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raised to the throne of St. Peter, are we to be brought to want? If we feared this, we should deserve to be punished by God! "1

On August 21st, 1556, the Pope took a further step, which showed with what constancy he pursued his aims of reform. A decree, published in the consistory on that date, laid the axe at the root of one of the worst abuses in the matter of ecclesiastical benefices. Besides the uncanonical resignation of ecclesiastical offices, against which Paul III. had already taken steps, the so-called "Resignatio cum regressu" had developed to an ever-increasing extent, especially since the end of the XVth century. This was a resignation with the reservation that the benefice resigned should, under certain circumstances, as for example, the previous death of the acquirer, again revert to the original holder. With perfect right, Paul IV. would not, under any pretext, allow of this or of the similar acts of resignation, called the "Ingressus and the "Accessus." He looked upon them as merely inventions of the devil.3

He had already begun to take measures against such abuses in the first year of his reign, but had been obliged to make certain far-reaching exceptions in the case of the Cardinals.4 Now, however, (August 21st, 1556), every "Accessus" to a benefice, by whomsoever it was made, or whatsoever conditions it might contain, was completely done away with and annulled. With regard to the "Regressus" it was decreed that the Cardinals resident in Rome should, within fifteen

1 See Navagero's report of August 22, 1556, in BROWN, VI., I, n. 583.

2 Cf. HINSCHIUS, III., 283.

3 See the characteristic conversation of Paul IV. with Navagero in his letter of October 28, 1557 (Court Library, Vienna); see also BROWN, VI., 2, n. 937, 954.

4 Cf. the report of Navagero of September 7 and 11, 1555, in COGGIOLA, A. d. Cornia, 99, and ANCEL, Concile, 25, also in Appendix Nos. 43-45 the *letter of Cardinal Vitelli of December 3, 1555 (Vatican Library) and the Acta consist. in GULIK-EUbel, III., 37.

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days, hand in to the Datary a list of the resignations of this kind possessed by them. The Cardinals who were living in Italy were to do the same within a month, and those who were beyond the Alps were given three months to comply with the order. "When we shall have received all these statements," declared the Pope, we shall say to those who possess more than one of these 'Regressus': This is not lawful; choose one of them, and give up the others. In this way, and step by step, we intend to carry out the reform. In spite of all its assaults, hell will not be able to do anything to harm this good work, which will secure for us a place in heaven."1

This measure was carefully and rigorously carried out. The Papal Secret Archives still preserve the lists of "Regressus" which all the Cardinals had to hand in; at their head we find Alessandro Farnese, with a terribly long list.2 The financial loss with which certain Cardinals were threatened was considerable, and there was no lack of vigorous complaints. The Pope, however, remained quite firm.3

At the end of September, Paul IV. announced further reforms, especially a prohibition for the bishops to possess any other benefice whatsoever. The objections which the Cardinals made by no means convinced the Pope that it was impossible to carry out such a measure. At the beginning

1 See Navagero in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 583, and Acta consist. in GULIK-EUBEL, III., 37. A copy of the *decree of August 21, 1556, in the *correspondence of Madruzzo in the Vice-regal Archives, Innsbruck.

2 After the period fixed had been extended for 15 days on September 4, 1556 (*Acta consist. in the Consistorial Archives) all the Cardinals handed in the prescribed lists more or less quickly; *most of them are contained in the Papal Secret Archives, Castle of St. Angelo, Arm. 8, ordo 2, t. 6; the *list of Card. A. Farnese is dated 18 Cal. Octobr. 1556.

3 Besides Navagero's reports in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 954, 1067, see his **letters of August 14 and October 28, 1557 (Court Library, Vienna); it is clear, at the same time, why the Acta consist. for reform matters are insufficient.

THE WAR HINDERS REFORMS.

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of October he again repeated that it was his fixed intention to continue on the path of a vigorous reform. He would not, like other Popes, act for form's sake, but would proceed in earnest, a thing of which he had given proof by renouncing the hundreds of thousands which the Dataria had brought him in. The devil had brought about the war with Spain in order to make any progress on the path on which he had entered impossible. He was not, however, going to be led astray, but would every day do away with some of the many abuses.1

The Pope's intentions were certainly of the best, but circumstances were stronger than he. In September, 1556, Alba invaded the States of the Church. The war with Spain naturally pushed the reform question more and more into the background, even though the Pope, with characteristic tenacity, was, at its commencement, still occupied with the extermination of the numerous abuses.2 New measures on a more extensive scale, however, could not be carried out during the war, but it should always be remembered that Paul IV., at the time of his most desperate financial need, always held fast to the reform of the Dataria, as well as to the limitation of the sale of offices, and preferred to impose oppressive and unpopular taxes rather than give up any of his reforming principles.3

How faithfully he kept true to these principles in other respects is best seen in the creation of Cardinals of March 15th, 1557.

The French diplomatists and Cardinal Carafa had endeavoured, even more urgently than at the previous creation of Cardinals, to influence the decision of the Pope on this occasion. Although the French allowed it to appear that the duration of their military aid was dependent upon the

1 See Navagero's reports of September 30 and October 2, 1556, in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 636, 641.

2 Cf. ibid.

3 See Navagero's despatch of May 8, 1557, in BROSCH, I., 202 seq.

consideration shown to their candidates, and although Guise, Cardinal Carafa and the ambassador of the Duke of Ferrara left no means untried, they nevertheless did not attain their end.1 The Pope preserved his complete independence and would not be influenced by anything but ecclesiastical considerations. "The dignity of a Cardinal is of such a nature,” Paul IV. said to Navagero, " that a man who is fitted for it should be begged to accept it. We should seek such men with a lighted candle in our hand. Any recommendation of candidates will be of no avail."2

As had been foreseen by well-informed persons.3 the majority of those who were raised to the purple on March 15th were representatives of reform, and men of lowly origin. The most distinguished of the ten newly appointed Cardinals1 was the Dominican, Michele Ghislieri, who was considered a saint, and whom Paul IV. had for many years learned to value as Inquisitor. Virgilio Rosario and Consiglieri were also old acquaintances of the Pope. Rosario, who was born in Spoleto, had served him faithfully in financial matters;5 he became vicar-general of Paul IV., in which office he displayed great severity. The Roman, Giovan Battista Con

1 Cf. ANCEL, L'action réform., 22 seq.

2 See in Appendix No. 36 the *letter of Navagero of March 12, 1557 (Library of St. Mark's, Venice).

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3 In the *Avviso of March 6, 1557, it says: 'Questi Franzesi dicono che il Papa farà buon numero di cardinali et alcuni vogliono che la maggior parte siano Chietini di poca consideratione" (Vatican Library).

4 Cf. concerning them PETRAMELLARIUS, 26 seq.; CIACONIUS, III., 854 seqq.; CARDELLA, IV., 353 seqq.; BROMATO, II., 352 seqq.; GULIK-EUBEL, III., 39 seq.

5 Cf. the *Diurnale di tutti danari et entrate dell' ill. et rev. card. di Napoli che perverranno in mano di me Virgilio R° (Ms. 140 of the National Library in the Certosa di S. Martino at Naples).

6 As in the case of the Roman vicariate, that is to say the place of representation of the Pope in Rome, the municipal offices of the Inquisition, and of the regent of the exchequer were in future, in accordance with the Pope's wishes, only to be bestowed on

NEW CARDINALS.

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siglieri, was a relative of that Paolo Consiglieri who, like Carafa, belonged to the Oratory of Divine Love, had joined with him in founding the order of Theatines,1 and had then become his maestro di camera. The Pope offered this admirable man the purple, but the humble Paolo firmly refused the honour, and recommended Giovan Battista Consiglieri instead of himself. The latter had originally been a layman, and had been twice married; Paul IV. had known him for a long time, and particularly valued his piety.2

Lorenzo Strozzi had, as a layman, been the zealous opponent of the Calvinists; the same was true of the Archbishop of Sens, Jean Bertrand, who was the only Frenchman who at this time received the purple.3

Taddeo Gaddi, Archbishop of Cosenza, Vitellozzo Vitelli, Bishop of Città di Castello, and the nuncio in Venice, Antonio Trivulzio, who had represented the Holy See in France under Julius III., all greatly distinguished for their learning, were among those appointed on March 15th. Trivulzio and Lorenzo Strozzi, Bishop of Beziers were the only two chosen out of the long list of Henry II.4

Cardinals; see MASSARELLI, 327; cf. MORONI, XCIV., 65, 67, 82, 94 (with wrong date).

1 Cf. Vol. X. of this work, pp. 407, 411.

2 RIESS (p. 238) calls G. B. Consiglieri a man of loose character, without giving any proof of his assertion. *Delfino says the opposite; cf. infra p. 202, n. 2.

3 Concerning his appointment see the *brief to Henry II. of March 16. 1557 (Arm. 44, t. 2, p. 61. Secret Archives of the Vatican).

4 Cf. ANCEL, L'action réform., 27 and Nonciat., II., 342 n; cf. ibid., 357 seqq. Cardinal Vitelli (died 1568; cf. Anecd. litt.

I., 436 seqq.) has rendered great service to history since he was one of the first to take in hand one of those collections of historical manuscripts which afterwards became the fashion in Rome. He received permission from Paul IV. to make copies in the Archives of the Castle of St. Angelo as well as in the Vatican Library (see MERCATI, Bibl. Apost., 77 n.). Not a few of the Italian manuscripts which reached German libraries, as, for example, Berlin, Frankfort, Gotha, Wolfenbüttel, and later on

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