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ing the faith in Modena, and to hand them over to the vicelegate of Bologna, who would bring them before the Roman Inquisition. Two members of the Valentini family, one of whom was provost of the cathedral of Modena, the bookseller Antonio Gadaldino, and the scholar Ludovico Castelvetro, who translated the works of Melancthon into Italian, are named in this document as suspects.1 The Duke wished to have the trial of the suspects conducted in Modena, but was obliged, owing to pressure on the part of the Pope, to issue the citation in July, 1556.2 The conservatori in Modena now protested, while Castelvetro saved himself by flight. The provost Valentini presented himself in Bologna, and was set at liberty after he had abjured his errors. The bookseller, Gadaldino, who refused to recant in any way, was condemned to imprisonment for life.3 On November 24th, 1555, Duke Ercole was ordered to arrest two teachers of heresy who were about to come from Germany to Ferrara, and hand them over to Rome. Similar orders were also given later on to the Duke, as for example, on February 3rd, 1559, in the case of a physician who had been arrested at Reggio. The government of Lucca was summoned on March 31st, 1556, to assist the inquisitors there in their procedure against the heresy prevalent in the city and diocese. The Republic of Genoa did not need such admonitions; on its own initiative it drove the heretical Augustinian hermits out of its territory, for which it received two Papal letters of eulogy.5

1 The brief, in TIRABOSCHI, Bibl. Mod., VI., 59, has been again published by FONTANA (p. 434 seq.).

2 See the ambassadorial reports from Rome in SANDONINI, L. Castelvetro, 288 seq.

3 TIRABOSCHI, Bibl. Mod., I., 447 seq. TASSONI, Cronaca : Mon. di stor. patria, XV., 341 seq. FONTANA, Renata, II., 420 seq. SANDONINI, 295 seq. CAVAZZUTI, L. Castelvetro, Modena, 1903, 210.

4 See FONTANA, 436, 451. This letter, however, has already been printed by RAYNALDUS, 1559, n. 22.

5 FONTANA, 437 seq., 443 seq. Concerning Lucca see DONADONI, Di uno sconosciuto poema eretico, Naples, 1900; Giorn. stor.




The continuation of the Protestant propaganda in north Italy caused the greatest anxiety to Paul IV.; the Duchy of Milan was especially in danger on account of its proximity to Switzerland. The representative of Philip II., Cardinal Madruzzo, was therefore, on May 20th, 1556, exhorted to increased vigilance. It is evident from this letter to what means the heretics had recourse; an Augustinian hermit, convicted of heresy in Milan, had been handed over to the secular power by the Inquisitor; by means of a forged order he had succeeded in getting out of prison, and had then been assisted in his flight by some officials of the court; the Pope exhorted the Cardinal to more severe punishments. On August 1st, 1556, he was obliged to take steps on account of the recent arrest of a heretic, who had escaped from the prisons of the Inquisition in Milan. Two years later the Inquisition in the capital of Lombardy was removed from the monastery of S. Eustorgio and transferred to that of S. Maria delle Grazie. The Inquisitor-General in the Duchy of Milan at this time was the Dominican, Giovan Battista da Cremona.1

Protestantism was also by no means conquered in Venice. The Pope repeatedly exhorted the representative of the Republic to see that the government allowed no heresy to strike root in its dominions. Paul IV. also pointed out on this occasion the evil consequences which any toleration would entail for the state.2

d. lett. Ital., XXXVII., 420; TACCHI Venturi, I., 347; concerning the Inquisition in Florence, cf. LE BRET, Magazin, VIII., 549. According to a memorandum, of which I was informed by Lämmer, in the *Cod. A D 9(63) of the library of S. Pietro in Vincoli, a number of citizens were, at the instance of the Bishop of Lucca, on June 4, 15, and 25, 1556, per commissione di Roma " as "eretici publicamente citati in pergamo nella chiesa di S. Martino a costituirsi nelle carceri di Roma ad istanza de quattro cardinali inquisitori sotto pena della vita e confiscazione de' beni."

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1 See FONTANA, 438 seq., 448 and FUMI, L'Inquisizione, 211 seq. 2 *Scrivete a quella Signoria che non lascia firmar nel stato l'heresie, perchè dopo quella viene la destruttione come si puo

In Bergamo, where even in the time of Clement VII., measures had had to be taken against the followers of Luther, Bishop Vittorio Soranzo, who belonged to a noble family of Venice, was suspended in 1552 on a suspicion of heresy, and kept imprisoned in the Castle of St. Angelo. Two years later he was declared innocent, and was reinstated in his bishopric.1 On this occasion Julius III. gave him Canon Giulio Augusto as his coadjutor. The latter, however, incurred the penalty of excommunication on account of disobedience to the Roman Inquisition in 1556, whereupon Paul IV. deprived him of his coadjutorship on June 1st, 1556;2 a year later Bishop Soranzo was again arrested on an accusation of heresy, and proceedings taken against him by the Inquisition. This ended in his being condemned to recant his errors, and being deprived of his bishopric. The sentence was pronounced by the Pope in a consistory of April 20th, 1558.3

esser chiari a mille esempi. Report of Navagero of May 1, 1556 (Library of St. Mark's, Venice). Cf. also the passage from Navagero's *report of October 30, 1557 (State Archives, Venice) in DE LEVA, Degli eretici di Cittadella, Venice, 1873, 61. Padua, wrote the Jesuit, B. Palmio, on February 11, 1558, is full of heretics, who live almost unmolested; see TACCHI VENTURI, I.,


1 See UGHELLI, IV., 292 seq. and BUSCHBELL, 15.

2 FONTANA, 441 seq.

3 See UGHELLI, IV., 496; BROMATO, II., 453; AMABILE, I., 140; cf. Acta consist. in GULIK-EUBEL, 147. The efforts which Paul IV. made to have Soranzo handed over to Rome (see BROWN, VI., 2, n. 920, 1156), were in vain. Soranzo died in Venice in 1558. The brief to the nuncio in Venice was directed against the preaching of a Spanish woman there, see RAYNALDUS, 1557, n. 52. At the visitation in Istria and Dalmatia proceedings against the heretics were also to be arranged (see the *brief to the Doge of April 2, 1558. Arm. 44, t. 2, f. III. Secret Archives of the Vatican). A decree in support of the Inquisition in Sardinia in FONTANA, 433. Faculties for the absolution of repentant Lutherans in Brescia were issued by Paul IV. on June 16, 1559; see RAYNALDUS, 1559, n. 22.



The dangers with which the Protestant propaganda threatened the Catholic Church in the Kingdom of Naples were very grave. On July 20th, 1556, Paul IV. repealed a regulation of his predecessor, according to which the property of heretics in that kingdom could not be confiscated.1 When the war with Spain broke out, the work of the Inquisition in Naples was paralysed for a whole year, until the autumn of 1557.2 How dangerously the situation developed there is clear from the autobiography of Giulio Antonio Santorio. He had the greatest difficulties to encounter as vicar-general of the Bishop of Caserta, in repressing the Protestant agitation. Full of zeal for the Catholic religion, Santorio used his utmost efforts, and all the authority of his position, and endeavoured by fasting and prayer, as well as by public and private disputations, to preserve the unity of the faith in his native place, to strengthen the weak, and to bring back those who had strayed. "By doing so," he tells us, "I incurred a violent persecution from the heretics, who insulted me and endeavoured to kill me, as I have set forth in a little book of my own." Santorio endeavoured to strengthen himself for the struggle by prayer and fasting.3

After the conclusion of peace with Spain, the activity of the Inquisition in Naples was again set in movement; at the same time it received a greater impetus in Rome than ever before. In October, 1557, the number of Cardinals who belonged to the tribunal was increased by four;5 in November the Governor of Rome, the Archbishop of Conza and Bishop of Verona were

1 FONTANA, 442.

2 See AMABILE, I., 223.

3 See Autobiografia del card. G. A. Santorio, ed. CUGNONI in the Arch. Rom., XII., 335.

4 Cf. AMABILE, I., 223, 226. Seripando was also in danger at this time; see ibid., 229.

5 *Heri poi in concistorio aggionse alli cardinali del inquisitione li revmi Pacheco, S. Fiore et Savello et il giorno avanti ve haveva posto Ariano [Diomede Carafa] et Triulci, il qual Triulci ha anco fatto entrare in signatura. Navagero on October 16, 1557 (Court Library, Vienna).

also added.1 All reports agree that the activity of the Pope's work for the Inquisition reached its highest point in the year 1558.2 Heretics were now also sent from Naples to Rome for punishment. Several of them died at the stake, for there were many among them who obstinately refused to recant their errors.3

Paul IV. did not content himself with taking steps against undoubted heretics; quite innocent persons were also proceeded against by the Inquisition. As the news concerning the spread of heresy which arrived from all parts of the world, even from Spain, was becoming more disturbing, whole families in different parts of Italy falling away from the faith, as for example in Cremona, and making their escape to Geneva or Germany, the fear and anxiety in Rome increased from day to day. The lively southern imagination of the Pope magnified to an immeasurable degree the dangers with which the heretical propaganda threatened the security of the Church in the south as well as in the north of Italy, and he therefore more and more lost sight of the proper point of view, from which he ought to have combated the enemy. His quite justifiable anxiety for the preservation of the Catholic faith degenerated into a kind of pessimism, which, for the most part,

1*Giobbia nella congregatione del inquisitione il pontefice fece entrare in essa al numero dell' altri consultori li reverendi governatore di Roma, arcivescovo di Conza et vescovo di Verona. Navagero on November 6, 1557 (Court Library, Vienna).

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2 Cf. in Appendix No. 48 the *Avviso of April 2, 1558 (Vatican Library). A report of Claudio Malopera to Cardinal Madruzzo, dated Venice, April 30, 1558, encloses a *report from Rome of April 23, which says of the Pope: 'Et ha precipua cura delle cose pertinenti all' inquisitione et per meglio attendervi dicono che rimetrà tutti i negotii al card. Carafa et lui attendea solo a intervenire alle congregationi, qual si farano delli casi de l'inquisitione" (Vice-regal Archives, Innsbruck). An *Avviso of December, 31, 1558 (Vatican Library) also says how very near to the Pope's heart the Inquisition was.

3 See AMABILE, I., 230.

4 Cf. the **letter of G. Garimberto to Cardinal Carafa, dated Rome, June 18, 1558 (Secret Archives of the Vatican).

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