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of Livy. Wherever other readings have been preferred to those of Alschefski, the reasons for the preference are usually given in the Notes.

The Notes have been prepared with chief reference to the grammatical study of the language; to the illustration of its forms, constructions, idioms, of its usages in general, and, in particular, of the usage of Livy. Wherever it was possible, it has been thought best, simply to furnish apt references to such grammars and auxiliary works as were supposed to be in the hands of the student; but important difficulties, which required more ample means of investigation and study, have been more fully discussed and explained. It is hoped that the Notes will be also found to embrace all necessary information relating to history, geography, and antiquities, together with useful references to such standard works as are accessible to the student. A list of such works as are commonly referred to may be found on the page immediately preceding the Notes. It has been the aim of the editor to furnish such assistance in the Notes as is needful to facilitate the progress of the diligent student; but above all things to avoid giving that pernicious help, whether in the form of indiscriminate translation, or of unnecessary explanation, which precludes all effort on the part of the pupil, and cripples his mental energies, by fostering habits of dependence and inaction.

The editions which have been consulted, besides Drakenborch's, have been those of Crevier, Ruperti, Bekker and Raschig, Twiss, Dymock by W. M. Gunn, Fabri, and Alschefski. In the preparation of the notes upon the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Books, the editor has been greatly indebted to the excellent edition of Fabri and the larger edition of Alschefski; but in the remainder, he is not aware that he has derived important aid from previous editions. In all cases he has aimed to acknowledge whatever direct assistance he has gained from the labors of others.

The Geographical Index has been partly translated from the edition of Fabri, and partly prepared from general sources.

The Plan of Rome, which accompanies the volume, has been taken from Professor W. A. Becker's recent work on Roman Antiquities; an account of the Map will be found on the page which faces it.

With these remarks, the present volume is submitted to the public, with the hope that it will be of some service in promoting the study of Livy, and of the noble language in which he wrote.



In preparing this new edition, I have revised the text, and have adopted, in many instances, readings of Weissenborn and of Madvig, in place of those of Alschefski. Sometimes the new readings have been substituted silently, where there seemed to be no need of explanation; but all important changes are explained in the Notes. In respect to the Notes, I have not merely changed them by addition or other modification, but have rewritten them; as I could only in this way carry out my views of what is now needed in an edition of Livy intended for the use of our schools and colleges. I have endeavored to avail myself of whatever has been recently written in interpretation of Livy, and especially of the commentary of Weissenborn, in his edition published by Weidmann in Berlin; but the Notes embody almost exclusively the results of my own labors and experience as a college instructor, and I have aimed in preparing them to meet the difficulties and wants which have become familiar to me in the daily work of the class-room. I have followed the same views in respect to the kind and the amount of



assistance which should be given to the student, as were expressed in the Preface to the first edition; and I shall be glad if it shall be found that those views have been better illustrated in the present work.

After the lapse of more than twenty years since the first issue of my edition of “ Selections from Livy's Roman History," I desire to make my grateful acknowledgments to the instructors who have so long used that book with their classes; and to express the hope that, in the event of their adopting the present edition, they will find it better fitted for its intended uses.



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