Page images


use of intermediaries. A successful issue seemed to him possible if he were to go himself as ambassador, and come into direct contact with Henry II. He therefore very soon decided upon a French legation, and it was only necessary to obtain the Pope's consent to such a plan; this he easily succeeded in getting.

It had troubled Carafa very little when Paul IV., who was very susceptible to sudden impressions, had embraced the Imperial ambassador on February 17th, 1556, and had congratulated him on the armistice, 1 for he knew very well how easily his long and deeply rooted anti-Spanish sentiments would be again aroused at the slightest imprudence on the part of the Imperialists. This feeling was so strong that Paul IV. took no offence at the secret negotiations which Carafa was carrying on with a confidant of the Protestant Albert Alcibiades of Brandenburg, who was known as the bitter enemy of the Emperor, and it was only when Cardinal Truchsess unmasked the agent as a Lutheran and an intriguer, that the Pope ordered him to leave. The position

is again reflected in a report of the Venetian ambassador on March 14th. "The Pope," explains Navagero, "wishes to remain armed, for he is convinced that this is the only way to keep the Imperialists in check. It is known in the Vatican that during a conference of the Imperial generals the cry was raised: 'To Rome !' to which the more thoughtful answered: 'To what purpose ?' Do you not know that the Pope is armed, and that everyone in Rome would fight for

1 See the report of Gianfigliazzi of February 18, 1556, in ANCEL, Sienne, 3.

2 Cf. for this, Navagero's letters of February 15 and 28, 1556, in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 392, 415.

3 Cf. RIESS, 87 seqq., 425 seqq., in which, however, the important statements which ANCEL (Disgrâce, 115 seq.) had already made with regard to this matter are overlooked. The disagreements in which Carafa entangled the Pope through his machinations can be seen from the **brief of September 5, 1555 (Secret Archives of the Vatican).

him?" The strictness with which the Pope maintained his authority in Rome had made the deepest impression; no one dared to move, not even the Cardinals.2

Instead of taking into account the self-assurance of the Pope, the Imperialists, just at that moment, committed another of their imprudent actions. The Marquis de Sarria, who was an ardent sportsman, had obtained the privilege, through the Count of Montorio, of leaving the city during the time that the gates were closed. When he was about to make use of this permission, before daybreak on March 25th, he met with determined opposition. The officer who was in command of the Porta S. Agnese had not been informed, through carelessness, of the permission granted to the ambassador, and refused to open the gate. Thereupon the arrogant suite of Sarria used force, disarmed the guard and broke open the gate. While the weak Count of Montorio


1 BROWN, VI., I, n. 425. Concerning the preparations for war by the Pope who feared a new Sack see Hosi epist. II., n. 1568, and PRAY, Epist. proc. regni Hung., III., Posen, 1806, 85. The strict control exercised at the gates is emphasized by Lasso in his letter to Ferdinand I. on April 11, 1556 (State Archives, Vienna).

2 See MASIUS, Briefe, 241, 243, 258.

3 Cf. concerning this occurrence, the *report of Gianfigliazzi of March 30, 1556 (State Archives, Florence); also the letter of E. Carne (ed. TURNBULL, n. 494) and Navagero (BROWN, VI., 1, n. 447) and Summarii 350. Sarria protested (see Nonciat. I., lxxxv. n. 3) against Carafa's version of the event (in Casa, II., 75 seq.). According to Carne the circumstance took place on the "Wednesday before Palme Sunday," but RIESS (p. 96) gives it as March 18, in doing which he takes it for granted that the Easter of 1556 fell on March 29. This is, however, a mistake, for Easter in that year fell on April 5, Palm Sunday on March 29, and the occurrence, therefore, on March 25. Ipp. Capilupi reports in a *letter to Cardinal E. Gonzaga dated Rome, March 25, 1556, concerning the discovery of a plot to murder Cardinal Carafa, for which a German was executed (Gonzaga Archives, Mantua).


was endeavouring to arrange the affair amicably, Cardinal Carafa very skilfully made use of it to bring to the Pope's notice the arrogance and insolence of the Spaniards. Paul IV., who held jealously to the maintenance of his authority, took a serious view of the matter, and when Sarria came to the Papal chapel on Palm Sunday to take part in the function, he was ordered out of the palace. In order to make his peace with the Pope, he begged for an audience, which was granted to him for March 31st, but when some one (probably the Count of Montorio, who wished to avoid a scandal) told him that he would, this time, be taken to the Castle of St. Angelo, he failed to appear at the audience. In the meantime, legal proceedings were instituted against the guilty parties, and several members of the ambassador's suite were arrested.1 All the attempts of Sarria to soothe the irritated pontiff proved vain, as we are informed by a correspondent on April 11th, 1556.2 On the same day the suit against Cesarini was also brought to an end.3


On the previous day, April 10th, the Pope had astonished the Cardinals and the whole world by appointing two legates for the arrangement of peace. Cardinal Carafa was destined for France, and Scipione Rebiba, who had recently been raised to the purple, for the Emperor and Philip II. It was rumoured that Cardinal Farnese would also go to France.5


1 See Navagero's report in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 459; cf. RIESS,

2 *Avviso di Roma of April 11, 1556 (Cod. Urb. 1038, p. 133, Vatican Library).

3 Ibid.

4 See Acta consist. cancell. VII. (Consistorial Archives). Cf. reports from the Carteggio Farnesiano in the State Archives, Parma, in COGGIOLA, A. d. Cornia, 234, and the *letter of Lasso to Ferdinand I. of April 11, 1556 (State Archives, Vienna).

5 See the *Avviso cited supra note 2. On May 30, 1556, Andrea Calegari wrote to Commendone, then staying in Venice. *Si dice chel card. Farnese non andrà più in Francia, che N.S. non gli ha voluto dar licentia con dirli che non vole che l'abbandoni (Lett. de' princ. XXIII., n. 1. Secret Archives of the Vatican).

The verbose instructions for the legates announced the intention of the Pope to summon a General Council to Rome, to deal with the question of reform, and contained orders to work for the bringing about of peace, as a necessary preliminary to such an assembly. The French king had made over to Paul IV. the right of arbitration in all matters, and he trusted that a corresponding readiness to meet his advances would be shown by the other side.1 Should the Imperialists really refuse peace-and that was the Pope's firm conviction, in view of Charles V.'s pride and thirst for new territorythen there would be plain proof that it was they who had destroyed the tranquillity of Christendom.2

While preparations were being made for the mission of Carafa, who was to proclaim by his outward pomp the greatness of the sovereign whom he represented, on May 2nd


1 See PIEPER, 194 seqq.; cf. ANCEL, Sienne, 15 seqq. and Nonciat. I., lxxxvii. seq. concerning the secret Instruttione vulgare del card. Carafa (published in Nonciat., II., 603 seq.), a memorandum drawn up by Casa in May, 1556, with regard to the legation of his master, which has already been printed, a fact which has escaped the notice of Ancel, by MARTINETTI in the Riv. Europ., 1877, IV., 228 seqq. There are also two instructions for Rebiba. The first, beginning: Quamvis antequam pontificatum inivimus " (Secret Archives of the Vatican, Varia Polit,. LXXVIII., 145 seq., and Court Library, Vienna, 6621, p. 21 seq.), this is the one from which PALLAVICINI has made extracts (13, 17). The second, in which the Council is not mentioned, but which in many places exactly coincides verbally with the first, had been published by CAMPANA in the work A.V. Cian i suoi scolari, Pisa, 1909, 125 seq.; the first instruction, however, is not known to this investigator, although not only Pallavicini, but Pieper also (loc. cit) discuss it. In the *Brevia ad princ., Arm. 44, t. 4, n. 347 seqq., the briefs to the respective princes regarding the dispatch of the legates, all dated April 22, 1556 (Secret Archives of the Vatican). The Bull for Carafa of April 10, is now printed in the Nonciat., II., 599 seq.; this was only intended for the public; see ibid. I., lxxxvii.

2 See Navagero's report of April 11, 1556, in BROWN, VI., I, n. 453; cf. also Nonciat. I., lxxxvi.



further friction arose between the Papal officials and the members of the Imperial embassy; the anger of the Pope against Sarria, which was already violent enough, was so much increased by this that he even spoke of having him executed.1

Two days after this occurrence, the Cardinals were informed in a Bull that, as the final result of the long drawn out suit against Ascanio and Marcantonio Colonna, these nobles were declared to be excommunicated and their estates forfeited. In the preamble to this document, mention was made of the anti-Papal proceedings of the Colonna family since the time of Boniface VIII., and the misdeeds of Pompeo and Ascanio under Clement VII., Paul III. and Julius III. Marcantonio, it stated, had followed in their footsteps, opposing the orders of the present Pope since the beginning of his reign, hindering the importation of grain into Rome, and entering into a plot with the enemies of the Holy See.2

On May 9th all the Cardinals were summoned in the Vatican for the following day. The Pope then informed them, in few and terse words, that he had resolved to bestow Paliano, and the remainder of the fiefs of the Colonna, together with the title of Duke, on the Count of Montorio, who would certainly prove himself a true and obedient vassal of the Holy See. He had not summoned the Cardinals in order to ask their consent and advice, for he was determined to drive the enemy out of his house, so that, in future, no one would have any cause for fear. The members of the Sacred College received in silence this declaration, so pregnant with direful consequences, of a Pope who, at one time, when he was a Cardinal,

1 See Navagero's report of May 5, 1556, in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 475; cf. RIESS, 103 seqq.; MASIUS, Briefe, 279.

[ocr errors]

2 See the text of the bull in PASSARINI, 189 seqq. and in DURUY, 359 seqq.; cf. ibid., 130 seqq. and Navagero's report in the Atti Mod. Ser. 3, II., 165 seq. In the *Acta consist. cancell. VII. it says: Romae die lunae 4 Maii, 1556, fuit consistorium, in quo lecta fuit sententia privationis Paliani et aliarum terrarum Ascanii et Marci Antonii de Colonna assistentibus ibidem revmi." (Consistorial Archives).

« PreviousContinue »