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published at the dissolution of the synod on February 10th.1 They contained, for the most part, nothing new, but called attention to the laws of the Church already in force. One of the decrees, however, contains the germ of a very important development, which has exercised an influence extending far beyond the confines of England. Pole ordered the establishment of seminaries for boys, principally with the object of supplying a remedy for the scarcity of priests. This ordinance2 was the pattern and model used by the Council of Trent for its celebrated decree concerning seminaries, which has been so fruitful of results. The word "seminary" and the idea were taken by the Council from Pole's decree.4

Pole and Mary also combated the prevailing want of priests by the restoration of the destroyed monasteries. The Franciscans and Dominicans, who had fled to Flanders from the persecution, now partly returned, and were treated with honour by the people.5 Sixteen Benedictines had again resumed their habit and returned in March, 1555, although, like abbot Feckenham, they had been treated as secular priests, and had filled lucrative posts. The Franciscan convent at Greenwich again numbered twenty-five members in November, 1555, the Benedictines received back their monastery at West

1 Reformatio Angliae ex decretis Reginaldi Poli, Rome, 1562, printed in LABBE, Concilia, XIV., 1733 seqq.; LE PLAT, IV., 570 seqq.; ROCCABERTI, Bibliotheca maxima Pontificia, XVIII., 350 seqq. Pole himself gives a sketch of the decrees in a letter to Morone of February 19, 1556, in Brown, VI., 1, n. 396. Cf. ZIMMERMANN, Maria, 120 seq.

2 Decr. 11, Roccaberti, 362.

3 Sess. 23, de ref., c. 18. The agreement between the two is partly a matter of words. Much closer is the connection with Pole's decree in the first draft of the decree of Trent, printed in MARTENE-DURAND, Amplissima Collectio, VIII., Paris, 1733, 1335, translated in M. SIEBENGARTNER, Schriften und Einrichtungen zur Bildung der Geistlichen, Freiburg, 1902, 361, where the points of agreement are pointed out.

So says SIEBENGARINER, loc. cit., 85.

5 Michiel on March 19, 1555, in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 32. Ibid.; cf. MARTIN, Pole, 113.


CONSECRATED ARCHBISHOP. 393 minster, and the Carthusians their celebrated monastery at Sheen, while the nuns' convent was again restored at Syon.1

From day to day," writes Michiel on July 1st, 1555," through Pole's exertions, hospitals, monasteries and churches rise again from among the ruins."2

In all the departments of religious life, Pole displayed a farreaching activity. He appointed visitors3 for the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge; new editions of the liturgical books, which had, for the most part, been destroyed under Edward VI., appeared, partly in Paris and Rouen; books for the assistance of preachers, and publications for the instruction of Catholics, among them the works of Thomas More, were printed. On March 20th, 1557, Pole was ordained priest, and on the 22nd, consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. In this capacity, he succeeded, by his clemency, sagacity and learning, in reforming this, the most corrupt diocese of the whole kingdom, till it was, in the opinion of the Venetian ambassador, an example, not only to England, but also to France and many parts of Italy. The Catholic religion also flourished, in other ways, everywhere in England. The Protestant, Jewell, complains in a letter to Vermigli on March 20th, 1559, that in Oxford, Protestantism has so far gone back, principally owing to the zeal of the learned Dominican, Petrus de Soto, that hardly two Protestants are to be met with in the city. According to the testimony of Jewell many of those who belonged to the new religion returned to the old church under Mary, and remained steadfastly true to her during the first years of the reign of Elizabeth.8 The priests showed an

1 Michiel on November 4, 1555, September 28 and November 16, 1556, in BROWN, VI., 1, n. 269, 634, 704. List of the restored houses ibid., VI., 2, p. 1074 n.

2 BROWN, VI., 1, n. 150.

3 GAIRDNER, 381 seq.

4 F. G. LEE, Reginald Pole, London, 1888, 211.

5 ZIMMERMANN, Maria, 117.

• Surian on April 21, 1557, in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 863.

7 Zurich Letters, translated by Robinson, First series, London, 1848, 10. ZIMMERMAN, Maria, 121 seq.

8 Zimmerman, 122 scq.

heroic spirit of self-sacrifice during an epidemic, while clergy and laity rivalled each other in once more decorating the restored churches, and in providing them with everything necessary for the worthy celebration of the divine mysteries.1 However, in spite of this very promising progress, and "although by far the greater and most influential part of the people were honestly devoted to the faith and divine worship of their forefathers," Mary found it impossible, 'during her short reign, to exterminate Protestantism, especially among the nobility, in London, and in the industrial and seaport towns. Michiel says in 1557,3 speaking only of those parts of the community which he knew well, that, outwardly and to all appearance, thanks to the esteem felt for the queen and the zeal of the legate, the Catholic religion increased from day to day, and struck deeper roots. This appearance, however, was not in keeping with the reality. The English were prepared to change their religion at the will of the sovereign, and they were also capable of becoming Mahommedans and Jews to please the king. They would also in time once more really adopt the Catholic religion, if they were not afraid that the church property would some day be demanded back.

Great danger threatened the continuation of the Catholic restoration when England, in Philip's war against France and the Pope, took the side of Spain.

England had reason enough to declare war against France. The French king, or his ambassador, Noailles, had had a hand in all the revolts against the English queen, and French policy had sought to place difficulties in her way everywhere. Nevertheless it was not easy for Philip, who had once more been living in England from March 17th to July 6th, to succeed in getting war declared. The Council put forward the plea of the poverty of the crown, which did not allow of a war, and pointed to Mary's marriage contract, which expressly excluded England from participation in the wars of Spain. Then Stafford's

1 Ibid., 114, 118.

2 Opinion of J. STEVENSON in The Month, LXXIX. (1893), 24. 3 BROWN, VI., I, n. 884, p. 1074 seq.



attempt at rebellion, supported by France, took place in April, and the ill-feeling aroused by this new and unwarrantable act of hostility, accomplished what Philip had not been able to bring about. War was declared against France, and Pole in consequence found himself in the difficult position of having the consort of his sovereign an enemy of the Pope, and his sovereign herself at war with the Pope's ally.1

Pole had advised against the war with France.2 While Philip had been in England he had avoided meeting the Pope's opponent in public, and had only visited him secretly, at night and unattended. But in spite of this careful attitude he found himself involved as well in the conflict which had arisen between Paul IV. and the Spaniards.

Philip had ordered all Spanish subjects to leave Rome. The Pope replied by recalling all nuncios and ambassadors from Philip's dominions, in a consistory on April 9th, 1557, so that the king might not be able to hold them as hostages. Pole was not recalled from England, but lost, as the Pope expressly stated, his position as legate. This, however, was very difficult to reconcile with his office of President of the Council of State. None of the Cardinals in the consistory was asked for an opinion as to this step, and no one dared to offer any opposition.4

The news of these proceedings, which soon reached England, caused a general sensation, and the greatest dismay among the friends of Pole. The queen and the bishops at once addressed

1 LINGARD, 228 seq.

2 Soranzo on February 7, 1557, in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 810.

3 Soranzo on April 13, 1557, ibid. n. 858, p. 1015. Navagero on May 8, 1557, ibid. n. 880, p. 1039.

Navagero on April 10, 1557, ibid., n. 855; cf. n. 856; see also TURNBULL, n. 586, 589 seq. Already, at the end of 1556, Paul IV. had been of opinion that Pole must leave England; he had adhered to this opinion in spite of the counter-representations of Morone; see the letter of Morone to Pole, dated Rome, November 28, 1556 (Arm. 64, t. 32, p. 215 seq. Secret Archives of the


letters to the Pope, begging him to leave Pole in his legation,1 and the English ambassador in Rome, Edward Carne, employed all the means in his power for the same object. On May 15th he obtained an audience with Paul IV., in which he pointed out the confusion which would occur in England, should Pole no longer be legate. The Pope saw that he had been too hasty, but did not like at once to revoke what had been done publicly. When, however, Cardinal Medici asked him how the deposition of Pole was to be entered in the consistorial records, he declared that Pole retained the dignity of “legatus natus," which was always connected with the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury, and that he might enter that in the records.

So far Pole had only heard a rumour of his deposition, for the queen had caused the Papal brief concerning it to be intercepted and kept back until she had made remonstrances in Rome. On May 25th, the Cardinal explained the position of affairs in England in a letter to the Pope.3 He understood the deposition in the sense that he would lose both legations, and the dignity of“ legatus a latere "as well as that of "legatus natus."4 If, however, there were to be no legate at all in the country, this would be most disadvantageous for the progress of religion and for the reputation of the Holy See. If the Pope was not satisfied with the legate who had held that office hitherto, he should appoint another in his place; so much depended on the presence of a legate. If the Pope agreed to this, he was ready to support and assist the new legate in every way. In a letter to Stefano Sauli of the same date, he once more gave the assurance that he would willingly obey the Pope, but that as his messenger had brought no further orders from Rome, he would wait for them.5

1 Pole on May 25, 1557, in BROWN, VI., 2, n. 899. Pole's letter of defence in ZIMMERMANN, Pole, 340.

2 Pole's letter of defence, loc. cit.

3 In BROWN, VI., 2, n. 899, p. 1114; cf. n. 900.

4 He appears to have changed his opinion on this point later on, for he signed himself as legatus natus until his death. LINGARD,

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