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ceed it, are perfectly represented. Long before that epoch she had split into divers schisms, and aiming at universal supremacy over the Christian Churches, had seduced many of them into her errors; but she did not attempt to set up her reign of idolatry, until she obtained the commission of Ecumenical Bishop from the Emperor Phocas, in the year 606, But in the very next year, having previously acquired a considerable influence over the western bishops, and now acting under the Imperial authority, Boniface her bishop boldly established his idolatry in the Pantheon of Rome, by changing the names of the heathen Gods and Goddesses into those of the deceased Martyrs and Saints, and commanding that their images should be worshipped. And thus she fell, not from the pure word of God, but from her schismatic state, into black and blasphemous errors.

Ver. 2, continued. "And his feet were as the " feet of a Bear."


The feet of all animals are the members of their bodies by which they proceed forward, and therefore are proper emblems of the means by which a man or politic body makes a progress towards the accomplishment of its various ambitious designs. The feet of a bear are remarkably large, muscular, and strong. To denote the might and strength of the power here foretold, with his feet the bear gathers its food and seizes

its prey, and when within the grasp of its paws, embraces it to his bosom and crushes it to death. A beautiful figure, evidently pointing at the inquisitorial power of the Church of Rome, by which she crushed to death, by racks and tortures so many Christians, as soon as she got them. within her jurisdiction. And the beast having four feet to support and carry it forward, in the paths of its ambition and power, properly represent the four original clerical orders of the Church of Rome; the orders of Cardinals, Bishops, Priests, and Deacons; those faithful instruments ever devoted to her will. By these she arrived at the summit of power Their strength and success have consisted in their unshaken fidelity to her commands; in their cunning arts and intrigues in the execution of them; in this perseverance which nothing could divert: in their unwearied industry which nothing could abate; and in that fortitude which nothing but success could destroy. These with Monks, Friars, and Jesuits, the inferior instruments of her Power, she has sent to all the courts and nations of Europe, and other parts of the world, to proselyte them to a faith in the infallibility of her canons and decrees: and as soon as they have been brought within the grasp of her paws, her ecclesiastical jurisdiction, she, at first, like the bear, pressed them to her bosom, by fair promises of pardon and eternal salvation, and if she failed in converting them, she consigned them to the torture of the rack, or to the devouring flame. But if converted, and they escaped the flame of the inquisition, she de

livered up to the second or eternal death, their immortal souls, loaded with the sin of idolatry, beside the heinous crime of preferring when called upon the lustful enjoyment of a few miserable and transient moments, to the suffering a momentary pain for the truths of God in the Gospel of Christ.

Ver. 2, further continued. "And his mouth "was as the mouth of a Lion."


The lion roareth with his mouth; a man speaketh and issueth forth his commands through the same aperture: so the "mouth" of a politic body or state is in its great council, the legislative head, from whence it issues forth its language or its edicts, decrees, and laws. The lion roareth louder than any other beast of the forest, and by the loudness and harshness of his roaring announces his hunger, his wants, and his threats. In this figure of the mouth of a lion, is it not easy to see the supreme ecclesiastical council of the Church of Rome, whence have been thundered out so many roarings of a lion; so many interdictions, bulls, and anathemas against the Empe rors, Kings, Princes, and their people, Anathemas precluding them the enjoyment of the rights of nature and humanity, and threatening them with eternal damnation; Anathemas which have thrown them into as much consternation and fright, as the roaring of a lion have ever thrown the beasts of the forest.

Ver. 2, further continued. "And the Dragon "gave him his power, and his seat, and great "Authority."


A "dragon" is often used in scripture, and very properly, as a type to denote a powerful and cruel Heathen tyrant, (Psalm, lxxiv, xiii. Ezekiel, xxix. iii. Jeremiah, li. xxxiv.) And it is here intended to designate Phocas one of the most cruel tyrants and murderers that ever disgraced the Imperial throne. For it was in the year 606, as I have before intimated, that Boniface bishop of Rome, by flattery and bribery, prevailed on that tyrant to supersede the commission of the bishop of Constantinople as ecumenical or universal bishop, and to grant it to him and his successors bishops of Rome. This commission, it must be allowed, confereed on them " power and great authority," for it gave them supreme authority over the Christian Churches in Europe, Asia, and Africa; and it was in the next year that the same Bishop Boniface begged of the same Emperor, the Heathen Pantheon of Rome, in which he set up, and made the "seat" of his Idolatry: the source and corner-stone of his Power and great Authority.

Ver. 3.-" And I saw one of his Heads wounded to Death, and his deadly wound was healed, and all the World wondered after the Beast."


Every Civil Society has had two Heads or Legislative Powers, one to regulate its civi', the other its religious affairs. Rome, besides its Civil Rulers, had a Pontifex Maximus, or a High Priest, the supreme Legislator over her idolatry. One of those Heads the Prophet "saw wounded to Death;" that is, in the obvious sense of the words, wounded in such a manner, that it was utterly, in the whole and every part, abolished and destroyed. And the question is, which of the two was to be thus abolished? Commentators have, in my humble opinion, erroneously contended, that the Prophet here alludes to its Civil Head*. But this opinion stands clearly contradicted by the facts. The Ancient Head, or Civil Legislative Authority of the Roman State, was of the mixed form, consisting of a single Ruler, as Kings, Emperors, &c. and the Patricians and Senators; and all her revolutions have been only partial alterations in some one of these three orders; but not one of them has amounted to a total abolition. Under the Kings, Consuls, Dictators, Triumvirs, Military Tribunes, Emperors, and Popes, she has retained her Patricians and Senate. And although she lost the two last mentioned orders while she remained subject to Odoacer, King of the Heruli, under Theodorick and his successors, Kings of the Ostrogoths, and un

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