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Cassignola. It shows the Pope seated in full pontifical state, with the right hand raised to bless, and in the left the keys of Peter. The head, true to life, reproduces most admirably the ascetic features of Carafa. The pediment over the niche is borne up by two garlanded Hermae; on the slanting sides of the cornice, the white marble statues of Faith and Religion, executed by Tommaso della Porta, once rested, but unfortunately were removed later on, and are now preserved in the sacristy. The inscription under the sarcophagus praises Paul IV. as the vigorous punisher of everything evil, and the ardent champion of the Catholic faith.1

The homage which Pius V. paid to the memory of his predecessor is all the more significant when we remember that he was thoroughly acquainted with the great faults of Paul IV., and had had to suffer from them.. The Pope himself had, at the approach of death, recognized his faults and bitterly repented of them. Three days before his death he summoned the General of the Jesuits, Lainez, to his side and said to him: "How bitterly flesh and blood have deceived me! My relatives have plunged me into an unhappy war, from which many sins in the Church of God have arisen. Since the time of St. Peter there has been no such unhappy pontificate in the Church! I repent bitterly of what has happened; pray for me."2

Even if this open confession is exaggerated, no one, however,

1 See CIACONIUS, III., 834; VASARI, VII., 551; REUMONT, III., 2, 735 seq.; MÜNTZ, III., 364; FRIEDLAnder, 13; Berthier, 191 seq. How very much Pius V. honoured the Carafa Pope, see SILOS, I., 401 seq. and BROMATO, II., 616 seq. The agreement with regard to the erection of the monument at the expense of the Papal exchequer (for 3000 scudi) is dated April 9, 1566. Besides Giacomo Cassignola and Pirro Ligorio, Tommaso della Porta, Giovan Pietro Annone of Como, Rocco of Montefiascone and other artists were employed on it; see BERTOLOTTI, Art. Subalp., 99 seq.; Studi e doc., XV., 131 seq.; cf. also CASTALDO, 175 seq. 2 See O. MANAREUS, De rebus Soc. Iesu, Florence, 1886, 125 seq. According to Seripandus, ed. Hofler, 55, Paul IV. said, before his death, se in pontif. sede non pontificem, sed servum fuisse.”



need repeat the attempt of the older writers and try to defend the serious mistakes of Paul IV. The unprejudiced historian must not shut his eyes to the grave faults, which, as well as the great qualities, were characteristic of the Carafa Pope; above all, he must appreciate all that was done in the interests of reform during his short pontificate.

Paul IV. was undoubtedly a remarkable man, of a clearly marked, genuine, and unusually strong and unbending character. Sincerely pious, always blameless in his life, and full of apostolic zeal, the co-founder of the Theatines always stood ruthlessly for the strictest standpoint in ecclesiastical matters. Although he was a very good classical scholar, and by no means without feeling for art,1 such a man could not and would not become a Maecenas in the sense of the Renaissance Popes. The saying attributed to him, that it was more

1 Cf. the inventory of his estate, first published by Bertolotti in Gori, Archivio, II., 51 seqq, and subsequently by BARBIER de MONTAULT (Inventaire do P. Paul IV. en 1559, Montauban, 1879, and Oeuvres compl., I., Poitiers, 1889) in detail.

2 It was the war with Spain, the financial distress, and the cares concerning ecclesiastical reform, which prevented Paul IV. from playing the traditional role of a Mæcenas. Nothing in particular was done either for the university or the library. A costly Greek Evangeliarium was procured for St. Peter's (see CASTALDO, 71-72). Dedications of publications are not many, and are for the most part concerned with treatises on ecclesiastical matters (cf. LAUCHERT, 617, 619, 629, 632). U. Folietae, De philos. et iuris civilis inter se comparatione ad Paulum IV. libri tres, Romae, 1555; concerning the dedication of a medical work, see Rотн, Vesalius, 259. Paulus Manutius was summoned to Rome to publish theological works directed against the Lutherans (see RODOCANACHI, Capitole, 115 seq.) SANTORO (Giampaolo Flavio da Altovito, Pisa, 1907) treats of one of the few humanists favoured by Paul IV. Concerning Casa, Barengo and other humanists appointed by Paul IV., see supra p. 84. Concerning Sirleto see L. LATINIUS, Lucubrat., II., 45 seq. 49; WETZER U. WELTE, Kirchenlex., XI2., 360; TACCONE- GALLUCCI, G. Sirleto, Rome, 1909. RITTER, Gesch. der Philosophie, IX., 565, points out that the philosopher, B. Telesio, was favoured by Paul IV. By a



necessary to fortify Rome than to adorn it with pictures, may be an anecdote,1 but it nevertheless sums up the political

brief of July 31, 1559, the Pope agreed to the foundation of the University of Douai, at the wish of Philip II. (see LEMAN in the publication Les Questions ecclésiast., V., Lille, 1912, 43 seqq.) Paul IV. had neither time nor money for artistic undertakings. The re-building of St. Peter's lay, above all, near his heart; concerning this, as well as his relations with Michael Angelo, I shall treat, in a connected manner, when considering Pius IV. In the Vatican, apart from restorations and some changes in the dwelling apartments, his work consisted in the completion of the Pauline Chapel (see Appendix No. 28) and the arrangement of his private chapel in the Belvedere; cf. concerning this ANCEL in the Rev. Bénéd., XXV., 49 seqq.; see ibid., 63 seq., concerning the Casino in the garden (cf. FRIEDLANDER, 2 seq.) and concerning the demolition which treated the Hall of Constantine; cf. concerning these, also MassarELLI, 325 and the *Avviso di Roma of August 13, 1558 (Vatican Library). In the Vatican to-day, nothing but an inscription in the Sala Ducale reminds us of Paul IV. (see FORCELLA, VI., 71). Among the artists employed by the Pope, Pirro Ligorio, the Pope's official architect, is the most prominent, and besides him, there were Taddeo Zuccaro and Guglielmo della Porta (see ANCEL, loc. cit., 71). Paul IV. employed the same artists as his predecessors for his coins and medals, although some new names also appear (see PLON, 394 seq.; with regard to the coins see SERAFINI, 246 seq.) His *Motu Proprio, dated January 30, 1556, announced a plan of Paul IV's which was never carried into effect: "per quem conceditur facultas rev. gubernatori alme Urbis conducendi unum palatium magnum sumptibus Cam. Ap. in quo omnes causae pro tempore decidantur et terminentur " (Editti I. Secret Archives of the Vatican). The governor of Assisi, Marcello Tuto, had the name and arms of Paul IV. affixed to the Fontana Marcella; this is, however, no proof that the Pope had helped this work, which still exists. His coat-of-arms also appears in the wall-paintings of the governor's palace at Assisi.

1 We may conclude that this was a mere anecdote from the fact that Paul IV., especially in the work on the Castle of St. Angelo, was most careful with regard to the adornment of the fortress with statues; see RODOCANACHI, St. Ange, 157.

situation, which was not favourable to the arts. There was, moreover, another reason. Deeply penetrated with the dignity of his position, Paul IV. considered it to be his principal duty to re-establish what the moral wickedness of the Renaissance, and the violent storms of the rupture in the faith had convulsed and broken up. That which he had striven after, with the aid of a few chosen spirits, amid the worldliness of the Medici Popes, he hoped to be able to realize in a glorious manner now that he had been raised to the throne of St. Peter. Embittered by the long delay, and naturally impatient, he began the great work with the fiery zeal which was characteristic of him, immediately after his accession. The reform Pope, whom everyone awaited, seemed, judging from his previous activity, at last to have arrived in the person of Carafa. If, all the same, his pontificate only partly justified these hopes, and was, indeed, in many respects, a disappointment, this was above all the consequence of the weaknesses which too often cast a shadow over the excellent qualities of Paul IV.

A genuine southerner, in whom thought immediately found expression in his words, he allowed himself, in the excitement of the moment, to be so far carried away, as to make use of expressions which would seem incredible, if they were not vouched for by witnesses above suspicion. His precipitate actions were also in keeping with his words. It was evident on every side that Paul IV. was as much wanting in knowledge of the world and of human nature, as in moderation and sagacity, things which were more than ever necessary at such a time of disturbance and transition. Owing to his choleric nature he was always inclined to drive things to extremes. A breath, as of red-hot molten lava, seems to emanate from his stormy mode of action, which reminds us greatly of his countryman, the unfortunate Urban VI. Without consideration of what must be the consequences upon his religious and reforming activities, of a rupture with Spain, the principal Catholic power, he flung himself against the mightiest monarch in the world in a struggle which ended disastrously, deeply injured Rome and the States of the Church, delayed the carry


ing out of the work of reform, and caused open joy to the enemies of the Church, and grief to her friends. Similar feelings were aroused by the dispute with Ferdinand I., in which Paul IV. fought for ideals, the realization of which had become impossible. While the Pope treated the Cardinals with unprecedented rudeness and contempt,2 he blindly trusted his nephew, Carlo Carafa, who was as crafty as he was unprincipled, and whose behaviour placed the head of the Church at a great disadvantage from every point of view. Too late did the deceived and blindfolded Pope learn of the unworthiness of those to whom he had shown favour, and in whom he had placed his trust. The terrible severity which he now displayed towards them was not in itself blameworthy, but Paul IV. did not take into consideration that he had himself placed his nephews in their high positions, and had then let them do as they liked, without any control whatever. If his trust had been boundless before, so now was his severity, which also affected those who were innocent. The remainder of his reign was now exclusively devoted to the activities which had formerly occupied the life of Carafa reform and the Inquisition. But in this respect as well, his procedure was of such a nature that its exaggerations greatly jeopardized the success of what he was striving for. His successor had to mitigate the proceedings of the Inquisition, as well as many of his reform decrees. The shrewd Pius IV. also restored the diplomatic

1 HOSIUS (Epist., II., 667) has made a very sharp criticism of Paul IV's war against Spain and the Catholic Hapsburgs; later on Pallavicini has done the same (14, 9. 5). See also DEMBINSKI, Rzym, 13 seq.; cf. 103, 141.

2 To the non-observance of the election capitulation, the *memoir of Cardinal du Bellay, composed in 1559, (Gonzaga Archives, Mantua) attributes all the disadvantageous aspects of the reign of Paul IV. Cf. Quellen und Forschungen des Preuss. Inst., XII., 226.

3 ANCEL (Disgrâce, 179) justly brings this out.

4*A. Ricchi also acknowledges this; see Appendix No.

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