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different dialects spoken among the black in in her enlightened amendments of the pe- Union can exhibit so early, so continued, the colony of Sierra Leone. In the attain-nal code, in her labours for the promotion and so successful a cultivation of letters, ment of this knowledge she has availed her of general education, Pennsylvania has as Pennsylvania. Hardly had the emi. self of every means in her power, such as visiting the different merchant ships, from a high and well deserved title to the vene- grants sheltered themselves in their huts

-the forest trees were still standing at that coast, conversing with the captains and ration of the friends of humanity.

their doors, when they established schools individuals that may have been living there To the members of our religious society, and a printing press-to teach and to be for any length of time, and collecting what the early annals of our state possess a deep enlightened: literally inter silvas quereinformation she could from the most intelliand peculiar interest. —They show us

Within four years from the gent of the natives who have visited this country. In this way she has been able to what our forefathers were, what they pro- time that our ancestors landed in the wilform two vocabularies of two different dia- fessed, and what they practised; they il- derness, a printing press was at work in lects much spoken among the vegroes; and lustrate, by a positive application to human Philadelphia, sowing broadcast the seeds it is her intention on her arrival in Africa to affairs, the excellency and beauty of our few months after the arrival of William

of knowledge and morality; and only a form schools, and catechise the children in their own language, as far as she is able, and mild and benevolent profession, and they Penn, public education was attainable at a also to acquaint herself with the different furnish a powerful incentive to emulate small' expense.

expense. It appears from the jourdialects spoken by the captured negroes, of the example and to follow in the footsteps nals of the provincial council, that in Devarious tribes, collected 'in Sierra Leone of our dignified predecessors.

cember 1683, Enoch Flower undertook to We heartily wish her success, believing with I have often feared that the society at teach school in the town,

as it was her, that to Christianize the African, we

His must educate him, and that the abolition of the present day, was but little acquainted then called, “of Philadelphia.” amongst the blacks themselves; and this may which they have ever exercised exclusive "To learn to read English, four shillings slavery to be effectual, must commence with the history of the only government in charges, a record of which is still preserv

ed, indicate the simplicity of the period. be accomplished by raising the moral stand- or permanent influence,* and that too many a quarter; to write, six shillings, &c. ard in their own hearts, by teaching them to were ignorant of the actual advances made boarding a scholar—to wit, diet, lodging, know themselves—their duty to God, and their neighbour.

by our ancestors in the science of govern- washing, and schooling, 10 pounds for the

ment and in the practice of philanthropy. whole year"little more than what is now A curious but melancholy fact is mention. In order, therefore, to exemplify in some paid for a single quarter's schooling alone, ed respecting the conduct of the Turks, to degree the history of primitive Pennsyl- in some of our institutions.

Six years afterwards, a public school, the persons who, from choice, remained in vania, we propose, in a series of short esAthens. Those who left the garrison were says, to present such facts as we have in

or as it would now be called, a seminary consequence accompanied them as hostages

; possession, or may acquire in the course of Friends in this city. The preamble of but of the Greeks, who preferred to remain our reading. Notices of distinguished the charter granted in 1701, proves how in their ancient city, three were killed, as a men, of prominent features of policy, and deeply the true principles of morals and sacrifice. It almost surpasses belief that of the exertions of benevolence and philan- philosophy were anchored in the minds such barbarous superstition can exist in thropy, will be given without strict atten- of the founders and rulers of PennsylvaEurope, and among a people engaged in, con: tion to arrangement or order of time, and nia. “Whereas,” it recites, " the prostions in the world.

we may also occasionally bring into view perity and welfare of any people depend, distinguished men and interesting mea- tion of their youth, &c. and qualifying

in a great measure, upon the good educasures of more recent date. The extracts them to serve their country and them

in the present number, are taken from selves, by breeding them in reading, writHISTORY.—No. 1.

“Notes on the Provincial Literature of ing, and learning of languages, and useful The early annals of Pennsylvania are Pennsylvania, by Thomas I. Wharton, arts and sciences, suitable to their sex, age, possessed of a high and peculiar interest; Esq. printed in vol. 1, part 1, of the Me- and degree; which cannot be effected in they exhibit the rare example of a govern-moirs of the Historical Society of Penn- any manner so well as by erecting public

schools for the purpose aforesaid, &c." ment founded without force, supported sylvania.”


that the

poor were taught grawithout wars, and extended without mar

tis in this institution. * It is curious and Her illustrious founder

instructive to compare the doctrines of this was deeply sensible that the doctrines and chiefly, members of a religious society instrumented with those which had been precepts of the Christian religion are de- which has been supposed to decry and un- promulgated thirty years before, and were signed to have a practical induence, not dervalue human learning, and to place li- at that time acted upon in a neighbouring

province. “I thank God,” said the goonly on the private conduct of individuals, terature, as well as painting and music, on but also to regulate and control the charac- its index expurgatorius. However truly schools nor printing; and I hope we shall

vernor of Virginia, "we have not free ter and actions of communities and nations. this may have been said of some of the early

not have these hundred years. For learnHence we find the early government of teachers of this sect, certainly the colonial

ing has brought disobedience, and heresy, Pennsylvania founded upon the deep and rials for the support of the theory. It is and sects into the world; and printing has broad bases of justice and truth, and for believed that no one of the states of this divulged them libels upon the government many years, her practice illustrated by, and

-God keep us from both." The first made conformable to so auspicious a theo• If New Jersey may be supposed to present an preceptor in the Friend's public school,

was George Keith, afterwards sufficiently ry. exception to the above remark, it will be recollected

famous. His income from this office In her mild and just policy towards that the government so soon passed into other the Indians, in her Christian endeavours hands, that the influence of the society in legislation,

• Some further account of this institution, which must bave been at least of comparatively small ac- is still amongst the most respectable seminaries in in favour of the much injured Africans, count.

Pennsylvania, will be given in a future number,

For the Friend.

tial conquests.

NOTES, &c.

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seems to me considerable for the times and the successive magistracy, than to hanna, from the mouth of Swatara, to the He was allowed a salary of 50l. per annum, their parents for their private patrimo- point at which the rail road line leaves that with a house for his family, a school- nies." Page 151, 152.

river. This point, it is believed, will prove house, and the profits of the school be- The 12th article of the frame of govern- to be in the neighbourhood of Columbia. sides, for one year. For two years more ment provides in express terms, “That

5. A survey from Carpenter's point on the his school was to be made worth 1201. per the governor and provincial council shall Delaware, to the city of Philadelphia. annum. One year, however, appears to erect and order public chools, and en

en6. A further examination of the several have been quite enough for the restless courage and reward the authors of useful quehanna and the Alleghany rivers, with a spirit of George Keith. Vol. I, part I, p. sciences and laudable inventions in the view to determine whether a continued wa104, Hist. Soc. Mem.

provinces.” Among the committees into ter communication be practicable. Levels Printing, which the governor of Virgi- which the provincial council was to be di- have been taken in all the proposed points nia had also deprecated with so much ho- vided, was “a committee of manners, edu- of connexion by Messrs. Wilson and Mitchel, ly horror, was introduced into Pennsylva- cation, and arts, that all wicked and scan- and the waters have been measured. An ennia so early as 1686. It is worthy of re- dalous living may be prevented, and that gineer will be despatched in a few days to mark and remembrance, that this province youth may be successively trained up in re-examine the two summits which appear was, comparatively speaking, far earlier virtue, and useful knowledge and arts." most favourable, and report upon this intethan her sister colonies in the use of the Such were the sentiments entertained at resting subject. press, and, consequently, in the general the outset of the government, and the pro- Erie

, by the Beaver and Chenango route.

7. A Survey from Pittsburgh to Lake dissemination of literature. I have alrea- visions for enforcing them. The same Erie, by the Beaver and Chenango route. dy stated, that a printing press was in ope- principles appear to have been cherished

8. A survey between the same points by ration in Philadelphia only four years at every stage of the colonial history, of way of French creek, across the Waterford

and Conneaut summits. after the landing of William Penn. In which one example has already been given Massachusetts, where learning and the in the extract from the character of Friends' sent season, to explore the routes between

It is intended, if possible, during the prearts have been cultivated with great suc- school.


the Delaware and North Branch of Susque. cess, printing was not introduced until

hanna, by way of the Lehigh and Nescoeighteen years after its settlement.


The Governor of Pennsylvania has given peck, and by Broadhead creek and the New York, not until seventy-three years his consent according to law, that a part of Lockowanna, "a communication which the after the settlement; in the other colonies, the line of canal along the Delaware, begin- commencement of the Lehigh and Delaware not for a much longer period. Page 105.

ning at Bristol and extending eighteen miles, canals have rendered exceedingly interestThe first printer that settled in Penn- shall be put under contract. This will be ing to a large section of the state. -Pennsylvania, was William Bradford, a native done on Saturday next, and the excavation sylvania Gazette. of Leicester, in England, and a member of will be actively commenced as soon as pos

sible. the society of Friends, who emigrated in

We have taken pains to ascertain the pre1682-3, and landed on the spot where Phi- sent situation of the several canal lines which deliberations of the Convention for Internal

From Princeton, N. J. we learn that the ladelphia was soon afterwards laid out, be- have been provided for by law. In the sumfore a house was built. It is believed that mer of 1826, contracts were made for a ca

Improvement, which sat in that city last he set up his first printing press at Ken-nal from the mouth of Swatara to the mouth week, resulted in a recommendation to pursington, in the neighbourhood of the treaty of Juniata, 24 miles, and from Pittsburgh to sue the old plan of cutting a canal from the tree. Page 105.

the mouth of Kiskiminitas, 50 miles. These Delaware to Washington, N. J. at the same Literature and science received ample sections will be open for navigation in the time to petition the legislature of the state encouragement both by words and deeds, spring of 1828. During the present season reference to its applicability to a railroad, of from the provincial government of Penn- contracts have been entered into for extend reference to its applicability to a railroad, of sylvania. Before one English foot had ing these lines, from the mouth of Juniata to well as to the amount of receipts that would been placed on the soil of the colony, the Northumberland, 49 miles from the same arise from transportation.-U. S. Gaz. venerable and illustrious founder issued a

point to Lewistown or Juniata, 48 miles; and manifesto, containing the soundest doc- from the mouth of Kiskiminitas to Blairsville, trines of political philosophy, and the most 45 miles; of these, one section beginning at

of and

TO CORRESPONDENTS. convincing reasons in support of them. about 20 miles to the Salt-works, will be The following passages deserve to be con- navigable next spring, and the remainder in We feel grateful to the numerous friends stantly borne in mind, in every district of the spring of 1829. A part of the French and correspondents who have already this country. “Governments, like clocks, Creek feeder has also been commenced, and go from the motion men give them, and as will nearly be completed this season. When pledged themselves to support us; many governments are made and move by men, operations on the Delaware have commenced, of their communications which could not so by them they are ruined too. Where there will be about 220 miles of canal in a be inserted in the present number, shall fore governments rather depend upon men train of rapid completion. than men upon governments.

Let men

During the present season, the following receive early attention. The very intebe good, and the government cannot be surveys have been commenced, and will be resting narrative, in particular, of the exbad: if it be ill, they will cure it. But if finished in time for the next session of the clusion of Friends in various parts of the men be bad, let the government be ever so


1. A survey on both sides of the North country, from their own meeting houses, good, they will endeavour to warp and Branch of the Susquehanna, from the south will be inserted in our next number. spoil it to their turn. That, therefore, line of the state to Northumberland. the second number will not be published which makes a good constitution, must

2. A survey for a canal between the mouth keep it: viz. men of wisdom and virtue, of the Swatara and the Schuylkill or Dela- for two weeks, we request those who

nities, that because they descend not ware, through Lancaster and Chester coun- wish to become subscribers to forward to wi worldly inheritances, must be care-ties.

our publisher their names, with TWO fully propagated by a virtuous education 3. A survey for a railroad on the same DOLLARS, the price of a year's subof youth; for which after ages will owe rout. more to the care and prudence of founders, 4. A survey for a canal along the Susque scription.

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NO. 2.


ren,' saith he, by the name of our Lord himself to any other people. This cannot

Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same with propriety be stiled hard or unjust meaBY JOHN RIOHARDSON, thing, and that there be no divisions among sure. Freedom of inquiry is allowed, and

you; but that ye be perfectly joined together liberty of action is allowed, so far as can be Corner of Carpenter and Seventh Street, in the same mind, and in the same judg- consistent with the nature of society; which ment.” (1 Cor. 1. 10.)

cannot be properly supported, if its members PHILADELPHIA.

“ Besides God's exterior dispensation of his are suffered to live in the breach of its rules Price Two Dollars per annum, payable in advance to his ancient promise, to teach his people written law, he still condescends, according and orders without animadversion.

The intention of our discipline is not a immediately by his spirit in their hearts. dominion over the faith, or an abridgment of

This is the true basis of the right of private the just liberty, of any; it is not to persecute, Cursory Observations on a late publication, entitled an Essay on the Simplicity of Truth, signed Catholicus, judgment: and as this is a privilege sacred for that is to pursue with malignity, and to by J. Phipps. London. 1779, pp. 40.

to every man, so it is to every religious soci- punish for religion; which the society is (Continued from page 3.)

ety; no one of which is entitled to impose firmly principled against. It seeks not the

upon others in matters of doctrine or order; hurt of any, but the good of all, and that « The society proceeds no further in any neither hath any meinber of a church a purity of manners, love, peace, and harmony, case, than it believes itself necessarily obliged right to impose himself upon it contrary to may, as much as possible, be preserved to do as a Christian body; and it is warrant- its established rules. ed also by the laws of the land, in showing “ The respectable John Locke saith, No throughout the whole body, on the basis of

truth. its disunity with such of its members as man by nature is bound unto any particular break its rules and orders. This I have un-church or sect, but every one joins himself

“ It is allowed, that every one must derstood hath been publickly declared by voluntarily to that society, in which he be- judge for himself;' but not that every one one of the Judges in the Court of King's lieves he has found that profession and wor. must judge for the church too. For, what Bench to be the common privilege of all so- ship which is truly acceptable to God.' strange confusion would this introduce! One cieties of tolerated Dissenters.

- As no man is bound to any church member would demand this to be the rule, " As offences against the rules and tenets against his particular conscience, neither is another the contrary; how should both be of a society, though not in themselves deem- any church bound to any man against that satisfied, and the church subsist in unity and ed immoral, when overlooked or indulged, rule and order established therein, according harmony? Is the liberty of individuals to are liable to make way for, and lead into to its collective conscience.'_'I hold, that destroy the liberty of churches? Is every things more pernicious, it is incumbent on no church is bound, by the duty of toleration, church to be subjected to an anarchy of jar. the society to deal with the disorderly, as to retain any such person in her bosom, as, ring consciences, or to be determined by the well as immoral members, for the preven- after admonition, continues obstinately to united suffrage of its own? How shall it tion of evil consequences both to themselves offend against the laws of the society. For steer safely amidst such multifarious and and the body; and if such refuse the advice these being the condition

of communion, and clashing currents, without danger of making of the church, they justly incur the sentence the bond of the society, if the breach of them shipwreck of faith, and of a good conof our Saviour, who directs it as a duty, in were permitted without any animadversion,

science? particulars, to hear the church, and that he the society would immediately be thereby “ Some things which the society esteems who shall neglect to hear it, be accounted as dissolved. Letter on Toleration, 4th edi. of moment, Catholicus deems of little or no a heathen man, or a publican: (Matt. 18. tion, page 10 and 13. 19, that is, was "one" not”in membership with

concern, and blames it for exercising its dis

Liberty of conscience is every man's cipline at all about them; and when any proit. This must be done by an exclusive act right, and no less the right of every society; fessing themselves in membership with it, of the church; for we esteem this to be pre- and as no man ought to be forcibly imposed show a dissent, and appear in opposition to its ceptive and obligatory to the body, as well upon in that respect, neither should any so- rules, he would have us to understand, it is as to its particular members.

ciety suffer itself to be imposed upon against the society that differs from them, not they “ In this direction of our Lord, here is its judgment by any man, whatever his pre- from the society, and that all the contention something besides acts of immorality to be tence may be. Nor is that man who at and discord that ensues is to be charged to censured; i. e. the neglect of a member to tempts it, doing as he would be done by, in its account: for they, peaceable creatures, seek hear the church. Can this intend no more such attempt, nor showing that regard to the nothing but the full, just, and absolute liberty, than to afford it a bare hearing, without any conscience of the body which he challenges of framing rules for the body, so as may best further observance! To what purpose would to his own. The liberty of individuals Ča- suit with their own fancies, opinions, and the former be without the latter?' There is tholicus pleads for, would prove the slavery practices. By the same easy principles, certainly a medium between due observance, of society.

such a perfect conformity with the whole and absolute slavery; and I should think this “The religious liberty of a person consists world may be cultivated, as shall produce medium can hardly admit either of an open not in a power to impose himself upon any that kind of universal love and harmony, opposition to the rules of the church, or an religious society, against the rules of its which would render the church, like Babyendeavour to expose it to publick censure and communion; but in a freedom to join himself lon, the hold of every foul spirit, and a derision.

to one, whose rules, doctrine, and worship, cage of every unclean and hateful' bird “ The Apostle Paul, sensible of the necesare conformable to his conscience; or to dis- (Rev. 18. 2.) sity of unity and harmony in the church, join himself from one, where all, or any of was zealously concerned that the brethren them, are not so. might not walk disorderly, but in all things “Every one, who hath espoused opinions

The anguish of the sympathetic heart is keen, but consistently with the truth, and in unity different from those of the people called no less exalted are its gratifications.

Knor's Essays. one with another. "I beseech you, breth- Quakers, is at liberty to leave them, and join


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PICTURE OF THE ATHEISM AND REVOLUTION- session of generous natures, whose general princi- his own principles and these, however erroneous,

ples are in an unsertled state. The wit of Voltaire possess, when compared with those of the other,

contributed very much to unsettle and relax princi- much that is both good and noble, and capable of Continued from page 4.

ple, and thereby paved the way for Rousseau. But being improved.

this man's iinpetuous and overwhelming eloquence The last step in the progress of the French antiIn regard to Voltaire, I must observe that he seems drew into the whirlpool of error, many whom the revolutionary philosophy, is that marked by the conto have been actuated by motives of a personal na. mere sophistry of wit and pleasantry could never genial spirit of Diderot. I may, without question, ture, which render the spirit of his history still more have led astray. It is true that at first Rousseau's assume the fact, that this man was the centre-point narrow and unjust. It is evidently his purpose to pictures of savage life, and his theory of a pure de- and animating principle, not only of the Encyclopee. make us believe that all the ages before that of mocracy of reason, gave rise to more wonder than dia, but also of the Systeme ile la Nature, and of many Lewis XIV. were ages of darkness, and that even conviction. But as it was this man's fortune to be other works connected in the same spirit of auda. then, all nations except his were mere hordes of bar- come the founder of a new system and method of cious atheism. He wrought indeed much more in barians. This much exalted monarch plays this im- education, wherein the development of the individu- secret than in public; he was different from Voltaire portant part in the historical and intellectual drama al man is supposed to be best conducted upon the and Rousseau in this, that he had less vanity of auof Voltaire, because he, it seems, while the whole isolated principle of seclusion, and entirely without thorship than they, and was perfectly satisfied when earth was wrapped in chaos and barbarism, was the regard to his situation as a citizen, we need not be he could gain the victory, without wishing to be

perfirst who pronounced a creative Fiat LOX. Yet the astonished to find that at a somewhat later period sonally held up as the victor. He was peculiarly great writers of the time of Lewis, and even Newton even the wildest of his dreams about natural politics distinguished by a most fanatical hatred, not only of and Locke, were, after all, only the first faint rays found both admirers and defenders. After having all Christianity, but of all kinds of religion. He of the coming splendour. The mid-clay sun of en- seen that the extension of physical science contri. maintained that these are all alike founded in the tire illumination and freethinking, did not, according buted very much, in its misapplied condition, to im. superstitious terrors left on the minds of a half deto Voltaire's opinion, manifest himself till somewhat morality, irreligion, and even atheism, it is no won stroyed race, by those terrible revolutions in the later. But however inclined he was in the general der that a direction equally culpable and dangerous natual world, the traces of which are still so appa. to flatter the foolish vanity of his nation; yet, in many was given by the philosophers of the eighieenth rent around us. In many of the writings of this moments of mirth or displeasure, he spoke either century to the improved knowledge of men and na- school, even the name of Atheism is not concealed, from levity or bitterness, in a very different tone, as, tions. But however much men might refine and hut it is openly stated that man can never be happy for example, in that well known saying of his, that adorn their descriptions of American savages, in or

till he learns to throw aside the whole doctrine of a “the character of a Frenchman is made up of the der to promote the idea of the possibility of natural deity-an opinion, the absurdity of which has been tiger and the ape.” In other more moderate but not perfection, there remained'always a few points in the but too fatally demonstrated by the experience of a less caustic expressions, it is easy to see how tho- testimony of every traveller which presented unsur. few subsequent years. Of all the forms in which roughly Voltaire had studied and comprehended his mountable difficulties to the admirers of barbarity. this atheistical system was brought before the world, countrymen. But this was a piece of kpowledge In Voltaire, on the other hand, and in many other perhaps the most singularly extravagant was the which he never displayed except by accident. French writers of his time, we may observe an equal theory which represented Christ as a mere astro

Even Montesquieu contributed to the formation of ly absurd predilection, another extreme-one as far nomical symbol-a being never possessed of histori-
this philosophy of the eighteenth century; princi- removed as can well be from the wild freedom of cal existence--and the twelve apostles as so many
pally, as I apprehend, because he neglected to give savages. I mean a passion for the Chinese, a people old signs of the zodiac. The whole spirit of this
any rule or standard of unity to that immense collec. polished into perfect tameness and uniformity, and system, and the whole of the practical purposes
tion of admirable political remarks and opinions exhibiting the best specimen of what has since been which it was intended to serve, may be learned from
which he laid before the world. This was exactly called "the Despotism of Reason.An age which the single well known wish, of which the fathers of
in compliance with what was then the usual fashion was perpetually endeavouring to substitute a com- the revolution made no secret—"that the last king
in every department of thought and action. The plete system of police in the room of the antiquated might be burned on a funeral pile, composed of the
erudition, the genius and powerful reflections of this influences of religion and morality, which regarded body of the last priest.”-Schlegel's Lectures.
great and remarkable writer, contributed only to in the perfection of a few manufactures as the sole and
crease the general relaxation of all principle; for the highest object of human society, and what they call-

spirit of the age, being furnished with no guiding ed “the doctrine of pure ethics," as the ne plus ultra
rule, fivated hither and thither amidst that vast sea of illumination-an age such as this could scarcely One or two gossiping paragraphs on the subject
of political facts and precepts, like a ship without indeed fail to contemplate, with mighty admiration, of Adam Smith, whose distinguished name may
anchor or compass, upon the waves of the ocean. the spectacle of a nation which has, according to its render the most trifling notices concerning him

The tendency to sublime and elevating thoughts, | own account, possessed for some thousand years laws matter of some interest, and we will then release even to religious feelings and views, is so strong in without religion, which has had newspapers some our courteous reader from our recollections, on the our nature, and occasions to call these forth are so centuries longer than ourselves, which can imprint subject of these old Northern Lights. Dr. Smith profusely scattered over the world around us, that upon porcelain colours more brilliant than we are is well known to have been one of the most absent we cannot be at all surprised to find that many of the acquainted with, and make paper thinner and finer men living. It was, indeed, an attribute which, if great French naturalists remained entirely, or at least than any European manufactory. It is lamentable any where, might have been matched in the sociein a great measure, free, from the prevalent spirit of to see into what contemptible perversities, the mis- ty we speak of, of whom several, particularly John irreligion, and have even here and there risen to a directed ingenuity of a few rational men can conduct Home and General Fletcher Campbell

, were exstyle of reflection much higher than that of their age. both themselves and their contemporaries.

tremely addicted to fits of absence. But those of Although many of his opinions do not harmonize Voltaire and Rousseau were the first who gave its the great Economist were abstraction itself. Mr. with revealed religion, and many others cannot stand form and shape to the spirit of the eighteenth cen. Mackenzie placed in his hand the beautiful tale of the test of philosophy, -although he himself was by tury; but they had many coadjutors in their attempts, La Roche, in which he introduces Mr. David Hume, no means free from the material tetters of the entire many who were indefatigable in rendering the moral for the express purpose of knowing whether there ly physical system of philosophy which was then in philosophy of Locke more decided in its principles was any thing in it which Mr. Hume's surviving fashion; yet I can never help considering the great as well as bolder in its consequences, and in ren friends could think huriful to his memory. Dr. Buffon as one, who is entitled to be classed, at least dering it, so improved, the manual of the age. Smith read and bighly approved of the MS.; but, in the way of comparison, with the better thinkers of What results this produced in regard to human life, on returning it to Mr. Mackenzie, only expressed the eighteenth century. Among the latter authors, may be learned from the single example of Helve. his surprise that Mr. Hume should never have men. I may just allude to the zealous and intellectual Bon. tius. This man proved to the satisfaction of his rea- tioned the anecdote to him. When walking in the det,

ders, that selfishness, vanity, and sensual enjoyment street, Adam had a manner of talking and laughing The social manners and constitution of modern are the true and certain guides, the only rational to himself, which often attracted the notice and Europe, and more particularly of France, bad be. ends of enlightened men, the only realities in human excited the surprise of the passengers. He used come, in very many respects, so remote from nature, life-and his realiers soon began to suspect that the himself to mention the ejaculation of an old market that we can scarcely wonder that a restless and in same principles ought to be extended to the whole woman, "Heigh Sirs !" shaking her bead as she ut. quiring spirit should have gone entirely to the oppo- universe. Mind, according to this doctrine, there tered it; to which her companion answered, hav. site extreme. But how lille fitted admiration and is none, for matter is every thing, and man is (listining heaved a compassionate sigh, "and he is well respect for nature alone are to supply human life with guished from the brutes not by intellect, but by put on, too!” expressing their surprise that a dea proper rule of conduct, the example of Rousseau hands and fingers-advantages which, in some decided lunatic, who, from his dress, appeared to be affords a sufficient proof. In regard to the feeling gree at least, he appears to share with the monkey. a gentleman, should be permitted to walk abroad. and zeal which animated him, Rousseau, as a reason. The difference between the man and the monkey In a private room his demeanour was equally reer, is not only superior to Voltaire, and all other was indeed diminished very much in the opinion of markable; and we shall never forget one particular French philosophers of the last century, but of a class many philosophers of this time, and it was a very fa- evening, when he put an elderly maiden lady, who entirely different from them. The influence which veurite speculation to discover the existence of in- presided at the tea-table, to sore confusion, by nehe exerted over his age and nation was perhaps only termediate and connecting species between them. glecting utterly her invitations to be seated, and on that account the more hurtful. It is only when It is much to be regretted that Rousseau did not walking round and round the circle, stopping ever a strong mind, striving passionately in quest of truth, fulfil the intention he once expressed, of openly and anon to steal a lump from the sugar basin; pursues its researches in a wrong direction, and em combating the dogmas of Helvetius. He must, in which the venerable spinster was at length conbraces error in room of it, that error assumes a form the course of such a controversy, have at least been strained to place on her own knee, as the only me of real danger, and becomes capable of seizing pos- compelled to settle and explain somewhat more fully | thod of securing it from his most uneconomical de

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predations. His appearance, mumping the eternal nius loci. They repeatedly requested me to into danger. They hurried me back from We had the following anecdote from a colleague keep behind, and follow them softly, as the the brink, and then explained their motive, We had the following anecdote from a colleague precipices were dangerous for the feet of and asked my forgiveness. I was not unmissioner of the board of customs. The board had men; and the sight and sound of the cata- grateful for their care, though somewhat anin their service, as porter, a stately person, who, ract were so fearful, that they themselves noyed by their officiousness.-- Thompson's dressed in a huge scarlet gown or cloak, covered regarded the place with awe, and ventured Southern Africa. with frogs of worsted lace, and holding in his hand but seldom to visit it. a staff about seven feet high, as an emblem of his

At length the whole of them halted, and office, used to mount guard before the customi. house when a board was to be held. It was the desired me to do the same. One of them

The following concise and beautiful deetiquette that, as each commissioner entered, the stepped forward to the brink of the preci- scription of the excellency of the plan of porter should go through a sort of salute with his pice, and having looked cautiously 'over, Christian redemption, forms the conclusion staff of office, resembling that which officers used beckoned to me to advance. I did so, and of the Memoirs of Lindley Murray. It is formerly to perform with their spontoon, and then witnessed a curious and striking scene; but the testimony of one who had practically felt marshall the dignitary to the hall of meeting. This ceremony had been performed before the great

it was not yet the waterfall. It was a rapid, and experienced the powerful support, the Economist perhaps five hundred times. Neverthe- formed by almost the whole volume of the less one day, as he was about to enter the custom- river, compressed into a narrow channel of holy consolation, and the final promise of house, the motions of his janitor seem to have at- not more than fifty yards in breadth, whence eternal joy and glory, which the religion of tracted bis eye without their character or purpose it descended at an angle of nearly 45°, and Christ

, and that alone, can disclose and imgan to imitate his gestures, as a recruit does those rushing tumultuously through a black and part. of his drill-sergeant. The porter, having drawn crooked chasm among the rocks, of frightful “I cannot finish these memoirs of my up in front of the door, presented his staff as a sol depth, escaped in a torrent of foam. My life, without expressing, still more particudier does his musket: the commissioner, raising his swarthy guides, although this was unques-larly, my sense of the greatest blessing returned the salite with the utmost gravity. The led a traveller to view the remarkable scecane, and holding it with both hands by the middle, tionably the first time that they had ever which was ever conferred on mankind. I inferior officer, much amazed, recovered his wea

mean the redemption from sin, and the atpon, wheeled to the right, stepped a pace back to nery of their country, evinced a degree of tainment of a happy immortality, by the give the commissioner room to pass, lowering his tact, as ciceroni as well as natural feeling atonement and intercession of our Lord and staff at the same time, in token of obeisance. Dr. of the picturesque, that equally pleased and Saviour Jesus Christ. I contemplate this Smith, instead of passing on, drew up on the op- surprised me. Having forwarned me that wonderful proof of the love of God to man, as posite side, and lowered his cane at the same and this was not yet the waterfall, they now an act of mercy and benignity, which will next moved up stairs with his staff advanced, while pioneered the way for about a mile farther stimulate the gratitude and love, the obethe author of the Wealth of Nations' followed along the rocks, some of them keeping near, dience, praise, and adoration of the redeemwith his bamboo in precisely the same posture, and and continually cautioning me to look at my ed, through ages that will never end. This bis whole soul apparently wrapped up in the pur feet, as a single false step might precipitate high dispensation is, in every respect, adaptpose of placing his foot exactly on the same spot me into the raging abyss of waters; the tu- eli to our condition, as frail and sinful creacer who preceded him. At the door of the hall, mult of which seemed shake even the so- tures. In surveying our offences and imperthe porter again drew off, saluted with his staff, lid rocks around us.

fections it prevents despondence; directs and bowed reverentially. The philosopher again At length we halted, as before, and the us where to look for relief; and freely offers most profound gravity. When the Doctor entered where a scene burst upon me, far surpass-Christ, pardon and peace: in reflecting on imitated his motions, and returned his bow with next morning I was led to a projecting rock, us, if we are truly penitent, and believe in to act was entirely broken, and our informant, who ing my most sanguine expectations. The our religious attainments, it checks prevery much amused, had followed him the whole whole' water of the river, (except what sumption and keeps us humble; and amidst way

, had some difficulty to convince him that he escapes by the subsidiary channel we had all the trials and troubles of life, it cheers had been doing anything extraordinary, Upon crossed, and by a similar one on the north us with the prospect of a merciful deliveranother occasion, having to sign an official minute side,) being previously confined to a bed of ance, and of being soon received into those or mandate, Adam Smith was observed to be unu. sually tedious, when the same person, peeping over

scarcely one hundred feet in breadth, de- blissful regions, where we shall be secured, his shoulder, discovered that he was engaged, not scends at once in a magnificent cascade of eternally secured, from sin and sorrow; in writing his own name, but in imitating, as near full four hundred feet in height. I stood where we shall be admitted into the Divine ly as possible, the signature of his brother in office, upon a cliff nearly level with the top of the presence, and unceasingly celebrate in joywho had held the pen before him. These instan- fall, and directly in front of it. The beams ful anthems, the praises of the Father, the ces of absence equal the abstractions of the cele of the evening sun fell upon the cascade, Son, and the Holy Spirit, one God blessed deep theories and abstruse calculations contained and occasioned a most splendid rainbow; for ever. To them who obtain this glorious in the Wealth of Nations, must readily allow while the vapoury mists arising from the and happy state, all the afflictions of the that a mind habitually employed in such ihemes

, broken roar of the waterfall, and the tumul- longest and most painful life, will then apmust necessarily be often rapt far above the sublu. tuous boiling and whirling of the steam be- pear to have been, indeed light and momennary occurrences of every-day life.

low, striving to escape along its deep, dark, tary: as a drop of the ocean, as a grain of and narrow path, formed altogether, a com- sand on the sea shore, compared with the

bination of beauty and grandeur, such as I greatness of their felicity, and the endless African Cascade on the Orange River.never before witnessed. As I gazed on this ages of its continuance." Having passed the southern branch, which stupendous scene, I felt as if in a dream. at this season is but an inconsiderable creek, The sublimity of nature drowned all apwe continued to follow the Foramas, for se- prehensions of danger; and, after a short veral miles, through the dense Acacia fo- I pause, I hastily left the spot where I stood Claude Gay was a native of Lyons, in rests, while the thundering sound of the ca. to gain a nearer view from a cliff that im- France, and was educated by his parents in taract increased at every step. At length pended over the foaming gulf. I had just the Catholic Faith. He became dissatisfied We approached a ridge of rocks, and found reached this station, when I felt myself early in life with the Romish tenets, forit necessary to dismount, and follow our grasped all at once by four korannus, who sook that communion, and settled in the guides on foot.

simultaneously seized hold of me by the island of Jersey, in order to live among ProIt seemed as if we were now entering the arms and legs. My first impression was, testants

. He here met with a copy of Barantrodden vestibule of one of nature's most that they were going to hurl me over the clay's Apology, the perusal of which consublime temples, and the untutored savages precipice; but it was a momentary thought, vinced him of the truth of Friends' principles, who guided us, evinced by the awe and cir- and it wronged the friendly savages. They and determined him to embrace their procumspection with which they trod, that they are themselves a timid race; and they were fession. For this change in his views be sufwere not altogether influenced by the gé- alarmed, lest my temerity should lead me fered some persecution, and was at length



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