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settled as soon as possible. On the other hand it was an exceedingly hazardous thing, on account of the war with Spain, to broach such a plan to the Pope. Paul IV., however, had raised no great objections when Lainez, in conversation with him, suggested the idea of a Congregation in Spain. Although most of the Jesuits assembled in Rome were at first decidedly opposed to the proposal, it was eventually almost unanimously accepted, provided the Pope did not refuse his permission.
In order to obtain this, Lainez again applied for an audience. Paul IV. received him kindly, and listened favourably to his reasons for the petition, but would not come to an immediate decision. Lainez, therefore, again presented himself at the Vatican after a few days. On this occasion, however, the Jesuit, otherwise so much respected by Paul IV., was refused admission to the presence of the Pope. He repeated his attempt a second and a third time, but the Pope was never able to receive him. At last, on June 20th, 1557, he met the Pope in a corridor in the Vatican, but Paul IV. walked past without deigning to cast a glance at him. Instead, he received orders through Cardinals Scotti and Reumano, to hand over the constitutions and rule of the Society of Jesus, as well as the Papal bulls; the Jesuits in Rome were, moreover, forbidden to leave the city without permission.
These unexpected orders came like a thunderbolt upon the house of the Jesuits, for the constitutions, the precious legacy of the founder of the Order, were in danger. Prayers and works of penance were ordered and readily undertaken, as if at the approach of a great misfortune.
The reason for this sudden change of front on the part of the Pope was to be found in one who was himself a Jesuit, Nicholas Bobadilla.
Bobadilla, one of the first companions of Loyola, was a man of difficult character, and had already caused considerable trouble;1 he did not approve of the constitutions of the order,
1 Characteristics in NADAL, Epist. II., 52 seqq.; ASTRAIN, II., 12 seq.
LAINEZ AND BOBADILLA.
as drafted by Ignatius. They appeared to him to be a "labyrinth," and full of petty, unnecessary and over-difficult requirements,1 and he therefore thought that they must be thoroughly revised and altered; moreover, he was not pleased with the election of Lainez as General-Vicar. He considered that it was to be gathered from the Papal bulls that the government of the Order was to pass, after the death of Ignatius, to the whole of the original founders who were still alive. He passed sharp criticisms on the manner of administration adopted by Lainez in many of his regulations, and believed above all that it had been highly indiscreet of him to keep on returning to the proposal of transferring the Congregation to Spain. Bobadilla found a supporter in the discontented Frenchman, Cogordan, who caused a hint to reach the ears of Paul IV. that they only wished to transfer the Congregation to Spanish soil, in order to be better able to arrange the constitutions and the election of the General as they thought fit.2 Hence the anger of the Pope, which was expressed by the demand for the constitutions and the other documents.
Lainez displayed great activity and zeal in meeting the threatened storm. He had the arguments of Bobadilla refuted by those who understood the institute of the Society of Jesus best, and especially by Nadal.3 As Bobadilla desired to have the matter settled by a legal decision of the Protector of the Order, Cardinal Carpi, Lainez was quite ready to present himself before the latter for judgment. It then appeared that Bobadilla himself was beginning to lose confidence in his own cause, and sought pretexts for not having to appear before the judge. Lainez therefore claimed a decision from the Cardinal Protector, apart from any question o law; this he received, to the effect that he was to remain General-Vicar, but with the obligation of taking counsel with the professed members of the Order in important questions. Nothing now remained for Bobadilla but an appeal to the Pope. In order to be before
1 NADAL, Epist. IV., 101, 110.
2 Bobadilla's complaints ibid. 98 seqq., 729 seqq.
3 Ibid. 133-147.
hand with him, Lainez went himself to Paul IV. and asked him to let a Cardinal investigate the whole matter. The Pope listened to him very kindly, and even wished to leave the choice of the Cardinal to him. They at last decided on Cardinal Ghislieri.
A better choice could not have been made. Ghislieri went himself to the house of the Order, and personally examined the different fathers.1 Bobadilla and Cogordan did not wait for the decision, but contrived to be sent to Foligno and Assisi on different work.
Paul IV. was exceedingly astonished when Ghislieri informed him of the petty nature of Bobadilla's complaints. The prohibition to leave Rome was now removed, and the constitutions and bulls were returned without alteration by the Cardinals entrusted with their examination. The General Congregation was postponed until May, 1558.
At length, after waiting almost two years, this assembly was able to meet on June 19th, 1558, in order to give the Order a new head. At the very first ballot, thirteen of the twenty votes fell to Lainez. Paul IV. had sent Cardinal Pacheco to preside at the election. On July 6th, the Pope received the whole Congregation at an audience, when he spoke most kindly concerning the Order, and gave every father his blessing individually.3
The Congregation next turned to the examination of the constitutions of the Order. The question as to whether they were to be altered was decided by their agreeing that the statutes were to be considered as fixed and binding, and to be observed as they were entered in the original copy of
1 Bobadilla's judicial examination in NADAL, Epist. IV., 109 seq.
2 Extracts from their documents (lost) in the Institutum Soc. Iesu, II., Florentiae, 1893, 151-188. Memorial for the Congregation by Francis Borgia in the Mon. hist. Soc. Iesu: S. FRANC. BORGIA, III., 342-353; Lainez' answer to it, ibid. 353-359.
3 BRAUNSBERGER, II., 286-291. NADAL, Ephemerides in his Epist. II., 62.
THE JESUITS AND OFFICE IN CHOIR. 255
Father Ignatius."1 The Congregation even went so far as to forego their right to alter any essential point in the work of Ignatius.2 The Congregation confined itself, therefore, to unimportant details alone, and to several drafts of regulations outside the constitutions, the sanction of which had not been settled by the founder.3
The work of the General Congregation was already approaching its end when, on August 24th, the Pope sent an order by Cardinal Scotti that they were to consider whether prayer made in common in choir should not be introduced into the Order, and whether the term of office of the General should not be limited to three years.
The fact that Ignatius had given up prayer in choir1 as being incompatible with the object his foundation had in view, had given offence to many people. Dominic Soto, of the Order of Preachers, maintained that a religious body without prayer in choir did not deserve the name of an Order.5 Paul IV. personally held similar views. During the audiences which Lainez had had with him relative to the General Congregation, the Pope had several times made reference to this point. When the constitutions were handed back on June 20th, 1557, Cardinal Scotti remarked that it would perhaps be advisable to confer with regard to the introduction of a choir into the Jesuit Order.
It was also not the first time that the life term of office of the General had attracted attention. Not long before the election of the General the Pope had been anxious to have an alteration in this matter considered. As, however, he had allowed perfect liberty with regard to it, the Congregation had declared that they wished to keep to the constitutions. Cardinal Pacheco had expressly remarked before the election that the General should be chosen for life, and Paul IV. had confirmed and praised the election.
1 Tit. 2 decr. 15.
2 Tit. 2 decr. 16.
3 Tit. 4 decr. 72 seqq.
4 Cf. Vol. XII. of this work, p. 77.
5 See ASTRAIN, I., 184.
As, therefore, no express Papal command existed, and the bulls of Paul III. and Julius III. had confirmed the giving up of the choir and the duration for life of the office of General, the Congregation replied on August 30th to the renewed proposal of the Pope that they were ready to obey, but that, in so far as it rested with them, they wished to abide by the letter of the constitutions. Lainez and Salmeron were sent to Paul IV. with a memorandum which contained this declaration.1
This, however, was never delivered, but an extraordinary scene took place instead. Hardly had Lainez and Salmeron been admitted when the Pope himself began to speak. At first he spoke quietly, as if to himself: Ignatius had been a tyrant; he wished that, in future, the General's period of office should only last for three years, as was the custom of the Benedictines of S. Giustina, and those of Spain. With increasing excitement he then went on to speak about prayer in choir. The Jesuits were rebels because they would not accept it; they placed themselves in this respect, on the side of the heretics (que ayudavamos á los herejes en esto) and he feared that a devil would one day arise from among them. Prayer in choir was essential for religious orders, and was founded on a commandment of God, since it was said in the Psalms: Seven times a day I have given praise to thee. He was therefore determined to introduce the choir among the Jesuits. He emphasized his intention in the strongest terms, and those whom he was addressing declared: "he looked at us with a curious expression of the eyes, and with visible excitement." "2
Paul IV. continued for some time in this tone, while the fathers knelt before him, but at last he allowed the two envoys to defend themselves, and visibly calmed down during the explanations of Lainez, and at the end bestowed on the two fathers, who were returning to their provinces, some objects
1 The letter is in the documents of the first General Congregation. Institutum Soc. Iesu, congr. I., decr. 47.
2 Lainez has described the scene in a document signed by him and Salmeron; copied in ASTRAIN, II., 613-614.