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that divided her joys with him, and abated of his sorrow, by bearing a part of that burden ; a wife that demonstrated her affection by a cheerful obedience to all his desires, during the whole course of his life; and at his death too, for she outlived him.
And in this Boothby Pannell, he either found or made his parishioners peaceable, and complying with him in the decent and regular service of God. And thus his Parish, his patron, and he lived together in a religious love and a contented quietness; he not troubling their thoughts by preaching high and useless notions, but such and only such plain truths as were necessary to be known, believed and practised, in order to the honour of God and their own salvation. And their assent to what he taught was testified by such a conformity to his doctrine, as declared they believed and loved him. For it may be noted he would often say, 'That, without the last, the most evident truths—heard as from an enemy, or an evil liver—either are not, or are at least the less effectual ; and usually rather harden than convince the hearer.'
And this excellent man did not think his duty discharged by only reading the Church prayers, catechising, preaching, and administering the Sacraments seasonably; but thought—if the Law or the Canons may seem to enjoin no
more, yet—that God would require more, than the defective laws of man's making can or does enjoin; even the performance of that inward law, which Almighty God hath imprinted in the conscience of all good Christians, and inclines those whom he loves to perform. He, considering this, did therefore become a law to himself, practising not only what the law enjoins, but what his conscience told him was his duty, in reconciling differences, and preventing law-suits, both in his Parish and in the neighbourhood. To which may be added his often visiting sick and disconsolate families, persuading them to patience, and raising them from dejection by his advice and cheerful discourse, and by adding his own alms, if there were any so poor as to need it : considering how acceptable it is to Almighty God, when we do as we are
advised by St. Paul,? • Help to bear one another's burden,' either of sorrow or want : and what a comfort it will be, when the Searcher of all hearts shall call us to a strict account for that evil we have done, and the good we have omitted, to remember we have comforted and been helpful to a dejected or distressed family.
And that his practice was to do good, the following narrative may be one example. He met
with a poor dejected neighbour, that complained he had taken a meadow, the rent of which was gl. a year ; and when the hay was made ready to be carried into his barn, several days' constant rain had so raised the water, that a sudden flood carried all away, and his rich Landlord would bate him no rent; and that unless he had half abated, he and seven children were utterly undone. It may be noted, that in this age there are a sort of people so unlike the God of Mercy, so void of the bowels of pity, that they love only themselves and children: love them so, as not to be concerned, whether the rest of mankind waste their days in sorrow or shame ; people that are cursed with riches, and a mistake that nothing but riches can make them and their's happy. But it was not so with Dr. Sanderson ; for he was concerned, and spoke comfortably to the poor dejected man ; bade him go home and pray, and not load himself with sorrow, for he would go to his Landlord next morning ; and if his Landlord would not abate what he desired, he and a friend would pay it for him.
To the Landlord he went the next day, and, in a conference, the Doctor presented to him the sad condition of his poor dejected Tenant ; telling him how much God is pleased when men compassionate the poor : and told him, that though God loves sacrifice, yet he loves mercy so much better, that he is best pleased when he is called the God of Mercy. And told him, the riches he was possessed of were given him by that God of Mercy, who would not be pleased, if he, that had so much given, yea, and forgiven him too, should prove like the rich steward in the Gospel, that took his fellow servant by the throat
i Gal. vi. 2.
to make him pay the utmost farthing. This he told him : and told him, that the law of this nation-by which law he claims his rent-does not undertake to make men honest or merciful, that was too nice an undertaking, but does what it can to restrain men from being dishonest or unmerciful, and yet that our law was defective in both : and that taking any rent from his poor Tenant, for what God suffered him not to enjoy, though the law allowed him to do so, yet if he did so, he was too like that rich Steward which he had mentioned to him; and told him that riches so gotten, and added to his great estate, would, as Job says, 'prove like gravel in his teeth': would in time so corrode his conscience, or become so nauseous when he lay upon his deathbed, that he would then labour to vomit it up, and not be able : and therefore advised him, being very rich, to make friends of his unrighteous Mammon, before that evil day come upon him: but however, neither for his own sake, nor for God's sake, to take any rent of his poor, dejected, sad Tenant ; for that were to gain a temporal, and lose his eternal happiness. These and other such reasons were urged with so grave and so compassionate an earnestness, that the Landlord forgave his Tenant the whole rent.
The reader will easily believe that Dr. Sanderson, who was so meek and merciful, did suddenly and gladly carry this comfortable news to the dejected Tenant; and will believe also that at the telling of it there was a mutual rejoicing. 'Twas one of Job's boasts, that "he had seen none perish for want of clothing : and that he had often made the heart of the widow to rejoice.'' And doubtless Dr. Sanderson might have made the same religious boast of this and very
many like occasions. But, since he did not, I rejoice that I have this just occasion to do it for him ; and that I can tell the reader, I might tire myself and him, in telling how like the whole course of Dr. Sanderson's life was to this which I have now related.
Thus he went on in an obscure and quiet privacy, doing good daily both by word and by deed, as often as any occasion offered itself; yet not so obscurely, but that his very great learning, prudence, and piety were much noted and valued by the Bishop of his Diocese, and by most of the nobility and gentry of that county. By the first of which he was often summoned to preach many Visitation Sermons, and by the latter at many Assizes. Which Sermons, though they were much esteemed by them that procured, and were fit to judge them ; yet they were the less valued, because he read them, which he was forced to do; for though he had an extraordinary memory, -even the art of it, yet he was punished with such an innate invincible fear and bashfulness, that his memory was wholly useless, as to the repetition of his sermons so as he had writ them ; which gave occasion to say, when some of them were first printed and exposed to censure, which was in the year 1632,—that the best Sermons that were ever read, were never preached.'
1 Job xxxi. 19.
In this contented obscurity he continued, till the learned and pious Archbishop Laud, who knew him well in Oxford, --for he was his contemporary there,—told the King,'twas the knowing and conscientious King Charles the First,—that there was one Mr. Sanderson, an obscure country Minister, that was of such sincerity, and so excellent in all casuistical learning, that he desired his Majesty would take so much notice of him as to make him his Chaplain. The King granted it most willingly, and gave the Bishop charge to hasten it, for he longed to discourse with a man that had dedicated his studies to that useful part of learning. The Bishop forgot not the King's desire, and Mr. Sanderson was made his Chaplain in Ordinary in November following, 1631. And when the King and he became better known to each other, then, as 'tis said, that after many hard questions put to the Prophet Daniel, King Darius found an excellent spirit in him ; so 'twas with Mr. Sanderson and our excellent King; who having put many Cases of Conscience to him, received from Mr. Sanderson such deliberate, safe, and clear solutions, as gave him so great content in conversing with him, which he did several times in private ; that, at the end of his month's attendance, the King told him, he should long for the next November; for he resolved to have a more inward acquaintance with him, when that month and he returned.' And when the month and he did return, the good King was never absent from his Sermons, and would usually say, 'I carry my ears to hear other preachers; but I carry my conscience to hear Mr. Sanderson, and to act accordingly.' And this ought not to be concealed from posterity, that the King thought what he spake; for he took him to be his adviser, in that quiet part of his life, and he proved to be his comforter in those days of his affliction, when he was under such a restraint as he apprehended himself to be in danger of death or deposing. Of which more hereafter.
In the first Parliament of this good King,—which was 1625,-he was chosen to be a Clerk of the Convocation for the Diocese of Lincoln; which I here mention, because about that time did arise many disputes about Predestination, and the many critical points that depend upon, or are interwoven in it; occasioned, as was said, by a disquisition of new principles of Mr. Calvin's, though others say they were long before his time. But of these Dr. Sanderson then drew up, for his own satisfaction, such a scheme-he called it Pax Ecclesia—as then gave himself, and hath since given others, such satisfaction, that it still remains to be of great estimation. He was also chosen Clerk of all the Convocations during that good King's reign. Which I here tell my reader, because I shall hereafter have occasion to mention that Convocation in 1640, that unhappy Long Parliament, and some debates of the Predestinarian points as they have been since charitably handled betwixt him, the learned Dr. Hammond, and Dr. Pierce, the now Reverend Dean of Salisbury. And here the reader may note, that in letters writ to the said Dean, Dr. Sanderson seems to have altered his judgment in some points, since he writ his scheme called Pax Ecclesia, which he seems to say in his last will, besides other reasons to think so.
In the year 1636, his Majesty, then in his progress, took a fair occasion to visit Oxford, and to take an entertain