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Only one exception was made; Cardinal Alfonso Carafa, against whom nothing blameworthy could be proved, was allowed to remain in the Vatican, but he had to be most careful to make no attempt to intercede for his guilty relatives, against whom the Pope constantly expressed himself in the most severe terms, without, however, naming them.

The fall of the nephews had taken place so suddenly, and the lot of the men who in one night had sunk to the position of helpless and penniless exiles was so pitiable, that, especially as every sort of moral support was wanting to them, they could not resign themselves to their fate. All three hoped that the anger of their deeply offended uncle would, in time, pass over, and that they would then obtain forgiveness.1 They had always been at variance with one another, and now, in their day of misfortune, they were more so than ever. The weak-minded Duke of Paliano lost his head completely and spent his time in vain longing at his castle of Gallese, divided between grief, fear and empty hopes. Carlo Carafa, who had been hit the hardest, kept his presence of mind even now, and before everything else, saw to the safety of his correspondence.2 He had to live in a miserable little house at Civita Lavinia, a small place, in which all comfort was wanting. There, in view of the melancholy Campagna, he had plenty of time to enter into himself, but he did not think, even now, of doing so. All his thoughts and plans were directed to regaining, by any means, even the worst, his forfeited position. He still intended to do his utmost in the attempt to again deceive his old uncle, and move his heart to forgiveness; but everything, the inter

1 The view that the nephews had again been taken into favour still prevailed in Rome at the end of February, 1559 (see a *letter to Cardinal Madruzzo in connection with this, dated Venice, March 4, 1559. Vice-regal Archives, Innsbruck). Cardinal Medici regretted in a *letter to Carafa, dated Milan, February 22, 1559, that he had not been present in Rome at the time, to prevent a rupture: "hora io voglio ben sperare che le cose s'accomodino"; he offers his help in doing so. Original in the Cod. Barb. lat. 5698, p. 20. Vatican Library.

2 Cf. the reports in ANCEL, Secrét., 40 and Nonciat., I., viii.

cession of the great powers, and especially Philip II., a simulated conversion, as well as a sham illness, were to prove vain. 1

Paul IV., whose health was much affected by grief and excitement, appeared to have completely effaced the remembrance of his nephews from his mind. He remained inexorable, and indeed was bound to do so, since he had brought about the fall of his nephews, not on political, but on moral grounds. The more thoroughly he investigated the matter, the more convinced he became of the moral depravity of the brothers, of their disgraceful insolence, and of the way in which they had abused his confidence and compromised his government, and, above all, his reform work. Instead of his anger growing less with time, it, on the contrary, increased. The strict party, which was now coming much more into evidence, after having had so long to witness, with suppressed bitterness, the proceedings of the nephews, confirmed him in his resolution of leaving the guilty parties in banishment, of clearing out all their supporters, and of completely reorganizing the whole system of state affairs. Now only did he feel himself free from all worldly considerations. It was in this sense that Paul IV. remarked that the current year, 1559, was the first of his pontificate. He wished to grant an audience every week to the envoys from the States of the Church, in order that he might hear all complaints himself. No one was allowed to write to his nephews, and they were not to know what he was doing. He provided himself with a special book in which he entered all their misdeeds. He took away the keys of the Borgia apartments, in order to keep them himself, and it was said that he

1 The above is according to the very excellent account of ANCEL, Disgrâce, 42 seq., 55 seq.; see also RIESs, 368 seq. It is also certain that Carafa continued to lead an immoral life after his fall; see Studi stor., VIII., 255.

2 See the *Avvisi di Roma of February 4 and 11, 1559 (Cod. Urb. 1039, p. 7 and 8. Vatican Library).

3 Cf. SALVAGO in the Atti Lig., XIII., 757.

4 See CARACCIOLUS, Collactanea, 65; cf. for this the remark reported by Pacheco in ANCEL, Disgrâce, 182.



intended to bless these rooms anew with holy water, as evil spirits had dwelt there.1

A complete reorganization of the council of state, appointed in the autumn of 1557, had already been effected by January 31st, 1559; at the head of this new body were Cardinals Scotti and Rosario, as well as the aged and disinterested Camillo Orsini, and to these were added distinguished prelates, such as Luigi Lippomano and Ugo Boncampagni. The Pope appointed bishop Angelo Massarelli as secretary. Orsini, who was as energetic as he was distinguished, immediately proceeded to clear away the Neapolitan toadies and parasites, with whom Carafa had filled all the offices; most of these richly deserved to be subjected to a criminal investigation. 2

On February 17th Paul IV. received the Roman Senators and the representatives of the States of the Church in the Hall of Constantine. In this assembly of about a hundred persons, he once more frankly acknowledged his previous errors. Incapable as he was at his advanced age of bearing the burden of government alone, and having always been completely ignorant of financial matters, he had allowed his nephews to manage affairs freely and they had shamefully abused his trust. Now, however, that he had been enlightened as to their corruption, he proposed to inaugurate a complete change; those assembled, therefore, should lay all their complaints before him without fear. This was done in the fullest measure. When the Pope learned the amount of the new taxes, he cried out indignantly: "Dear sons! I knew absolutely nothing of all this. Do not, however, be astonished at this, for those infamous nephews kept me shut up in my apartments, and only allowed me to know what suited them." To show his good will, he declared a part of the new taxes abolished. The Romans, who had already, in October, 1555, erected a statue

1 *Avviso di Roma of February 8, 1557, loc. cit.

2 Cf. SUSTA's excellent treatise "Der Versuch einer Verfassung sreform im Kirchenstaat unter Paul IV." in the Mitteil. des Österr. Inst., Erg.-Bd. VI., 557 seq.

in honour of the Pope on the Capitol, now caused this to be adorned with a suitable inscription.1

In the course of February, the council of state undertook a thorough reorganization of the officials in Rome, and in the following month the provinces also had their turn. All the creatures of the nephews here also were replaced by new and trustworthy persons. The vice-legates were the next to be changed, a process which in many places was effected in a quite unusual manner. For example, the new governor, Giambattista Castagna, Archbishop of Rossano, arrived in Perugia at a late hour of the night, and without waiting for the dawn, he instantly summoned the council, presented his letters of credence, took the oath, and arrested the former governor. The lower posts in the government were also everywhere filled with new officials, most of whom enjoyed Orsini's confidence.2 This admirable man did not propose to change the staff alone, but also the system of administration; he planned a complete change in the constitution of the States of the Church, and a thorough reform of the finances. The deficit, which, hitherto, had been steadily increasing, was to be removed, partly by a discreet increase of the revenues.3 Orsini, the soul of this political reform, also had the duty of watching the banished nephews. When he fell ill on March 31st, and died on April 4th, it was generally declared that his death had been caused

1 See MASSARELLI, 330 and the *report of Gianfigliazzi of February 18, 1559, used by ANCEL, Disgrâce, 44. Concerning the statue on the Capitol, a work of Vincenzo de' Rossi, see the Decrees, dated 1555, XVI. Cal. Oct. and 1558, V. Cal. Nov. in the Cod. G-III.-58, p. 231 seq. of the Chigi Library; cf. also RODOCANACHI, Capitole, 111, and LANCIANI, III., 206:

2 See Susta loc. cit. 557 seq., who has also made use of the interesting *Diarium of an unknown member of the curia in the Cod. Urb. 852 of the Vatican Library. See also the Diario di N. Turinozzi, 13 seq.; Bonazzi, Storia di Perugia, II., 224.

3 For this cf. the excellent details given by Susta, loc. cii. The *Diminutione delle spese del state eccco fatte nel mese di Marzo 1559 dal s. consiglio coram papa, in Arm. 10, t. 45, p. 100 seq. (Secret Arch. of the Vat.)



by poison, which Carlo Carafa had caused to be administered to him. New suspicions were awakened on May 22nd, by the sudden death of the strict Cardinal Rosario.1 Cardinals Reumano and Consiglieri, who were appointed on May 27th as members of the council of state, in place of the deceased, did not possess the necessary energy or expert knowledge. The choice of Gian Antonio di Gravina,2 on April 3rd, as the successor of Camillo Orsini as Captain-General of the Church, was still more unfortunate. It is no wonder that the esteem with which the council of state was regarded, grew visibly less. This suited Cardinal Alfonso Carafa only too well; apart from a temporary break with the Pope, he still enjoyed his uncle's confidence and an ever increasing influence.3

Paul IV., therefore, did not gain a complete victory over nepotism; it is, however, owing to him, that nepotism on a large scale, which had done so much harm since the time of Callixtus III., and even more since Sixtus IV., received a decisive blow. In this way, one of the worst growths of the Renaissance days was uprooted, and the way laid open for the

1 See ANCEL, Disgrâce, 57 seq. In addition to the sources given there, see also the Diario di N. Turinozzi, 15 seq., and the *Avviso di Roma of April 8, 1559 (Vatican Library, loc. cit.). According to this, April 4 is given as the date of Orsini's death. NORES (p. 271) wrongly gives April 2, following MASSARELLI (p. 330). Rosario's grave is in the church of the Minerva ; see BERTHIER, 401.

2 See MASSARELLI, 331.


Cf. SUSTA, loc. cit., 563. During the Brussels legation of Cardinal Carafa, Alfonso Carafa had already partly replaced him as secretary of state (see ANCEL, Secrét., 25). Concerning the temporary loss of favour by Alfonso Carafa at the end of March, see Diario di N. Turinozzi, 15. The formal transference of all functions seems to have taken place at midsummer. On August 5, 1559, G. A. Aldrovandi reports: *Il card. di Napoli è adesso al governo delle cose appartenenti al stato (State Archives, Bologna).

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