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To the eight named, the Pope added the learned general of the Minorites, Clemente Dolera,1 who was very zealous for reform, and Alfonso Carafa, the son of Antonio, Marquis of Montebello. Alfonso was only eighteen years old, but as the greatest expectations were built on the virtue of this youth, the Pope considered his elevation justified. The young marchese, who received the administration of the archdiocese of Naples on April 9th, 1557, became the avowed favourite of Paul IV., who always recited his office with him. The hopes with which able critics welcomed the new Cardinals were fulfilled, except in the case of Vitelli. That the latter followed another path was, however, concealed from the Pope by his nephew.2

In the meantime the war with Spain was going on, and the Pope felt very deeply the hindrances which this fact placed in the way of his reforming activities. He allowed, however, no doubts to be entertained as to his firm resolve to continue his work for the improvement of the state of the Church, 3 showing, at the same time, his readiness to listen to all the

Sweden (Stockholm, Upsala, Lund) originally belonged to his collection (RANKE, Fürsten und Völker, I. [1827] x. seq. Dudik, Forsch. in Schweden, 244). Vitelli was also a keen collector of antiquities; see LANCIANI, Scavi, III., 170 seq.

Cf. Soranzo in ALBÈRI, 102; LAUCHERT, 646 seq.

2 It is certain that Vitelli led an immoral life (see GRAF, Cinquecento, 265). Paul IV. was unaware of the fact partly because Vitelli favoured the Theatines, who were, therefore, very prodigal in his praises (see Caracciolo, *Vita, 4, 13. Casanate Library, Rome). Delfino sent, together with his letter of March 22, 1557, a list of the new Cardinals, with remarks as to their characters. Of Vitelli he only says: "è dotto et pieno di spirito." Trivulzio is praised as nobilissimo, dottissimo et modestissimo," Gaddi as persona morigeratissima," Bertrand as "homo di gran maneggio"; Delfino gives prominence to the good lives led by Rosario, Dolera and Consiglieri (Court and State Archives, Vienna).

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3 See Navagero's letter of May 15, 1557, and the report in BROWN VI. 2 n. 946, 954.



complaints and difficulties of his subjects, by a regulation of January 23rd, 1557, which arranged for public audiences.1 In February, 1557, he issued new regulations against immorality in Rome,2 and in June decreed that, for the future, no fees should be tendered at the bestowal of the pallium.3 In the following month, in the midst of the greatest stress of war, Paul IV. took a step from which the greatest hopes were entertained in the matter of reform. The powers of the Inquisition, which already extended beyond the actual domain of matters of faith, and included the punishment of grave offences against morality, now received a further extension. Everything which the Pope referred to as "simoniacal heresy" was assigned to this tribunal on July 15th, 1557. Orders were given at the Penitentiary, the Chancery, the Signatura, and the office of the Auditors, that they were no longer to occupy themselves with such matters. The Pope wished, by the help of the Inquisition, to put an end, once for all, to some of the worst abuses, such as the payment of money for the administration of the sacraments, the ordination of those under age, the sale of benefices, and all unlawful contracts. As Paul IV. trusted no tribunal as he did the Inquisition, he was convinced that he had, by this regulation, laid a firm foundation upon which he could afterwards build with a sure hope of success.4

1 One would conclude from Massarelli (302 seq.) that the regulation was decreed on January 27, on which day it was first carried into effect. This was, however, not the case. According to the *Acta consist., VII., p. 56, a congregatio generalis took place on January 23, 1557, at which the institutio audientiae publicae was settled. lbid. the *decree relating to this Cupiens quorumvis, etc." (Consistorial Archives). Cf. also in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 799 and n. 807, the description of such a public audience.


2 Cf. the *Avviso di Roma of February 13, 1557 (Vatican Library).

3 See Acta consist. in GULIK-EUBEL, III.,


4 See Navagero's *report of July 16, 1557, (Court Lib. Vienna), and the *Avviso of July 24, 1557, in Appendix No. 38. In the *Acta consist. which are very incomplete, the order is not entered.

The Pope allowed no doubts to be entertained as to his firm determination to do away with the sale of benefices, and the numerous abuses in the Chancery and Penitentiary. He was quite aware that in so doing, the interests of many persons would be seriously affected; he, was, nevertheless, of opinion that this bore no comparison to the advantages which would follow from such a step, as the Lutherans could then no longer refer to the abuses of the Curia.1

In his reforms Paul IV. attached special importance to the fact that he would make no exceptions, for he had convinced himself that it had been owing to these that the many salutary regulations of his predecessors had not borne the fruit expected from them.2 How firmly he clung to his rigorous principles, the ambassadors were to learn only too frequently. Among the reports of the Venetian ambassador is one which, in this respect, is extremely characteristic of the whole procedure of Paul IV. An audience of Navagero on August 16th, 1557, is there described in detail. The ambassador, in accordance with the instructions of his government, earnestly begged the Pope's sanction for the resignation of a Venetian bishop in favour of a candidate who enjoyed the fullest confidence of the Signoria. The Pope refused the petition immediately, on the ground that bishops are bound to their church by a bond which is as indissoluble as that of marriage. "In spite of this," continued Paul IV., "dispensations have been issued by the Holy See in this matter, but my holy teacher, Thomas, and others who agree with him, are of opinion that Popes have, in such cases, no power to dispense." The Pope then enlarged, with great detail, on the dignity of the episcopate, and then, mentioning the Primacy, he quoted the saying of Homer: "One is Master." He complained bitterly of the carelessness shown in Rome, hitherto, in the

1 See in Appendix No. 38 the *Avviso of July 24, 1557 (Vatican Library); cf. also the almost identical *Avviso from Rome of July 24, 1557, in the Vice-regal Archives, Innsbruck (with Madruzzo's correspondence of 1555).

2 See Navagero's letter of June 26, 1557 (Court Library, Vienna).



choice of the chief shepherds of the Christian flocks; he would not be found wanting in this respect, for he very well understood how much the salvation of souls depended upon it. Then, completely departing from the subject under discussion, the Pope launched forth into a long dissertation concerning the destiny of the Church, which had, in the beginning, to suffer so many persecutions at the hands of unbelievers, and had, at all times, to fight against impious heretics and other enemies, but in spite of this the little ship of Peter had never suffered shipwreck, for Christ directed and guided it. While the sectarians allowed their followers freedom from all moral restraints, Christianity demanded all manner of privations, and firm faith in such great miracles as the Incarnation of Christ in the womb of the Virgin Mary, and the transformation of bread into the true body of Our Lord. Navagero, who understood the Pope's way, listened to him quietly, and without interrupting him, as he went on to enlarge further on the mysteries of the Catholic faith, discussing the ordination of priests and the sacraments, and explaining that a Christian must make use of the means of grace possessed by the Church. After Paul IV. had given free course to his eloquence, as he dearly loved to do, he suddenly returned to the original subject of their conversation, explaining that he would gladly render any service to the Signoria, as long as this did not affect the honour of God or lie heavy on his own conscience. He would appoint bishops with whom everyone in Venice, from the Doge to the humblest gondolier, would be pleased. Only the best men, he said, were worthy of receiving the mitre. The shrewd ambassador appeared to be satisfied, and indeed thanked the Pope for the instruction he had given him.1

1 See Navagero's *report, dated Rome, August 16, 1557 (Court Library, Vienna).


THE FALL Of the Carafa.

THE longer the struggle with Spain was drawn out, the more keenly did the Pope feel the futility of his efforts for reform.


I Should God be so gracious," he said to the Venetian ambassador at the beginning of September, 1557, "as to deliver us from this war, as we so earnestly desire, we would promise to devote all the years of our life to the service of His Divine Majesty, and to perform deeds which will give joy and comfort to the world, for we wish to begin with ourselves and then to reform others.' "1

The unhappy war ended soon afterwards, and Paul IV. returned with all the more vigour to his original and natural activities. He concentrated, as much as possible, on purely ecclesiastical matters, and made reform so completely the central point of his endeavours, that one may almost say that the actual reign of the Theatine Pope only began at this point. On October 1st, 1557, he assembled the Cardinals in consistory, and explained to them, in a long address, that he looked upon their previous sufferings, the war and the inundation of the Tiber, as a punishment from God, and an earnest exhortation to reform. He admonished the Cardinals as to the whole matter of reform, and declared that it must now be carried into effect, and that he himself would be the first to take it in hand. A decree was then published by which the investiture of monasteries in commendam was absolutely forbidden, and no exemption with regard to this was to be allowed for the future, even to the Cardinals.2 Soon afterwards a reform was

1 See Navagero in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 1015; cf. 1017.

2 See Acta consist. in GULIK-EUBEL, III., 37 and SANIAREM, XIII., 3, as well as the *Avviso of October 2, 1557 (Vatican Library); cf. also the second *letter of Navagero of October 9, 1557 (Court Library, Vienna).

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