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CHARLES KNIGHT AND Co., 22, LUDGATE STREET.

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INTESTINES are that portion of the digestive canal ducts by which they are conveyed open into the intestinal into which the food is received after it has been partially canal, near the middle of the duodenum, or about six inches digested in the stomach, and in which its further assimila- from the aperture by which the food passes from the stotion, the separation and absorption of the nutritive matter, mach; and immediately beyond the orifices of these ducts and the removal of that which is excrementitious, take the villi are of great size, and thickly set on prominent place. In an adult, the intestines consist of a convoluted folds of the mucous membrane, called valvulæ conniventes. tube of from 30 to 40 feet in length, and are, from the dif- These folds, at the same time that they increase the extent ference of their diameters in different parts, divided into of surface for absorption, serve to entangle the semifluid small intestines, which comprise about the first four-fifths, mass of food, now completely digested; they are most nuand large intestines, which constitute the other fifth of their merous and prominent in the jejunum, where absorption length. The former again are divided into the duodenum, is carried on earliest and most rapidly, but are found to a into which the ducts from the liver and pancreas open, and slighter extent throughout the whole of the small intestines. in which the chyme from the stomach is converted into The absorption of the chyle is effected by the villi, each chyle (Digestion; CHYLE); the jejunum, in which the of which is composed of a minute tube, which is the termiabsorption of the nutritive matter of ihe food is principally nation of a branch of the lacteal or absorbent system of effected; and the ileum. The large intestines are divided vessels, and is ensheathed in a delicate tissue containing a into the cæcum, colon, and rectum.

net-work of capillary arteries and veins. The form and The walls of the intestinal canal are composed of three function of the villi may be best demonstrated in an animal principal coats or membranes. The exterior, which is smooth which has died suddenly after a full meal; they then apand polished, is called the peritoneal, and its principal use pear turgid, and stand erect, filled with a whitish milky is to permit the free motions of the intestines within the fluid, the chyle, which, as fast as it is absorbed by them, is abdomen, and of their several convolutions against each conveyed by numerous converging streams into the inain other, by rendering the effect of friction as slight as possible. I trunk of the absorbent system, called the thoracic duct, Next to and within the peritoneal coat is the muscular, through which it is gradually poured into the blood of the which is composed of two layers of fibres; an external, in left subclavian vein, at a short distance before it enters the which they are directed longitudinally, and an internal, of right side of the heart. [HEART.] The whole process of which the fibres encircle the intestine. By these the mo- absorption is not unaptly compared to that by which the tions of the intestines and the propulsion of their contents fluids are conveyed from the earth through the roots into are effected; the longitudinal fibres tending to shorten the stem of a plant; the villi of the intestine being repreeach portion of the canal, while the circular contract its sented by the tufts of hair-like spongioles which are placed diameter; and the two sets together producing a motion of at the terminations of the fibres of the root. the tube somewhat like that of a worm, whence it has re- The portion of the food which is unfit for the nourishceived the name of vermicular motion. Beneath these ment of the body is forced onwards by the vermicular molayers, and separated from them by a stratum of cellular tion of the intestines, and being mixed with the resinous tissue, which has been sometimes called the fourth or ner- and other excrementitious substances secreted by the liver vous coat, is the mucous membrane, which is the most im- and other glands, is conveyed through the whole tract of portant part of the intestinal canal. It is everywhere beset the intestines; and after it has been exposed to the absorbby innumerable minute glands, by which the secretion of ing vessels, which are placed in greater or less abundance mucus and the other intestinal juices is carried on. In the in every part of the canal, so that not a particle of nutrismall intestines it has a fine velvet-like surface, made up of ment can be lost, the residue is voided. minute thickly-set hair-like processes, or villi, which are INTONATION, in vocal music, is the tuning of the about sth of an inch in length, and stand up so that their voice-the singing true or false-in tune or out of tune. tops seem to form a smooth surface like the pile of velvet. Correct Intonation is the first requisite in a singer; this These, as well as all the rest of the mucous membrane, are wanting, all his other musical qualities, however good, are protected from the irritation which the immediate contact unavailing; of foreign substances would produce, by a covering of an INTRĂ’DOS and EXTRA'DOS, the lower and higher inorganic cuticle of extreme delicacy, called epithelium. curves of an arch. [Arch.)

The principal functions performed by the intestines are INTRICA'RIA, a small Polypiser from the oolitic rocks the conversion of the chyme (DIGESTION; GASTRIC Juice] of France, allied to Cellaria. (M. Defrance, Dic. des Sci. into chyle, the absorption of the latter, and the removal of Nat.) the innutritious parts of the food and of a considerable INTUITION (intueri), the most simple act of the reason quantity of excrementitious matter. In the first process, or intellect, on which, according to Locke, depends all which constitutes the last stage of digestion, the secretions the certainty and eviden«e of all our knowledge; which of the liver and pancreas take an important part: the certainty every one finds to be so great, that he cannot P. C., No. 788,

VOL. XIII.-B

cos,

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imagine, and therefore cannot require a greater. For a man INULIN, a peculiar vegetable substance which is spon cannot conceive of a greater certainty than that any idea taneously deposited from a decoction of the roots of the Inula in his mind is such as he perceives it to be, and that two Helenium. It is a white powder, like starch, is insoluble in ideas, wherein he perceives a difference, are different and cold and soluble in hot water, from which it is deposited not precisely the same.' His definition, or rather explana- on cooling, and this distinguishes it from starch. With tion, of intuition is as follows:- Sometimes the mind per- iodine it gives a greenish-yellow compound, which is not ceives the agreement or disagreement of two ideas imme- permanent. Inulin is distinguished from gum by its insodiately by themselves, and this, I think, we may call intui- Iubility in cold water, and by not giving saccholactic acid tive knowledge. In this the mind is at no pains of proving when digested in nitric acid. or examining, but perceives the truth as the eye does the INVARIABLE (Mathematics), the same word in meanlight, only by being directed to it.' (Essay on Human Un- ing as CONSTANT, which see. There are however two sorts derstanding, b. iv., c. ii., § 1.) Campbell's definition is of constants, which it is desirable to treat under different similar: having defined truth to be the conformity of our namos: the first, which we may call a constant, or a comconceptions to their antetypes in the nature of things, he mon constant, meaning a quantity which is absolutely indeclares intuitive truth to be that' which is perceived imme- variable; the second meaning a function which may vary, diately on a bare attention to the ideas under review.' but which does not vary in the processes required by a

The nature of the relation which subsists between intui- given equation. This we propose to call the invariable tion and reasoning has been strongly contested. While function of that equation, or its invariable. Beaitie maintains that the connexion between them, how Thus, in a common differential equation, which is supclosely soever they are found in general to be connected, is posed to be true of y and x when x passes through all not necessary, but, on the contrary, a being endued with stages of magnitude whatsoever, the only invariable is an one may be destitute of the other; Dugald Stewart, on absolute invariable, or a common constant. But in an the other hand, insists that the two are not radically distinct, equation of differences, in whichi r only passes from one although by most writers they are considered to be different whole number to another, the invariable function is any faculties. Locke having rightly maintained that every one which remains unaltered by changing x from one step which the reason makes in demonstrative knowledge whole number to another. Thus. [INTEGRATION, FINITE) has intuitive certainty, and that consequently the power of instead of saying that the solution of Ay = x + 1 is reasoning presupposes that of intuition, Stewart thinks : (x + x) + C, where C is a constant, we may allow C to that the intuition of Locke implies the power of reasoning; be any function of x, which is unaltered by changing x or, at least, that intuition combined with memory explains from one whole number to another. Such a function is reasoning. Here his usual sagacity appears to have failed (cos. 27x), so that the solution is }(.ro +x) + (cos. 27X), Stewart. While the mind itself is perfectly simple, it and the last term is the invariable of the equation. has been, for the purpose of attaining accuracy of language Again, suppose it required to solve the functional equaand distinctness of theory, supposed to be multiple; and tion $ (ro) =2 x. One solution of this is o x = clog .r, distinct faculties have been ascribed to it according as its where c is any absolute constant. But the equation is several operations comprise more or fewer elements. Ac solved if c be a function of x, provided it be one which does cording tlierefore to his own account, reason, which involves not change when x is changed into x. Such a function is the element of time, must be kept distinct from intuition,

log. log r which does not involve that element. The proper objects of intuitive certainty are identical

log 2

or any function of it, propositions. This of course does not mean propositions

log. log.r verbally identical ; such as a man is a man.' But while the or pr = any function of cos. { 27

x log x. object of thought is perfectly and always one, it may pre

log 2 sent itself to the thought under a variety of aspects, either General methods of finding invariable functions, as far as dissolved into its elements or as combined into a whole. It they have yet been given, will be found in the Encyclopædia is this identity under an apparent diversity that constitutes Metropolitana,' article .Calculus of Functions." that original and primary evidence which makes certain INVENTION. This term, when used in the language propositions, as soon as the respective terms are understood, of art, has a different signification from what it usually bears to be perceived intuitively. On the other hand, the appa- . in common language. It does not mean discovery, but rent identity of a real diversity is the ground of all sophis- combines conception, or the peculiar way in which an artist's tical argument. The ultimate form of legitimate argumen- mind takes cognizance of a subject to be represented, with tation is, a = b, b = c, .'. a = c. But every fallacy, when the mode of treatment, or choice of objects and manner of detected, will invariably be found to be a = b £r, b= c, disposing them best adapted for producing a desired effect. ... a = c. The sophistry consists in the suppression of the Thus, in painting and sculpture, it is the faculty by which element r, either positive or negative.

the most perfect mode of illustration, by colour or by form, In the philosophy of Kant the term intuition (anschauung) is suggested to the artist, and by which the mind of the is used to denote the single act of the sense upon outward spectator is led to comprehend the truth, the intention, and objects according to its own laws. It appears to be em- the whole purpose of the work before him ; but so distinct ployed in a like sense in the following extract from Glan- is it at the same time from perfect execution, that it is often vil – Some say that the soul is not passive under the found to exist independently of excellence in that particular, material phantasms; but doth only intuitively view them some of the finest inventions in art being manifestly defective by the necessity of its own nature, and so observes other in technical requirements. It is therefore the highest things in these their representatives.' (Vanity of Dogma- quality in the constitution of the artist's mind; as Opie tising, c. iv., p. 29.)

says, "Destitute of invention, a poet is but a plagiary, and a I'NULA, a genus of composite plants, one of whose painter a copier of others.' (Lectures on Painting.) species, I. Helenium, is used medicinally. This plant is a It is hardly necessary to enter into the question whether native of various parts of Europe, in pastures and woods; it the power of invention be a primary and original law of the has a thick bitter mucilaginous root, a stout stem three feet mind, or whether the effect of cultivation. Some have behigh, broad ovate serrated leaves, and large yellow flower- lieved it may be a result of acquirements begun in youth, heads, which are solitary at the end of the ramifications. and carried on till the power is developed and perfected;

I'NULA HELENIUM (Elecampane), an indigenous others conceive that it is unatatinable by any human effort, perennial herbaceous plant, found in moist meadows, the and is part of the original constitution of the mind. root of which is used in medicine. This part is thick and But even admitting invention to be a gift of nature, and not branching, brown externally, white internally, with an aro- reducible to rule, nor to be taught by any regular process, matic odour and a mucilaginous taste, at first bitter, after it still may be improved by study. Whatever natural diswards sharp and camphor-like. In addition to mucilage position or original capacity may exist—and it will not, we and a large quantity of a variety of starch termed inulin, it suppose, be denied that some minds are more bountifully contains a crystallized volatile oil (stearopten), a bitter ex- endowed than others - every power short of creation must tractive, an acrid resin, and some salts of lime, &c.

have groundwork and foundation on which and out of These ingredients give it a tonic and stimulating pro- which to exercise itself; and even the inventive faculty, perty, and it is employed in debility of the stomach, and which seems to approach nearest to creation, depends upon other diseases of mucous surfaces unattended with intlam- | knowledge, by whatever means acquired, for materials with mation. It is however not much used,

which to duvalop and declare itself. Sir Joshua Reynolds

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(Discourses) says, 'He who has the most materials has the tions of artists, and discriminate between the efforts of elegreatest means of invention, and if he has not the power of vated and original minds and the commonplace performances using them, it must be from a feebleness of intellect;' and of mere mecManical copiers. Invention is required in every • it is in vain to endeavour to invent without materials on branch of art to raise it above tameness and insipidity: it is which the mind may work,' &c.

indeed the magic power by which works of art first attract Raffaelle, by the wonderful ability and power which he and then fix the attention. has shown in choosing subjects in which the greatest quan- It is hardly necessary to observe, that, difficult as it may tity of matter or incident could be introduced, and then in be to prescribe bounds to the imagination or the power or representing them at the most critical moment for illustration, invention, it has in art certain and defined limits beyond in combining all the most striking and affecting circum- which the painter and sculptor should not attempt to venstances, and filling the spectator's mind with the whole story, ture. When the artist dashes into extravagance, defies or by bringing before him, as it were, the past, the present, and outrages nature, and, with a view of exciting wonder, steps even suggesting that which is to follow, may justly be consi- out of the region of what is, has been, or may be, he only dered the greatest master in invention. He was gifted, if any shows that he has been gifted with fancy, but that it is man ever was, with the fullest portion of natural and inhe- wild and ill-regulated; he may awaken surprise, and may rent genius, but he attained his eminence by the most perse- mistake it for admiration, but he will produce no lasting vering course of exercise and observation, as the necessary nor beneficial impression, and his undisciplined fantasy will and only means through which the inventive faculty could never deserve to be ranked with the genius that has nobly be manifested. He studied nature diligently and profoundly illustrated nature by the only just, safe, and legitimate in all her varieties of beauty and expression. Nothing means, namely, her own beautiful, and expressive, and seems to have escaped him; everything that offered itself perfect works. out of her great storehouse was treasured as serviceable to INVENTORY. [EXECUTOR.] his art, and he acquired such an accumulation of materials, INVERARY, a royal burgh and seaport, capital of the serving as handmaids to his invention, that whatever sub-county of Argyle, situated on a small bay at the head of ject came before him found him prepared, and was imme- Loch Fyne, where the river Aray falls into that arm of the diately dignified with all the expression, truth, propriety, sea, 75 miles west by north from Edinburgh. The town and completeness, if we may use the word, that it was was erected into a royal burgh by charter granted by capable of receiving. Raffaelle never reached the perfect Charles I. and dated 28th January, 1648. (Municipal Corbeauty and character almost superhuman which appear in poration Reports.) The whole territory, with the exception the finest works of the Greeks, nor, in colour, the magic of a small feu, is the property of the Duke of Argyle, of brilliancy and breadth of Titian, another master-spirit; yet, whom the inhabitants bold their houses and grounds either in the largest and most comprehensive sense of the quality under leases or as tenants at will. It is governed by two we have been describing, he stands (perhaps with one baillies and nine common-councillors. The annual income mighty exception) without an equal or a rival.

of the burgh is about 1801. and the annual expenditure is The examples which may be most satisfactorily adduced somewhat Jess. The town consists chiefly of one row of in illustration of invention in the fine arts, both for their houses facing the bay, built with great 'uniformity and excellence and for the facility of reference, as we are so covered with slate. The arrangements for watching, cleanfortunate as to possess them in this country, are the Car- ing, lighting, and the supplying of water are confided to the toons of Raffaelle preserved at Hampton Court. Of these town council, and the expenses are defrayed from the prothe Paul preaching at Athens,' • The Sacrifice at Lystra, ceeds of the burgh manure. The inhabitants are principally and The Death of Ananias,' may be selected as the most engaged in the herring-fishery in Loch Fyne, which is said remarkable for the quality we have been considering: to have produced in some seasons upwards of 20,000 bar

Equally admirable, though totally in a different style, the rels. (Beauties of Scotland, vol. v., p. 437.) The grammarfrescoes of Michael Angelo, in the Sistine Chapel at Rome, school is superintended by a teacher, whose salary is 201. must be quoted as triumphs of invention, a proud achieve. The number of scholars during the last 10 years has varied ment of the human mind. The comprehensiveness of his from 25 to 30 annually. The population of the burgh and scheme of illustration, with the greatness and energetic parish in 1831 was 1117. character of his design and composition, render this one of Inverary Castle, the principal seat of the Duke of Argyle, the finest monumenis that art has to boast. In viewing is situated near the northern extremity of Loch Fyne. It the magnificent works of these two masters, namely, of M. is a quadrangular building, with a tower at each corner, A. Buonarotii

, in this chapel, and of Raffaelle d'Urbino, in and a high glazed pavilion rising from the centre of the the loggie and stanze of the same palace (the Vatican), the roof. The stone of which it is constructed, though soft, is spectator has a series of examples of as wonderful efforts of very durable, and becomes perfectly black when wetted by inventive genius in historical design as it seems possible to a shower. The spacious hall, which is hung with arms and produce. The works Rubens offer also fine examples of other ornaments, is lighted by a lofty window, and surinvention, though the quality of his design, or rather of rounded by a gallery. The other apartments are fitted up his forms, was not according to a classical or pure standard. in a modern style and with good taste. (Parliamentary

It should be observed here that invention is quite Papers ; Beauties of Scotland, &c.) independent of the class of design; its force and power ÍNVERNESS, a seaport town and royal burgh of some may be displayed in every part of the art, and in subjects antiquity, the capital ofthe county of Inverness, and the prinof inferior grade, or even in the mode of treating colour, cipal town of the Highlands. It is situated at the southern light, and shade. Rembrandt, to proceed with further extremity of the Moray Frith near the eastern entrance of illustration, is one of those who displayed very high powers the Caledonian Canal, 155 miles north by west from Edinof invention ; 'a genius,' Fuseli says, of the first class in burgh. The earliest charters upon record are those of King whatever relates not to form ;' and he justly eulogises his William the Lion, four in number, conferring several privi“powers of nature and the grandeur, pathos, and simpli- leges upon the burgesses, which were confirmed and extended city of his composition. Thus also, though the quality of by the subsequent charters of Alexander II., III., Robert I., his art was not of the highest or grand class, the merit David II., James II., Queen Mary, and James VI. The last of invention is eminently due to our own Hogarth. constitutes the governing charter of the town, and is dated 1st Opie, in speaking of this artist, alludes in terms of high | January, 1591. (Municipal Corporation Reports.) The admiration to a fine example of invention in one of his pic- management of the affairs of the burgh is vested in a provost

, tures of the series called The Rake's Progress. In the three baillies, and 15 town councillors. In 1832 the estibagnio scene he has introduced in the back-ground one of mated value of the burgh property, consisting principally o. the dissolute women of the party setting fire to a map of the lands and other heritable property, was 20,8112.; producing World.

an annual revenue of 22361. The annual expenditure at the We have referred only to a very few out of the numerous same period was 2058l., and at Michaelmas 1833 the aggreartists whose works are worthy of attention as examples of gate debt was 10,6141. The town is large and well built; invention; and have confined ourselves to some of the the houses are lofty, and many of them elegant. The streets leading painters, though we might easily multiply them have, since 1831, been pared with granite and hard sandfrom productions in the sister art. Enough however has stone brought from the banks of Loch Ness. Common been said to point out the nature and value of that high sewers have been constructed, and the town is well lighied quality in design, and to enable the intelligent observer to with gas, and supplied with water by means of pipes from recognise and appreciate it when he meets it in the produc- the adjacent river. The system of police is also described

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