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children, I appeal to any man, what fort of figure we should have been able to make these twenty years past

. Besides, neither our enemies nor allies are upon the same foot with us in this particular. France and Holland, our nearest neighbours, and the farthest engaged, will much fooner recover themselves after a war: the first by the absolute


of the prince, who being master of the lives and fortunes of his subjects, will quickly find expedients

his debts; and so will the other, by their prudent administration, the greatness of their trade, their wonderful parfimony, the willingness of their people to undergo all kind of taxes, and their justice in applying as well as collecting them. But above all we are to consider, that France and Holland fight on the continent, either upon or near their own territories, and the greatest part of the money circulates among themselves; whereas ours crosses the sea, either to Flanders, Spain, or Portugal, and every penny of it, whether in specie or returns, is so much lost to the nation for ever.

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Upon these considerations alone, it was the most prudent course imaginable in the Queen, to lay hold of the disposition of the people for changing the parliament and ministry at this juncture, and extricating herself as soon as possible out of the pupillage of those, who found their accounts only in perpetuating the war. Neither have we the least reason to doubt, but the ensuing parliament will assist her MAJESTY with the utmost vigour, until her enemies again be brought to sue for peace, and again offer such terms as will make it both honourable and lasting; only with this difference, that the ministry perhaps will not again refuse them. Audiet pugnas vitio parentum

Rara Juventus.



Thursday, November 9, 1710.

E quibus hi vacuas implent sermonibus aures, Hi narrata ferunt alio: mensuraque fikti Crescit, et auditis aliquid novus adjicit autor. Illic Credulitas, illic temerarius Error, Vanaque Laetitia est, consternatiqueTimores, Seditioque recens, dubioque autore Susurri. I

A M prevailed on, through the impor

portunity of friends, to interrupt the scheme I had begun in my last paper, by an Essay upon the art of Political Lying. We are told the devil is the father of lyes, and was a lyar from the beginning ; so that beyond contradiction the invention is old: and, which is more, his first Essay of it was purely political, employed in undermining the authority of his prince, and seducing a third part of the subjects from their obedience; for which he was driven down from Heaven, where (as Milton expresseth it) he had been Viceroy of a great western province; and forced to exercise his talent in inferior regions among other

fallen fallen spirits, or poor deluded men, whom he ftill daily tempts to his own fin, and will ever do so, till he be chained in the botto112less pit.

But although the devil be the father of lyes, he seems, like other great inventors, to have lost much of his reputation by the continual improvements, that have been made upon him.

Who first reduced bying into an art, and adapted it to politicks, is not so clear from history; although I have made fome diligent enquiries. I shall therefore consider it only according to the modern system, as it hath been cultivated these twenty years past in the southern part of our own island. The poets


that after the giants were overthrown by the gods, the earth in revenge produced her last offspring, which was Fame. And the fable is thus interpreted; That when tumults and feditions are quieted, rumours and false reports are plentifully spread through a nation. So that by this account lying is the last relief of a routed, earth-born, rebellious party in a state. But here the moderns have made great additions, applying this art to


the gaining of power and preserving it, as well as revenging themselves after they have lost it; as the same instruments are made use of by animals to feed themselves when they are hungry, and to bite those that tread


them. But the same genealogy cannot always be admitted for political lying ; I shall therefore desire to refine upon it, by adding some circumstances of its birth and parents. A political lye is sometimes born out of a discarded statesman's head, and thence delivered to be nursed and dandled by the rabble. Sometimes it is produced a monster, and licked into shape: at other times it comes into the world completely formed, and is spoiled in the licking. It is often born an infant in the regular way, and requires time to mature it; and often it sees the light in its full growth, but dwindles away by degrees. Sometimes it is of noble birth; and sometimes the spawn of a stock-jobber. Here it screams aloud at the opening of the womb; and there it is delivered with a whisper. I know a lye, that now disturbs half the kingdom with its noise, which, although too proud and great


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