Page images


1. A Sentence consists of words so arranged as to have a meaning. The simplest sentence consists of a Noun (or Pronoun), and a Verb. An Adjective may be added to the noun, and an Adverb to the verb.

2. A Noun is the name of an object. An Object? is anything whatever that we can think of. 'Henry,' Mary, 'table,happiness,' are therefore nouns, because they name objects of which we can think.

3. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun : as when John, speaking to George, says “I' and 'you' instead of

John and George'; or, when speaking of Henry, says He'instead of Henry.'

The pronoun which names the speaker is called the Pronoun for the First Person ; the pronoun which names the object spoken to is called the Pronoun for the Second Person; while every object spoken of, whether named by noun or pronoun, is regarded as the Third Person.

In Latin, the pronoun for the First Person is ego ; for the Second, tu. For the third, there is only the defective Reflexive pronoun se, meaning ‘himself,' 'herself,' 'itself, themselves.'

4. That particular object about which the sentence is made is called the Subject of the sentence. And the noun,

1 Objectum object'comes from objicio ‘lay before,' and means any. thing laid before the mind,' menti being understood after objectum.

or pronoun, which names the subject, is called the Subjectword.

5. A Verb is a word which joined to a noun, or pronoun, denotes that the object named by the noun, or pronoun, performs a certain action : as, John walks,' 'I run,' 'You ride.'

6. An Adjective is a word which joined to a noun denotes that the object named by the noun is of a certain sort : as, “good boy,''pretty girl.'

7. An Adverb is a word which joined to a verb (as its name implies) denotes that the action denoted by the verb is performed in a certain way: as, 'John walks quickly.'

It may also be joined to an adjective; as, ‘John is extremely good.' And sometimes even to another adverb : as, John walks extremely quickly.'

8. Of these Parts of Speech, as they are called : namely, the Noun or Pronoun, the Verb, the Adjective, and the Adverb: the Noun or Pronoun, the Verb, and the Adjective are in Latin said to be Declinable, because they pass through changes (or declinings) of form in order to show differences of meaning; while the Adverb is said to be Indeclinable, because it does not pass through such changes.

9. A Noun is of a certain Gender, and passes through changes of form, called Numbers and Cases.

10. There are three Genders, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. In English the names of males are Masculine; of females, Feminine ; of inanimate objects, that is, of objects neither male nor female, Neuter. But in Latin, while the names of males are of the Masculine gender, and the names of females are of the Feminine gender, the names

Subjectum 'subject' comes from subjicio lay under,' and means anything laid under the sentence,' senientie being understood after subjectum.

« PreviousContinue »