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purposes of instruction in our colleges ; and it was deemed inexpedient to increase unnecessarily the size of the volume.

The text is chiefly that of Alschefski ; whose excellent edition,* not yet completed, is understood to mark a new era in the history of the text of Livy, and, in the judgment of distinguished European scholars, will unquestionably attain and long hold the rank of the standard critical edition of Livy. Wherever other readings have been preferred to those of Alschefski, the reasons for the preference are usually given in the Notes.

The Notes have been prepared with chief reference to the grammatical study of the language; to the illustration of its forms, constructions, idioms, of its usages in general, and in particular, of the usage of Livy. Wherever it was possible, it has been thought best, simply to furnish apt references to such grammars and auxiliary works as were supposed to be in the hands of the student; but important difficulties, which required more ample means of investigation and study, have been more fully discussed and explained. It is hoped that the Notes will be also found to embrace all necessary information relating to history, geography, and antiquities, together with useful references to such standard works as are accessible to the student. A list of such works as are commonly referred to, may be found on the page immediately preceding the Notes. It has

* Titi Livii Rerum Romanarum ab urbe condita libri ad codicum manu scriptorum fidem emendati ab C. F. S. Alschefski, Vol. i. ii., primæ decadis part. prior. et part. alteram cont. 8 maj., Berolini, 1841, 43. Dümmler. Vol. ii. Libros Livianos, xxi. xxii. xxiii., cont. 8 maj. ibid. 1846.—With the same title. Ps. i.-iv. (Schul-Ausgabe) 8 maj. ibid. 1843.

been the aim of the editor to furnish such assistance in the Notes as is needful to facilitate the progress of the diligent student; but above all things to avoid giving that pernicious help, whether in the form of indiscriminate translation, or of unnecessary explanation, which precludes all effort on the part of the pupil, and cripples his mental energies, by fostering habits of dependence and inaction.

The editions which have been consulted, besides Drakenborch's, have been those of Crevier, Ruperti, Bekker and Raschig, Twiss, Dymock by W. M. Gunn, Fabri, and Alschefski. In the preparation of the notes upon the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Books, the editor has been greatly indebted to the excellent edition of Fabri and the larger edition of Alschefski; but in the remainder, he is not aware that he has derived important aid from previous editions. In all cases he has aimed to acknowledge whatever direct assistance he has gained from the labors of others.

The Geographical Index has been partly translated from the edition of Fabri, and partly prepared from general sources. The Index to the Notes has been made with much care, and it is hoped, will be found useful.

The Plan of Rome, which accompanies the volume, has been taken from Professor W. A. Becker's recent work on Roman Antiquities; an account of the Map will be found on the page which faces it.

The Editor avails himself of this occasion to acknowledge his obligations to his friends who have encouraged him in the preparation of this volume, arid in particular to Professor Johnson of the New York University, for the generous interest manifested in his labors, and for the use of a valuable work which was essential to the prosecution of his undertaking.

With these remarks, the present volume is submitted to the public, with the hope that it will be of some service in promoting the study of Livy, and of the noble language in which he wrote.

BROWN UNIVERSITY, August, 1847

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