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The Doing, the Essential Thing. But whether, under the head of invention, the author is conducting the pupil up through the construction of sentences and paragraphs, and through the analysis of subjects and the preparation of frameworks, to the finding of thought for his theme; or, under the head of style, he is acquainting the pupil with its cardinal qualities; or, under the head of productions, he is dividing and subdividing discourse, noting the nature and offices of each division; - every where he is keeping in sight the fact that the pupil is to acquire an art, and that to attain this he must constantly do what he has learned, from the study of the theory and the study of authors, that it is "good to do."

Rhetoric, a Preparation for Literature. But the ability to do is not everything. The capacity to appreciate what others have done is something. This book is a way of approach to literature, a preparation for it, and it is meant to be more. In the work required by the directions and in the study of the extracts from prose and poetry, the pupil has to make frequent and prolonged incursions into the field of literature itself. What he is to look for and look at there, what value he is to attach to his findings, and what enjoyment he may derive from them, he is taught.

The Revision. The first edition of this work the author has used for twelve years in the class-room. This book is a revision of that. While some things in the original work have been dropped from this, and many things, not in the original, may be found in this, the lesson numbers are not changed the new edition can be used without confusion

in the same classes with the old. Under the head of propriety may be found a defence of many expressions unjustly condemned by recent critics; and, under simple words, some original work respecting the Latin and the AngloSaxon in our vocabulary.

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN, N.Y.,

June 1, 1892.

INVENTION.

RHETORIC.

I. Construction of Simple and Compound Sentences, and of
Complex Sentences with Adjective, Adverb, or Noun
Clauses, and with Clauses Complex or Compound.

II. Forming of Paragraphs.

III. Analysis of Subjects.

IV. Preparation of Frameworks.

1. MASTERY OF THE SUBJECT.

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TO THE TEACHER.

TWELVE years' use of the previous edition of this text-book in the class-room warrants us, perhaps, in making a suggestion or two.

1. If your pupils have been thoroughly exercised in the analysis and the construction of sentences, as taught in Reed & Kellogg's "Graded Lessons in English," "Higher Lessons," and "One Book Course," or have done equivalent work in other grammars, Lessons 3-20 of this book may be hurried over. But if your pupils have not fairly mastered the English sentence, we counsel holding them steadfastly to these Lessons.

2. The thorough understanding of the paragraph, the ability to form good, logical frameworks, and the habit of making these frameworks before the labor of writing is begun seem to us invaluable. The work in Lessons 21-30, then, should not be slighted. The work formerly exacted in Lessons 25 and 26 has been omitted.

3. See to it, also, that in the department called Qualities of Style, your pupils (1) understand the reason, or philosophy, of things, given in the long primer type; that (2) they recite the definitions exactly as laid down in the text or that they invent and give better ones; that (3) they learn the Roman and the Arabic notation under which what is said is arranged; and that (4) they perform a large fraction, if not all, of the work enjoined in the Directions. The importance of the pupils' doing what they have learned it is good to do and have learned how to do cannot be over-estimated. Pass by those pairs of synonyms in Lessons 33-36, between the words of which sufficiently broad distinctions have not yet obtained - if in your judgment any such are there. Make much, and in the way pointed out, of the extracts in Lessons 74 and 75. Such work will open the eyes of the pupils to the merits of different authors.

4. Ground your pupils thoroughly in rhythm, in the substitution of poetical feet, and in scansion, as taught in Lessons 79 and 80.

B. K.

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN, May, 1892.

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