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Catholic reformation. The Pope, after the fall of his nephews, worked for this with a lighter heart and undiminished zeal.1
1RIESS (p. 373) disputes the view, also held by RANKE (I., 198) that Paul IV. after the fall of his nephews, "returned to his former intentions of reform," and in the last six months of his life "devoted himself passionately to the reform of the Church as not being testified by contemporary witnesses." It is a sufficient answer to this that Riess overlooked the treatise of ANCEL, Paul IV. et le Concile, which is so rich in matter, and which appeared as early as 1907, and in which (p. 25 seq.) proof is given that Paul IV., precisely in March, 1559, carried out "une réforme capitale," viz., that dealing with the duty of residence of the bishops. Other proofs are also given in the present account, infra, Chap. IX., pp. 233 seqq.
FURTHER REFORM REGULATIONS. THE NEW ORDERS.— Paul IV. and THE SOCIETY Of Jesus.
So strict a method of government was introduced into the Eternal City after the fall of the nephews, that the Jesuit, Nadal, was able to write that the reform of morals was accomplished.1 New regulations concerned the precept of fasting," and the restriction of public immorality;3 all offences of this nature were made punishable, in the case of both clergy and laity, with imprisonment and the galleys. Paul IV. even forbade lawful pleasures, such as hunting and dancing, so that a correspondent wrote on January 21st, 1559: "All pleasures have ceased here, just as if we were in the midst of Lent." A Roman, who inquired of the Pope whether he would allow them to wear masks during the days of carnival, was refused with the remark: Our nephews have put a mask on us for so long, that it will require much time to take it off.""
1 NADAL, Ephemerides,: Epist. P. H. Nadal, II., 64.
2 *Avviso di Roma of February 4, 1559 (Cod. Urb. 1039, p. 8. Vatican Lib.).
3 Cf. COGGIOLA, Capitolazione, 144.
4 An *Avviso of March 11, 1559, announce that three camerieri were arrested in the Vatican with their paramours and were condemned by the Pope to " perpetua galea" (which was afterwards mitigated; see *Avviso of April 8). The Bishop of Polygnano was convicted of immorality, and was condemned in April, 1559, to life-long imprisonment; he had to fast on bread and water for three months (see *Avviso of same date. Cod. Urb. 1039, f. 15, 20, 24. Vatican Library). See also CARACCIOLUS, 68; RODOCANACHI, S. Ange, 161; Massarelli, 334. 5*Avviso of January 21, 1559, loc. cit.,
6" Non vi pare egli che questi nostri nepoti ci habbiano messo una mascara al volto che vi bisognera molto tempo a levarcela.” *Avviso of February 8, 1559, loc. cit., 9 (wrong date in CLEMENTI, 215).
The most important reform which Paul IV. prepared and carried out after the fall of the Carafa concerned the episcopate. He had, for a long time past, seen, in the neglect, on the part of the bishops, of their duty of residence, a source of the gravest abuses, and he had made the most urgent representations to Clement VII. with regard to this very matter. In the great memorial of the commission of Cardinals to Paul III., in the year 1537, this part of the reform programme was also given due prominence.1 The Council of Trent had next, in 1547, in its sixth session, decreed that a patriarch, archbishop or bishop who was absent from his diocese unless he were lawfully prevented, or without proper and reasonable cause, should ipso facto lose a quarter of his annual revenues for the benefit of the poor or for repairs of churches; should he remain absent for a further six months, he was to forfeit, in a similar manner, a second quarter of his revenues. Should his absence be of still longer duration, he was to be denounced to the Pope in writing, by his metropolitan, or by the senior suffragan bishop of the province within three months, and the Pope would then take severe measures against him, or even depose him.2
In spite of all this, however, this deeply-rooted abuse was by no means eradicated. In the letter of exhortation, in which Muzio demanded from the newly elected Pope the reform of the College of Cardinals and of the episcopate, reference was made to the many bishops who were living at the Curia without any proper reason, and the remark was made that these were useless plants in Rome, which should be set in other soil, where they might bear fruit.3 How fully justified this request was, is evident from the truly terrible fact that in February, 1556, there were no fewer than 113 bishops staying in Rome, although they had been ordered to return to their dioceses in January, under pain of the most severe punish
1 Cf. Vol. X. of this work, p. 422, and Vol. XI., p. 209 seq. 2 Sess. 6, de ref. c. I.
3 See Muzio's letter of November 3, 1555, in Appendix No. 14 (Secret Archives of the Vatican).
4 See ANCEL, Concile, 25.
THE RESIDENCE OF BISHOPS.
ments.1 In April, 1556, Paul IV. again made the most earnest representations to these prelates, who were so forgetful of their duty. As all this was of no avail, he determined to adopt more severe measures.
On March 6th, 1559, all the bishops staying in Rome were summoned to a secret consistory, when the Pope communicated to them a bull, in virtue of which all bishops not actually serving the Holy See in some fixed office, had to repair to their dioceses within one month. Those who failed to obey were subject to the penalty of deposition.3 The Pope made it perfectly plain that he intended to act in accordance with this bull. He remarked, in a threatening manner, that he would punish the disobedient more severely than the vagrant monks. On March 21st he once more summoned the bishops, and again impressed this order upon them.5 Only from ten to twelve bishops, who were engaged directly in the service of the Holy See, were allowed to remain in Rome; all the others had to leave. By April 1st, a correspondent was able to announce that this important reform had been really effected. Similar
1 *Et di più che la S.Sta. voleva che tutti i vescovi andassino a risedere ai vescovadi loro sotto protesto non vi andando privargli di vescovadi e d'ogni altra loro degnità ecclesiastica. Avviso of January 18, 1556, in the Cod. Urb. 1038, p. 125 of the Vatican Library; cf. also ibid. the *Avviso of January 25, 1556. 2 See in Appendix No. 30 the *report of Navagero of April 11, 1556 (Library of St. Mark's, Venice).
3 See *Acta consist. (Consistorial Archives); cf. MASSARELLI, 330; Corpo dipl. Port., VIII., 103; Firmani Diaria, 514; Diario di V. Bello in LAEMMER, Melet., 210, and the *Avviso of March 11, loc. cit., 15.
4*Se non obedirano li tratterà pegio di quello ha fatto li sfratati. Avviso of March 18, 1559, loc. cit., 17b.
5 ANCEL (Concile, 25), only knows of this assembly, which is reported by V. Bello (loc. cit., 210 seq.) and *G. A. Calegari on March 25, 1559, to Commendone (Lett. di Princ., 23. Secret Archives of the Vatican).
• See the *Avvisi of March 18 and 25, and April 1 and 15, 1559 (cod. Urb. 1039, p. 17b, 19h, 22b, 26. Vatican Library); cf. also
rules were made for the parish priests, and the Inquisition was already employed in carrying them out.1 In addition to this the reform of the Orders was being continued.2
While Paul IV. was enforcing the duty of residence on the bishops, the hand of death had already lightly touched him. The excitement caused by the unmasking and fall of his nephews had given a fatal blow to his iron constitution.3 Since then he had become feeble in mind as well as in body. Nevertheless, he took part, in February, 1559, in the functions of Candlemas and Ash Wednesday, held congregations and granted public and private audiences. He reformed the expenditure of his court at this time by abolishing all unnecessary expenses, whereby very considerable economies were effected. At the end of the month, the consistory did not take place, as the Pope could not attend, on account of a swollen knee. 6 His condition was still more serious in March, but during Holy Week he had improved to a certain extent. Although he was still weak on his feet, he was able to be present at the functions and to pontificate in St. Peter's on Easter Sunday. It could be seen, however, that he was suffering both in mind and body. His removal to the more airy
the letter of Gianfigliazzi of March 29, 1559 (State Archives, Florence) and ANCEL, Concile, 25.
1 See CARACCIOLUS, 87; ANCEL, loc. cit.
2 Cf. supra p. 216 seq.
3 Cf. supra p. 224.
4 See in Appendix No. 52 the *Avviso of February 11, 1559 (Vatican Library).
5 See Diario di V. Bello in LAEMMER, Melet., 209.
6 See the *Avviso of February 25, 1559 (Cod. Urb. 1039, p. Vatican Library).
7 See the Portuguese report of March 18, 1559, in the Corpo dipl. Port., VIII., 103.
8 *Il Papa ha asseso alli offitii con molta sollicitudine et benchè sia debole nelle gambe non ha voluto mancare. Si vede che sta afflitto non meno della mente che dal corpo. Avviso of March 25, 1559, loc. cit., 19b (Vatican Library); cf. MASSARELLI, 330.