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mission were assembled. To these the Pope addressed a third speech, in which he skilfully set forth, in other words, what he had already said to the Cardinals and prelates.1 The article for deliberation was then at once printed and presented to all the members of the commission. Several of them, as for example Lainez, at once began to draft out their opinions. 2

We learn from a very interesting conversation which he had with Navagero on March 13th, 1556, the motives which actuated the Pope at that time. In this Paul IV. emphasized the fact that he was spending so much time on reform because he wished it to be a success; in such an important matter he would not act solely according to his own ideas, but wished also to hear the views of others. The more strongly these expressed themselves the better he would be pleased, as he desired to arrive at the truth. Then he again returned to the subject of the extirpation of simony. "Illustrious ambassador," he continued, "this has been in our thoughts for years, for we saw many things taking place in the House of the Lord, which would horrify you. Everyone who desired a bishopric went to a bank, where a list was to be found, with the price of each, and in the case of an appointment as Cardinal it was calculated how best to draw profit from every slightest circumstance. As soon as God had bestowed this dignity upon us, without any effort on our part, we said to ourselves: We know what the Lord requires of us; we must perform deeds, and pull out this evil by the roots. If we did not do this at once, it was because we wished first to appoint Cardinals who

1 See *Concilio, 79, f. 48b seqq. (Secret Archives of the Vatican); cf. MASSARELLI, 289, the first letter of Navagero of March 14, in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 424 and ANCEL, Concile, 15 seq.

2 Cf. LAINEZ, Disput. Trid. (ed. Grisar), II., 325 seq.; cf. Histor. Jahrbuch, VIII., 725. The treatises on simony by G. Sirleto and P. Draco, which ANCEL (Concile, 16, n. 3) quotes, belong to the same period. Sirleto was appointed protonotary by Paul IV. (see BROMATO, II., 485) and entrusted with the education of his young relatives, Alfonso and Antonio. His treatise on simony is also in the *Cod. Vat. 3511 of the Vatican Library.



were fitted to help us in this work. Now we shall carry out this reform, even at the risk of our life. If people say that in order to do so, we shall have to give up too much, and shall not, in the event, be able to make both ends meet, that does not frighten us in the least, as we are certain that He Who created all things out of nothing, will not leave us in want. It is marvellous, my lord ambassador, how this Holy See has maintained its existence, although our predecessors have done all in their power to destroy it, but it is built on so firm a rock that nothing need be feared. Should we be granted no complete success, we shall nevertheless be satisfied to have at least purified this See, so blessed by God, and then to die. To be absolutely frank with you, this new commission will have the power of a Council. We have had the article concerning simony printed, for then, although we disdain to have it sent to the universities, as it is not seemly that the Holy See should ask the opinion of others, it may still come into their hands in the course of circulation, for we desire to hear the views of everyone, so as to be able to arrive at a better decision."

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In the further course of conversation the Pope remarked that his reform would entail great consequences, and that he intended showing the princes that more simony was perhaps to be found in their courts than in Rome. But we shall put an end to that," he continued, "for we have authority over them as well as over the clergy. If necessary we shall summon a Council, and, what is more, in this illustrious city, as there is no need to go elsewhere, and, as is well known, we were never in favour of holding an assembly of the Church at Trent, in the very midst of the Lutherans."1

In a session of the first section of the reform commission, which was held in the house of Cardinal du Bellay, on March 26th, the article on simony was very carefully discussed. No fewer than sixteen speakers expressed their views, and

1 See in Appendix No. 28 the *letter of Navagero of March 14, 1556 (Library of St. Mark's, Venice). Cf. also MASIUS, Briefe,



very great differences of opinion came to light. Several, especially the Bishop of Feltre, Tommaso Campegio, defended the view that the acceptance of pecuniary compensation for the exercise of spiritual power was allowable. Others, such as the Bishop of Sessa, vigorously combated this view. A third opinion, that of the Bishop of Sinigaglia, Marco Vigerio della Rovere, was to the effect that the acceptance of pecuniary compensation was indeed permitted, but not always and only under certain conditions. It was night before the session, which had lasted for fully four hours, was brought to a close. 1

The next meeting was to be held after Easter, but it never took place. The Pope, who was burning with eagerness to settle this important question as speedily as possible, found this great divergence of opinion so undesirable that he suspended the sittings of the commission. He thought for a time of proceeding quite independently,2 and of issuing an absolute prohibition to the clergy to accept any gifts at all, even from voluntary donors, for spiritual advantages. Finally, however, the Pope appears to have become reconciled to the idea of a Council, under the influence of the impression made by the claims of the Polish king. The danger of holding a General Council of the Church, from which the secular powers should be completely excluded, had in the meantime been made clear to him. At the reception which he held after the banquet on the anniversary of his coronation, the Pope remarked, among other things, that he would cause the Council, which he intended should be held in Rome, to be announced


1 See MASSARELLI, 289, and *Concilio, 79, p. 53 seq. (Secret Archives of the Vatican); also Navagero's *letter of March 28, 1556 (Library of St. Mark's, Venice); see Appendix No. 29.

2 Cf. the letter of Navagero of April 18, 1556, in the *Cod. Marc. 9445, p. 162b; translated in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 459.

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3 See the instructions for Rebiba in the Secret Archives of the Vatican *Polit. 78, p. 145 seq., with which the commessioni publiche" for Carafa coincided; see LAEMMER, Melet. 173, and Nonciat., II., 601; cf. also Hosi epist., II., 736.



to the secular princes, although there was no obligation on his part to do so.1

It was a great disadvantage for the work of reform, that just now, in the summer of 1556, when some decisive steps in this direction were generally expected, the political troubles should have been steadily growing more acute, and the war with Spain becoming more probable. The Pope, however, never lost sight of the question of reform during this critical time. It deserves to be fully recognised that Paul IV. did not make the slightest concession to political considerations, either in this respect, or in the matter of the creation of Cardinals. Important as was the support of the Duke of Ferrara, and numerous as were the intercessors for Cardinal d'Este, that unworthy prince of the Church had to remain in exile. In conformity with the principles of reform contained in the opinion of the Cardinals in 1537, Paul IV. in the summer of 1556 took measures against the absence of Cardinals from Rome. It was enacted at the time that all Cardinal Priests were to be ordained within three months.4

1See Navagero in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 499, and also the *report of the Genoese ambassador of May 28, 1556 (State Archives, Genoa).

2 On June 3, 1556, G. A. Calegari informs Commendone from Rome: *Si aspetta da tutti la publicatione de la bolla rigorosa de la riforma (Lett. de' princ. 23, n. 3. Secret Archives of the Vatican).

3 As early as October 2, 1555, Ercole of Ferrara had addressed an autograph letter to Paul IV. (in the collection of congratulatory letters in the Papal Secret Archives, II., p. 191, mentioned supra p. 175, n. 1) in which he announces the arrival of a special ambassador to intercede for his brother. It was believed that proceedings would also be taken against other unworthy Cardinals. Navagero *reports on January 4, 1556: "Si dice per cosa certa che si attende a former processo contra la vita et costumi del card. de Monte" (Cod. 9445 of Library of St. Mark's, Venice).

4 Cf. Acta consist cancell. for July 17, 1556 (Consistorial Archives); cf. Gulik-Eubel, III., 37 and Bull, VI., 513 seq. I have found the *original briefs to the absent Cardinals, dated Rome, July 16, 1556, beginning: Cogit nos" and all in similar

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The Pope also made very searching enquiries concerning the state of the monasteries, and the abuses in the hospitals,1 as he wished to make improvements in all these matters. The firm determination with which he kept his great aim before his eyes is proved by the fact that he carried out a thorough reform of the Dataria, which cost him two-thirds of his revenue, and that at a moment when the preparations for war and for the defence of the States of the Church required more money than ever. The Datary appointed in July, Francesco Bacodio, received strict orders that all petitions for favours were to be granted gratuitously. The Venetian ambassador, as the representative of a commercial city, reckoned up the large sums which were thereby lost to the Pope, but this did not trouble Paul IV. in the slightest degree. He had purposely made a beginning with the Dataria, the revenues of which came to him personally, in order to show how seriously he meant to keep his promise of beginning the reform with himself, and because he had discovered simony in the former proceedings of the Dataria, he introduced there a rigorous change. Although he was fully aware of the danger of such a diminution of his income, just on the very eve of the war with Spain, he nevertheless carried out the measure, for he trusted in God, Who had always helped him. He reminded the Venetian ambassador how he had once arrived in Venice quite poor, with his Theatines, and yet had made his way. "And now," he exclaimed, "that we have been

terms, in the Papal Secret Archives, (Castle of St. Angelo, Arm. 5, caps. 3). In all there are 15 briefs, addressed to Cardinals Alessandro and Ranuccio Farnese, Ricci, Mendoza, E. Gonzaga, Durante, Tagliavia, Cicada, C. del Monte, Crispi, Dandino, Madruzzo, Doria, Mercurio and G. della Rovere.

1 See the *Memoria per la cura delle cose spirituali pertinenti al vicariato di Roma in the Papal Secret Archives, Arm. 8, ordo 2, t. 5, p. 5 seq.; see ibid. p. 23 seq., the *Informationi concerning the hospital of S. Spirito.

2 See the letter of Navagero of July 11, 1556, in ANCEL, Concile, 18, n. 2; cf. MOCENIGO-ALBÈRI, 29, and ibid. 87, the account of Soranzo; ROSEO, III., 501.

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