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Page various words have been proposed; but insertus seems to be the best. 183 Alschefski compares Ovid, Ars. Am. 1, 605, insere te turbæ.

CH. L.—27. Ut-sic. See n. B. 1, c. 25.

32. Alterius morientis fuit. A marked instance of the construction of esse with the gen., as explained in n. B. 1, c. 25. Belonged tomi. e. “ followed in death the other consul.”

38. Cur-venire. See n. B. 21, c. 30, on quid esse.

1. Civis sis, etc. Such a question would be asked, because a 184 Latin ally would be ransomed for a smaller sum than a Roman citizen. Alteri refers not to socius, but to the Carthaginians, who sought honor for themselves in the humiliation of their enemies. This is the explanation of Fabri, and every way preferable to that of Drakenborch. Tua, and below, tu, instead of vestra and vos, because more forcible and direct.

12. Hæc—vadit. As Fabri has observed, these words form one hexameter line, and part of another. Comp. first n. Preface.

Ch. LI.-23. Noctisque. Noctis depends upon quietem; and the preceding words, diei quod reliquum esset = reliquum diei. The sense of the whole is this: reliquæ partes diei et noctis insequentis quietem-sumeret.–Fabri.

31. Temporis opus esse. See A. and S. 9 211, Rem. 11. Alsch. compares 23, 21, argenti opus fuit.

33. Mora-saluti-urbi. 6. There are moments when rashness is wisdom ; and it may be that this was one of them. The statue of the goddess Victory in the Capitol may well have trembled in every limb on that day, and have drooped her wings, as if forever; but Hannibal camo not; and if panic had for one moment unnerved the iron courage of the Roman aristocracy, on the next their inborn spirit revived ; and their resolute will, striving beyond its present power, created, as is the law of our nature, the power which it required.”—Arnold, 2,

p. 316.

CH. LII.--8. Brachio flumini objecto. This is the order of the 185 words in all the MSS.; but in some of them the reading is fluminis and in others flumine. Flumini is the emendation of Sigonius, and was adopted by Alschefski in the minor edition, and seems to me correct. Brachium means here outworks, line of outworks, which Hannibal threw up before-or over againstthe river. The reading of Gronovius, brachio objecto, flumine, though indeed yielding a good sense, varies too much from the MSS., and is besides unnecessary.

23. Ad vescendum facto, i. e. silver plate, table-service.

CH. LIII.-43. Quorum principem, sc. esse, according to the usual construction in the oratio obliqua. Z. $ 603, c.

7. Irent. See n. B. 1, c. 9, on mollirent. The imperf. because 186 negat is the historic present; comp. n. on fecissent, B. 1, c. 25.

12. Ex mei animi sententia. This is a strong form of affirma.

Page 186 tion; "jrom my very soul—or on my conscience-I declare, that, as I will not desert—so I will not suffer," &c.

Ch. LIV.–40. Occidione occisum. Occidione occidere pro funditus, ad internecionem delero-Drakenborch ; utterly destroyed-to the last man.

44. Edissertando_faciebant, sc. ceteri scriptores. Fecero is the common reading ; faciam in Alschefski's minor edition. Edissertare, a word seldom found. Comp. n. on occepit, B. 1, c. 49.—“Even Livy felt himself unable adequately to paint the grief and consternation of that day; and the experience of the bloodiest and most imbittered warfare of modern times would not help us to conceive it worthily. But one simple fact speaks eloquently: the whole number of Roman citizens able to bear arms had amounted, at the last census, to 270,000; and supposing, as we fairly may, that the loss of the Romans in the late battle had been equal to that of their allies, there must have been killed or taken, within the last eighteen months, no fewer than 60,000, or more than a fifth part of the whole population of citizens above seventeen years of age. It must have been true, without exaggeration, that every house in Rome was in mourning.”

Arnold, Hist. 2, p. 318.
187 5. Hannibalis—factam. See n. on ditionis, B. 1, c. 25.

17. Ad Ægates insulas. Compare n. B. 21, c. 41.
9. Vectigales ac stipendiarios. See n. B. 21, c. 41.

Ch. LV.-15-17. Dubitabant-venturum. The accusative with the infinitive, with dubito and non dubito, in the sense of to doubt, is the prevailing construction in Livy. Drakenborch and Fabri at this place adduce numerous parallel passages. Compare Z. $ 541.

19. Nondum palam facto, sc. qui vivi mortuique essent. A singular instance of the impersonal use of the participle in ablative absolute. See Z. $ 648.

35. Exspectent. On the number of the verb, see n. on pro se quisque, B. 2, c. 6.

36. Egredi urbem. Accusative, as also 3, 57, urbem egrederentur, and 2, 37, urbem excederent, where see n.

CH. LVI.-41. Pedibus issent. Soe Lev. Lexicon, pes; ana Dict. Antiqq. p. 868. 188 9. In illa tempestate. See Z. $ 475, Note, and compare in tali tempore above, c. 35.

19. Provinciamque aliam R., i. e. aliasque partes provinciæ Romanæ.-Alschefski.

CH. LVII.-26. Per commodum. See Z. $ 301, and n. on per fædus, 21, 18.

32. Quos nunc, i. e. scribas. See Dict. Antiqq. p. 792.

36. Libros. See n. on this word, 21, 62. 189 5. Magnis itineribus contendit, “hastens by forced marches."

Page 11. Arma, tela. See n. on these words, 1, 25.

189 15. Servitiis. See n. B. 2, 10. Ch. LVIII.-37. Inclinarent, sc. Romani.-Fabri. CH. LIX.–4. Plus justo. Z. $ 484; A. and S. § 256, R. 9. 190

23. Nec supersumus, i. e ii tantum supersumus,“ only those of us survive." See Arn. Pr. Intr. P. I. 174.

29. Extulisse. See n. on quiesse, B. 3, c. 48.

40. Nam si. Nam is elliptical, as if had just been said: Ourselves I do not compare with them; for if, &c.-Fabri.

43. Si tamen-faciatis. These words are parenthetical. Si tamen, if indeed, though. Fully to complete the sense of tamen we may supply, with Alschefski, quamvis ea quæ dixi vos tam duros esse vix patiantur. Merito here in a bad sense, fault; without our having deserved it, i. e. without any fault of ours. 1. Qui vos, i. e. patres vestros.

191 11. Me dius fidius. See Z. 9 361, Note.

14. Indigni, ut. See Z. $ 567, Note. But the instances of this construction are so few and doubtful, that we may well question in the present passage the correctness of the text.

Ch. LX.–30. Prohibendos—redimi. Soo n. on prohibere, B. 1, c. 39.

37. Ullius—eorum, i. e. captivorum.

38. Quid-aliud quam-essetis. What elsethan, i. e. only. “ For I should only have needed to remind you.” See n. on nihil aliud-quam, B. 2, c. 8.

6. Et cum, etc. Et is the reading of all the MSS., and is restored 192 by Alschefski. The sentence is closely connected with the preceding one: if they had followed Sempronius, they would now be in tho Roman camp, not in the power of the enemy. And although they, &c.

23. Viam, etc. The whole sense is this: Those words (i. e. moriamur, milites, etc.) Sempronius neither said, nor could have said; but he pointed out the way that conducted no less to safety than to glory, and yet you would not follow him.

41. Conati sunt. See Z. 519, b; and compare n. on dedit, B. 2, c. 10.

44. Quorum—similes. See n. on Romuli-similes, B. 1, c. 20.

9. Nisi quis credere, etc. “ Unless any one can believe that 193 they were,” i. e. that they were then good and faithful citizens, when, &c.

24. Vobis. See n. on mihi, Preface. 25. Decuerat. See Z. 9 518; Arn. Pr. Intr. P. I. $ 20. CH. LXI.—7. Ita—ne tamen, etc. Here appears the restrictive 194 force of ita, which distinguishes the meaning of this word from that of sic. (Soo Z. 98 281, 726.) The addition of tamen renders the sense

Pago
194 more clear and emphatic. Ne seems also here to have the force of ut
-non. Compare note on inciderat, ne, B. 1, c. 46.

8. Longius spe. 2. 9 484; A. and S. 9 256, R. 9.
17. Paucis sententiis, i. e. by a small majority.

39. Gratiæ actæ, quod de republica non desperasset. “ Demosthenes dared not trust himself to the Athenian people after his defeat in Ætolia, but Varro, with a manlier spirit, returned to bear the obloquy and the punishment which the popular feeling, excited by party animosity, was so likely to heap on him. He stopped as usual without the city walls, and summoned the senate to meet him in the Campus Martius. The senate felt his confidence in them, and answered it nobly. All party feeling was suspended ; all popular irritation was subdued ; the butcher's son, the turbulent demagogue, the defeated general, were all forgotten; only Varro's latest conduct was remembered, that he had resisted the panic of his officers, and, instead of seeking shelter at the court of a foreign king, had submitted himself to the judgment of his countrymen. The senate voted him their thanks, because he had not despaired of the commonwealth.'”-Am. Hist. 2, p. 320.

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Arnus, å river in Etruria ; now the Arno.
Arpi, a town in western Apulia, (Daunia.)
Arretium, .n Etrurian town near the Apennines ; the modern Arresso

in Tuscany.
Aria, a wood in the neighborhood of Rome.

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