from danger. 4. Verbs like Accuso, 'accuse' (VII. D.): that is, Transitive verbs which are also followed by the Genitive : as,

Dominus puerum furti accusat.

The lord accuses the boy of theft.

5. Verbs like Doceo, 'teach' (XIII. B.): that is, Transitive verbs which are followed by two Accusatives: as,

Dominus puerum musicam docuit.

The lord taught the boy music.

III. Transitive verbs, followed by Verbals.

1. Verbs like Cæpi, begin': that is, Transitive verbs, which denote actions that operate directly on an action, and which are therefore followed by a noun in the Accusative, which is commonly a verb in the Infinitive Mood : as,

Dominus coepit cantare.

The lord begins to sing. 1. a. One or two such verbs are followed by the Subjunctive : as,

Dominus nititur ut cantet.

The lord strives to sing.

2. Verbs like Doceo, 'Teach': that is, Transitive verbs, which denote actions that operate on two objects, one of which is an action; and which therefore may be followed, both in Latin and English, by two nouns, one of which is a verb in the Infinitive mood : as,

Dominus puerum cantare docet.

The lord teaches the boy to sing. Or this second noun may be a common noun (Ap. II. S.):

as,

Dominus puerum musicam docet.

The lord teaches the boy music.

Under this class come these two divisions :

2. a. Verbs like Puto, 'think': that is, Transitive verbs, which denote actions that operate on two objects, one of which is an action, and which in Latin are followed by the Accusative and Infinitive like Doceo ; but which in English are commonly followed by a subordinate sentence after the Conjunction that’: as,

Dominus putat puerum cantare.

The lord thinks that the boy sings.

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