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Reverend Dean of Salisbury, of which I shall proceed to give some account, but briefly.

In the year 1648, the fifty-two London Ministersthen a fraternity of Sion College in that City-had in a printed Declaration aspersed Dr. Hammond most heinously, for that he had in his Practical Catechism affirmed, that our Saviour died for the sins of all mankind. To justify which truth, he presently makes a charitable reply-as 'tis now printed in his works.After which there were many letters passed betwixt the said Dr. Hammond, Dr. Sanderson and Dr. Pierce, concerning God's grace and decrees. Dr. Sanderson was with much unwillingness drawn into this debate; for he declared it would prove uneasy to him, who in his judgment of God's decrees differed with Dr. Hammond, -whom he reverenced and loved dearly, and would not therefore engage himself in a controversy, of which he could never hope to see an end: nevertheless did all enter into a charitable disquisition of these said points in several letters, to the full satisfaction of the learned; those betwixt Dr. Sanderson and Dr. Hammond being now printed in his works; and for what passed betwixt him and the learned Dr. Pierce, I refer my Reader to a Letter annexed to the end of this relation.

I think the judgment of Dr. Sanderson, was, by these debates, altered from what it was at his entrance into them; for in the year 1632, when his excellent Sermons were first printed in quarto, the Reader may on the margin find some accusation of Arminius for false doctrine; and find that, upon a review and reprinting those Sermons in folio, in the year 1657, that accusation of Arminius is omitted. And the change of his judgment seems more fully to appear in his said letter to Dr. Pierce. And let me now tell the Reader, which may seem to be perplexed with these several affirmations of God's decrees before mentioned, that Dr. Hammond, in a postscript to the last letter of his to Dr. Sanderson, says, 'God can reconcile his own contradictions, and therefore advises all men, as the Apostle does, to study mortification, and

be wise to sobriety.' And let me add farther, that if these fifty-two Ministers of Sion College were the occasion of the debates in these letters, they have, I think, been the occasion of giving an end to the Quinquarticular Controversy: for none have since undertaken to say more; but seem to be so wise, as to be content to be ignorant of the rest, till they come to that place, where the secrets of all hearts shall be laid open. And let me here tell the Reader also, that if the rest of mankind would, as Dr. Sanderson, not conceal their alteration of judgment, but confess it to the honour of God and themselves, then our nation would become freer from pertinacious disputes, and fuller of recantations.

I am not willing to lead my Reader to Dr. Hammond and Dr. Sanderson, where we left them together at Boothby Pannell, till I have looked back to the Long Parliament, the Society of Covenanters in Sion College, and those others scattered up and down in London, and given some account of their proceedings and usage of the late learned Dr. Laud, then Archbishop of Canterbury, whose life seemed to be sacrificed, to appease the popular fury of that present time. And though I will forbear to mention the injustice of his death, and the barbarous usage of him, both at his trial and before it; yet my desire is that what follows may be noted, because it does now, or may hereafter, concern us; that is, to note, that in his last sad sermon on the scaffold at his death, he did (as our blessed Saviour advised his Disciples), pray for those that persecuted and despitefully used him. And not only pardon'd those enemies; but passionately begged of Almighty God that he would also pardon them; and besought all the present beholders of this sad sight, that they would pardon and pray for him: but, though he did all this, yet, he seemed to accuse the Magistrates of the City, for not suppressing a sort of people whose malicious and furious zeal, had so far transported them, and violated all modesty, that, though they could not know, whether he were justly or unjustly condemned, were yet suffered to go visibly

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up and down to gather hands to a petition, that the Parliament would hasten his execution. And he having declared how unjustly he thought himself to be condemned, and accused for endeavouring to bring in Popery, -for that was one of the accusations for which he died, -he declared with sadness, That the several sects and divisions then in England,-which he had laboured to prevent,―were now like to bring the Pope a far greater harvest, than he could ever have expected without them.' And said, 'These sects and divisions introduce profaneness under the cloak of an imaginary Religion; and that we have lost the substance of Religion by changing it into opinion and that by these means the Church of England, which all the Jesuits' machinations could not ruin was fallen into apparent danger by those (Covenanters) which were his accusers.' To this purpose he spoke at his death: for this, and more to the same purpose, the Reader may view his last sad sermon on the scaffold. And 'tis here mentioned, because his dear friend, Dr. Sanderson, seems to demonstrate the same fear of Popery in his two large and remarkable Prefaces before his two volumes of Sermons; and seems also with much sorrow to say the same again in his last Will, made when he was and apprehended himself to be very near his death. And these Covenanters ought to take notice of it, and to remember, that, by the late wicked war began by them, Dr. Sanderson was ejected out of the Professor's Chair in Oxford; and that if he had continued in it, for he lived fourteen years after, -both the learned of this, and other nations, had been made happy by many remarkable Cases of Conscience, so rationally stated, and so briefly, so clearly, and so convincingly determined, that posterity might have joyed and boasted, that Dr. Sanderson was born in this nation, for the ease and benefit of all the learned that shall be born after him: but this benefit is so like time past, that they are both irrecoverably lost.

I should now return to Boothby Pannell, where we left Dr. Hammond and Dr. Sanderson together; but neither

can now be found there: for the first was in his journey to London, and the second seized upon the day after his friend's departure, and carried prisoner to Lincoln, then a garrison of the Parliament's. For the pretended reason of which commitment, I shall give this following account. There was one Mr. Clarke, the Minister of Alington, a town not many miles from Boothby Pannell, who was an active man for the Parliament and Covenant; and one that, when Belvoir Castle-then a garrison for the Parliament was taken by a party of the King's soldiers, was taken in it, and made a prisoner of war in Newark, then a garrison of the King's; a man so active and useful for his party, that they became so much concerned for his enlargement, that the Committee of Lincoln sent a troop of horse to seize and bring Dr. Sanderson a prisoner to that garrison and they did so. And there he had the happiness to meet with many, that knew him so well as to reverence and treat him kindly; but told him, 'He must continue their prisoner, till he should purchase his own enlargement by procuring an exchange for Mr. Clarke, then prisoner in the King's garrison of Newark.' There were many reasons given by the Doctor of the injustice of his imprisonment, and the inequality of the exchange: but all were uneffectual; for done it must be, or he continue a prisoner. And in time done it was, upon the following conditions.

First, that Dr. Sanderson and Mr. Clarke being exchanged, should live undisturbed at their own Parishes; and if either were injured by the soldiers of the contrary party, the other, having notice of it, should procure him a redress, by having satisfaction made for his loss, or for any other injury; or if not, he to be used in the same kind by the other party. Nevertheless, Dr. Sanderson could neither live safe nor quietly, being several times plundered, and once wounded in three places: but he, apprehending the remedy might turn to a more intolerable burden by impatience or complaining, forbore both; and possessed his soul in a contented quietness, without the least repining. But though he could not enjoy the safety he

expected by this exchange, yet, by His providence that can bring good out of evil, it turned so much to his advantage, that whereas his living had been sequestered from the year 1644, and continued to be so till this time of his imprisonment, he, by the Articles of War in this exchange for Mr. Clarke, procured his sequestration to be recalled, and by that means enjoyed a poor, but more contented subsistence for himself, his wife, and children, till the happy Restoration of our King and Church.

In this time of his poor, but contented privacy of life, his casuistical learning, peaceful moderation, and sincerity, became so remarkable, that there were many that applied themselves to him for resolution in perplexed cases of conscience; some known to him, and many not; some requiring satisfaction by conference, others by letters; so many, that his life became almost as restless as their minds; yet as St. Paul accounted himself a debtor to all men, so he, for he denied none: and if it be a truth which holy Mr. Herbert says, 'That all worldly joys seem less, when compared with shewing mercy or doing kindnesses'; then doubtless this Barnabas, this son of consolation, Dr. Sanderson might have boasted for relieving so many restless and wounded consciences; which, as Solomon says, ' are a burden that none can bear, though their fortitude may sustain their other calamities'; and if words cannot express the joy of a conscience relieved from such restless agonies; then Dr. Sanderson might rejoice that so many were by him so clearly and conscientiously satisfied, and would often praise God for that ability, and as often for the occasion, and that God had inclined his heart to do it to the meanest of any of those of those poor, poor, but precious souls, for which his Saviour vouchsafed to be crucified.

Some of those very many cases that were resolved by letters, have been preserved and printed for the benefit of posterity; as namely,

1. Of the Sabbath.

2. Marrying with a Recusant.

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