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This story, which perhaps surpasses all others in its plastic, intuitive knowledge, was circulated very early in manuscript, but was only published in 1846 in the collection of Albèri. It was quoted still earlier in historical literature by Ranke, as well as the supplementary work of Alvise Mocenigo of 1560. In the Analecta to the third volume of his Papste (pp. 48 seqq.) Ranke discusses both accounts. He also touches upon the principal error of Navagero, viz., that Paul IV. only began the war with Spain on account of his nepotic policy (389). The criticism which Cardinal Antonio Carafa1 (d. 1591) wrote on Navagero's story in a work preserved in the National Library at Naples (X—F-55), has quite escaped the notice of Ranke. This Apologia alla relatione del Navagero, written in the hand of the Cardinal's secretary, is a noteworthy authority, in so far that Antonio Carafa lived, in his youth, in the Vatican with Paul IV. He could, therefore, give many interesting and valuable notes on the history of that Pope, and could also furnish several fair criticisms on Navagero, but, in general, he too frequently errs by excess. The essay is too partial, and, as one may gather from the title, too apologetic.2

Onofrio Panvinio fell into the opposite extreme in many passages of his Vita Pauli IV., which first appeared in 1562. At that time the reaction against the measures of Paul IV. was at its height, and to this feeling Panvinio, doubtless influenced by his patron, Cardinal Farnese, has paid tribute. Panvinio himself seems to have felt later on that he had gone too far; in later editions several passages have been altered in a noteworthy manner.3

The printed works of the learned Cardinal are in the Catal. libr. Bibl. Casanat. II., 93; cf. BATTIFOL, Vaticane, 69 seq.; ibid., 63 seq., concerning his life. Cardinal Antonio Carafa had previously endeavoured to have a literary monument to his uncle compiled, which the humanist Robertello was to have composed. Further details are to be found in a letter of Flaminio Filonardi to Cardinal Antonio Carata, dated Padua, 1565, Juni 1 (Vat. 6895, 329-331, Vatican Library). The whole life of Paul IV. was to be treated in this work, and the truth told about the war against Spain. With regard to the manner of its composition, a work similar to that of Jovius on Leo X. was thought of, but Filonardi thought Robertello had better take Suetonius as a model, rather than Plutarch. Owing to the death of the Cardinal the plan came to nothing. G. B. Castaldo did not include the work in his book, in order not to irritate the Spaniards; see PADIGLIONE, Bibl. del Museo di S. Martino, 242.

In the discussion about the proceedings of Paul IV. against the vagrant monks, the groundless accusation continues, which is the Venetian edition of 1562 is expressed as follows: Monasteriorum vero praefectos ut eos reciperent non coegit, qua re nihil iniquius." Concerning the arrest of Morone there is wanting in the later edition the addition" quem ex morum dissimilitudine oderat." The re-casting of the conclusion is most noteworthy. Instead of the passage "Felix procul dubio. . . attigisset" which Panvinio also included in his work on Papal elections (in which his judgment concerning Paul IV. is much more correct (MERKLE, II., 333]) it is given in the later editions thus: "Caeterum liberalitate, religionis tuendae conservandaeque zelo super omines retro pontifices maxime clarus et quo pontifice primuni hominum et

The Theatines have always held the memory of Paul IV. in honour, and rightly, as he was their co-founder. They felt it very much when Cardinal Antonio Carafa's idea of compiling1 a biographical monument to Paul IV. was not carried out.2 The Theatine, Antonio Caracciolo (d. 1642) took a great interest in supplying the deficiency. Caracciolo, who was also engaged in literary work in other directions, zealously collected information of every kind concerning Paul IV. Only a small part of his collection has appeared in print, under the title "Collectanea historica de vita Pauli IV." (Coloniae, 1642). The greater part remains in manuscript, and bears the title "Vita e gesti di Giovan Pietro Carafa cioè di Paolo IV. P.M.”3 Three manuscripts of this work, one of which is probably the autograph, are in the library of the Certosa di S. Martino in Naples (cf. PADIGLIONE, 427 seq). A very good copy of the original is in the Casanatense Library, Rome, in the Codex C. III., 43 (formerly N. 349).4

The work of Caracciolo had a wide circulation in manuscript; copies are in the Secret Archives of the Vatican (Misc. Arm. 11, t. 101), in the Barberini Library (Barb. lat. 4953, 4961, 5370), in the Chigi Library (J. II, 65., J. III., 66), in the Vatican Library (Ottob. 617-619, incomplete, only reaching to the election of Paul IV.), in the Vittorio Emanuele Library (two copies from the Theatine Library of S. Andrea della Valle ; cf. ED. D'ALENÇON, G. P. Carafa e la riforma nell'ordine dell 'osservanza, Foligno, 1912), and a copy in my private library; other copies in the Library at Parma (Palat. 638, copy of Cas. C. III., 43), in St. Mark's Library, Venice (Ital. V., 59), in the Bertoliana Library, Vicenza, and in the British Museum (20011, 20012). The work of Caracciolo, compiled in 1613 (see ZACHARIAS, It. litt., 113) was frequently made use of by all historians of Paul IV.; it is a most uncritical composition, 5 but is partly founded upon the original Carafa papers, of which

clericorum praesertim moribus depravatis salutaribus legibus certum remedium est adhiberi coeptum; confirmandae enim ac restituendae ecclesiasticae disciplinae, in quam mirifice perturbatam eius pontificatus inciderat, auctor et princeps exstitit ita ut eius fonte cogitationum rationumque multa sacri Tridentini Concilii decreta profluxisse postea videantur." (Cologne, ed. of 1568, 445-446, also in the Cologne ed. of 1626, 411). Another alteration has been noted by MERKLE (II., cxxxiv., A. 5).

1 See supra p. 487, n. 1.

Concerning the collection of documents dealing with Paul IV. which the Theatine Valerio Pagano planned at the beginning of the XVIIth century, see PADIGLIONE, 302 seq.

Review of contents in DURUY, XXIII. seq.

Cod. XX. V. 56 (formerly n. 993) is a later copy.
Cf. AMABILE, I., 138 n.

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many have now been lost, and contains a great deal of important and interesting information.

Its importance is, however, greater for the period preceding the election of Paul IV., than for the years of his pontificate, for which there are now far better sources available. Taken all in all Caracciolo is a convinced admirer of his hero, and always more of an apologist than a writer of history. This is also true of Castaldo and Silos, who sketch portraits which are almost without a dark side.1

Pallavicini cleared the way for a historical comprehension and estimate of Paul IV. in the second part of his history of the Council of Trent, which appeared in 1657. He was thereby drawn into a controversy with the Theatine, Francesco Maria Maggio, in which Pallavicini was victorious. (Cf. CALENZIO, Esame critico-letterario delle opere riguardenti la storia del Concilio di Trento, Romae 1869, 100 seqq.). Compared to the invectives of Maggio, who conceals himself under the name of Francesco Velli, the calmness of Pallavicini makes a good impression. He speaks to the point when he asserts that historians should not be writers of panegyrics. Although it has recently been said (see VOLPICELLA in the Archivio Napoletano, XXXV., 557) that Pallavicini had written in a hostile tone about Paul IV., this is by no means the case. Pallavicini depicts objectively the bright as well as the dark side of the Carafa Pope; he only errs in so far as he regards the chief merit of Paul IV. to lie in the preservation of the unity of the faith in Italy, and does not do sufficient justice to the reforms carried out from 1555 to 1559. Maggio continued the controversy after Pallavicini's death, but could not find a printer for the part of his work dealing with the pontificate of Paul IV. (CALENZIO, loc. cit. 107).

Another Theatine, Bartolomeo Carrara (d. 1778) has rendered much better service than Maggio to the memory of Paul IV., by his history of the Pope in two volumes, published at Ravenna in the years 1748 and 1753, under the pseudonym Carlo Bromato. This is a very able work for that period. Although not free from an apologetic tendency and partiality,2

1 SILOS (I., 421, 423 seq., 426 seq.) praises the "prudentia" of his hero! He has also made use of manuscript sources, e.g., Caracciolo's collection, as well as the above-mentioned Apologia. CASTALDO (176 seq.) softens down the choler of Paul IV., in a manner that is not historical: he is also not reliable as to details.

'Cf. REIMANN in the Forschungen zur deutschen Geschicte, V., 294.

Carrara nevertheless endeavours to judge Paul IV. from an objective point of view. Many of his faults, especially the raising to the cardinalate of Carlo Carafa, are severely censured (II., 233) but the original material for going more deeply into the matter was not at his disposal. He collected with great diligence all the information then obtainable, but this was mostly from derivative sources. Besides Caracciolo, the work of Pietro Nores, Storia della guerra di Paolo IV. contro gli Spagnuoli, already used by Pallavicini, is consulted.

The war of Paul IV. against Spain had already been treated of by Alessandro Andrea1 and Mambrino Roseo.2 Nores began the compilation of his work at the beginning of the reign of Clement VIII., but laid it aside because he had scruples about giving an account of the participation of Silvestro Aldobrandini, the father of Clement VIII., in the events of that time. He took the work up again at a later period; the first book was finished in 1640, the third in 1641, and the fourth in 1644. Nores was careful to collect3 letters and reports of contemporaries; he drew upon (among others) Massarelli's Diarium VII, and also procured information in Rome by word of mouth. The work, the publication of which A. Zeno had already recommended, appeared in 1847, as Vol. XII of the Archivio Storico Italiano. In this publication5 a political tendency predominated. It was desired by its means to put forward Pius IX. and his predecessors, Julius III. and Paul IV. as prototypes of the struggle for national freedom [i.e. “ United Italy."] For this purpose the history of a war, which, while absolutely unimportant in itself, is principally interesting as

1 Della guerra di campagna di Roma et del regno di Napoli, ed. G. Ruscelli, Venetia, 1557 (1560). The Spanish translation, which I had before me, is dedicated to Philip II. (Madrid, 1589). The author is partial to Spaniards, often diffuse (see FORNERON, I., 81), but a good authority for military affairs (cf. PRESCOTT, Philip II., I., 80). Nores had drawn largely from him (see Arch. d. Soc. Rom., IV., 332 note). It is also well to consult the "Tratatto sopra lo stato ecclesiastico "in the Secret Archives of the Vatican (Misc. Arm. 15, t. 186) in which there is an account of the wars of the States of the Church since 1494 and which treats in a particularly detailed manner of the conflicts under Paul IV. Lettere dirette a Bonifacio Gaetani concerning the war between Paul IV. and Spain, in the Gaetani Archives, Rome.

Relazione della guerra suscitata del regno di Napoli da Paolo IV. nel 1556 al 1557, Roma, 1558.

Nores has drawn (among others) upon the documents in the Library, Parma, and in Cod. Mare. XI., 125, of St. Mark's Library, Venice: cf. COGGIOLA, Cornia, 223, 342.

See MERKLE, II., xlviii., xlix., 303 n. 3.

It is founded on a Codex Capponi, and was compared with two Neapolitan manuscripts. The manuscripts of Nores' work in the Alessandrina Library, Rome (214-1-183), the Vittorio Emanuele Library, Rome (Fondo Gesuitico, 323), the Trivulziana Library, Milan (Cod. 37), the Library of the Certosa di S. Martino, Naples (Cod. 364), and the Communal Library, Foggia (Cod. 7), have not been made use of.

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being the last attempt of the Papal policy to free itself and Italy from a foreign yoke, seemed suitable. The publishers of Nores, Volpicella, Gar and Scarabelli, have done much to embellish their edition by the addition of unprinted documents. Notably, they obtained access to the "Istruzioni e Lettere di Monsignor della Casa a nome del Cardinal Carafa" from a manuscript in the possession of Gino Capponi.1

The work of Nores, which had already been praised by Pallavicini and Bromato, has long been very popular. Reumont (Carafa, I., 221, 517) describes it as the principal authority for the history of the Carafa family under Paul IV., and praises the author as the most reliable writer of the history of those events (cf. also Gesch. Roms, III., 2, 700). At a later period Duruy (20, 85) and Porena (Arch. stor. Ital. Ser 4, XIII., 354) overwhelmed Nores with praise, although Reimann (loc. cit. 327 seqq.) has already shown, in one point, how little Nores is often to be relied upon. Ancel, in his scientific studies on the history of Paul IV., has expressed in very severe terms a highly unfavourable opinion of Nores (see especially Sienne, 1, 18, and Disgrâce, 36) which, however, did not prevent Campana from describing the work of Nores in the Studi Storici (XVII., 586) as a masterpiece. There can, however, be no doubt that Ancel is right. Nores contains very many errors; he also sometimes allows his imagination to run riot, and draws upon merely secondary sources. The more the Reports of Ambassadors, which are to be regarded as of the first importance for the pontificate of Paul IV., become known, the less value will be attached to the work of Nores.

The dispatches of Bernardo Navagero are those most widely known. These invaluable reports, which supplement, and are, in many points much superior to the accounts of the ambassador, are not, it is true, preserved in the originals. Since the destruction by fire of the Venetian Archives in 1577, only copies are available; these exist in the State Archives, Venice, in St. Mark's Library (Ital. Cl. VII., Cod. 1097), in the Museo Correr, Venice (Cod. 1957), in the University Library, Pisa (Cod. 154, S. c. 2), in the National Library, Naples (Cod. X. D. 41), in the Court Library, Vienna (Cod. 6255

1 See Catalogo dei MSS. posseduti dal marchese G. Capponi, Florence, 1815, n. 831. Cod. Miscell. n. 98 (cf. BROSCH, I., 200, n. 1). Also the dispatches to the Council of Ten, only preserved in contemporary copies; cf. ANCEL, Disgrâce, 21, n. 3.

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