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Foscar. 163), and in the library of the Duke of Ossuna, Madrid (Cod. 93).
Nores was the first to make use of the rich treasure of the dispatches of Navagero; later, Bertolotti published extracts in the Atti Mod. (3rd series, II., 155 seqq.); moreover, Rawdon Brown has published, in an English translation, all the dispatches relating to England, and also much of the actual history of Paul IV., in the Calendars of State Papers. The study of the Italian text is, however, by no means superfluous for, in accordance with his purpose, Brown has systematically looked only for dispatches concerned with England; besides this, his translation is not always reliable, and, in any case, the best translation can never replace the original text. This is all the more important in the case of Navagero, as the correspondent has performed his task with such scrupulous conscientiousness that, whenever possible, he has given the utterances of the Pope in his actual words,1 and this is very important in the case of such a strongly marked personality as that of Paul IV. The detailed reports of Navagero, who was on most confidential terms with the Pope, are an invaluable source; intimate and many-sided, they afford, at the same time, a series of instantaneous photographs, everywhere breathing the warm life of the events they portray.
Besides the Venetian reports, there is also the correspondence of Cardinal Farnese to be studied; this is still preserved in the State Archives, Parma. The Cardinal received exact information, through his agent, of all the events which took place in Rome. To these must be added the dispatches of the envoys of the Este and Medici families, in the State Archives at Modena and Florence. These reports offer, in addition to the Venetian ones, much that is new and valuable. While Duruy passed over these first-class sources in his otherwise faulty work, Coggiola and Ancel have made diligent use of them. I have also used this material for my work. We have
Perche io giudico che le parti d'un ambasciator siano dir, se si po, le medesime parole che dice il principe di sua bocca; se ben molte cose sono le medesime o contrarie erepugnante l'una all 'altra, ho voluto sempre sforciarmi, et cosi farò nel avenir, di scriver le formal parole che mi ha detto il pontifice; cosi havessi anche potuto aggiunger li gesti. Dispatch of October 12, 1555 (Library of St. Mark's, Venice, loc. cit. 10).
Cf. COGGIOLA, Cornia, 80, 108, 292 seq., 341, and ANCEL, Sienne, 1, 19, 22, 37, 40, 65; see also Deutsche Lit.-Zeitung, 1883, 1659, and Rev. d. quest. hist., 1884, Juillet, 335 seq.
The extracts from the Florentine reports of Serristori in Canestrini are very defective and incomplete.
to thank Druffel and Riess for very many Spanish reports. The work of Riess, which appeared in 1909, represents a great advance on that of Duruy; it also, however, is by no means complete, and contains as well many errors on particular points, such as the judgment on the whole policy of Paul IV.1 The work of Ancel, the result of a wide range of studies among archives, is the best authority for this question; it also clearly distinguishes between the Pope and his nephews, and completely exposes, the intrigues of Cardinal Carafa.
Brosch has, in his generally very feeble treatise, on the struggle of Paul IV. with Philip II., only drawn on new material to the extent of a few dispatches of Navagero (Mitteilungen des Instituts österreichische Geschichtsforschung, XXV., 1904).
The reports of the French ambassadors with regard to Paul IV. were first published by Ribier, and later by Sauzé and Vitalis. Turnbull has published, in a translation, the reports of Carne, the English ambassador.
I was the first to make thorough use of the letters from Rome to Ferdinand I., in the Vienna State Archives, as well as of the reports of ambassadors which are in the State Archives, Bologna, and in the Gonzaga Archives, Mantua.
A source of a peculiar kind, which stands half way between the embassy reports and the gazettes, are the so-called "Avvisi" communications from intelligence bureaux, which the Fugger family had at that time in the capitals and centres of commerce. This source has lately been critically dealt with by Ancel in the Mélanges d'Archéologie et d'Histoire, XXVIII (1908). Last but not least of the very important sources of information concerning the history of Paul IV., are his own "Acta," Briefs, Bulls, and diplomatic correspondence in the Secret Archives of the Vatican and in the Barberini Library. The Briefs have, unfortunately, not been preserved in their
Cf. the criticisms of FRIEDENSBURG in the Hist. Vierterjahrsschrift 1911/12, 280, and of HERRE in the Hist. Zeitschr., CIX., 199 seq. See also supra pp. 117, n. 3; 136, n. 4; 168, n. 1; 223, n. 2; 232, n. 1.
Cf. ANCEL, Sienne, 90, and COGGIOLA in the Studi storici, X., 227 seq. see also Hist. Zeitschr., 94, 186. Nothing new in BORALEVI, I., primi mesi del pontificato di Paolo IV., Livorno, 1888. JENKINS (Paul IV., London, 1886) mostly follows Duruy; cf. Arch. d. Soc. Rom., X., 714; see also Arch. Napol., XII., 836 seq.
The admirable remarks of SÄGMÜLLER in the Histor. Jahrb., XV., 304, about the gazetteers and writers of "Avvisi," also called "novellisti," have escaped the notice of Ancel. We must also add to the literature mentioned there; SIMIANI, N. Franco, 36 seq. LUTOLF, Schweizergarde, 44; SICKEL in the Weimarischen Jahrb. für deutsche Sprache, 1., Hanover 1858, 344 seq. Arch. d. Soc. Rom., XXXI., 421; XXXIII., 277 seq.
entirety; they nevertheless yield, according to Raynaldus, many interesting "finds." The "Regesta Vaticana" nn. 1805-1854 (cf. PALMIERI, 85 seq.) preserved in a complete condition, were examined by Ancel, who has published a biographical work on Paul IV. in several volumes; they contain, however, but little for a history like the present, which is confined within narrower limits. The diplomatic correspondence of Paul IV. has suffered numerous and important losses. A very great deal, however, has been preserved, as a large number of the Carafa archives were transferred to the Barberini Library, which contains precious original documents relating to Paul IV. and his nephews, in no less than 60 volumes. This material was related so thoroughly and in such detail by Pieper (189 seqq.) and then by Ancel (Secrét. 37-45 and Nonciat. I, II) that a mere reference to them is sufficient here. The Instructions and Letters of Giovanni della Casa appeared in print as early as the XVIIIth century.2 Ancel has now published the Nonciatures de France in an admirable edition. The publication of the reports of the Polish nuncios, preserved in a very incomplete form, is shortly to be undertaken by the Cracow Academy.
1 Cf. WIRZ, xxvi.; ANCEL, Secrét. 61 seq. Herc also see (15 n. ) concerning the "Ruoli of Paul IV.
The best edition is the Neapolitan; see PIEPER, 186 n.
INDEX OF NAMES IN VOL. XIV.
ADRIAN IV., Pope 50.
Naples), 68, 95 n. 4, 96,
Albert V. (Duke of Bavaria);
Aldobrandini, G., 178 n. 4.
Alexander VI., Pope, 12, 272,
Alfonso of Aragon, 76.
Ambrosio, Hernando di S., 317
Ariosto, Lodovico, 277.
I, 52 n. 2, 53 n. 1, 57 n. I,
Avellino, Andrea, St. (Theatine)
BABBI, A., 170 n. 2.
Bacodio, Francesco (Datary),
Bacon, Nicolas (Lord Chan-
Bagno, Marquis of, 135 n. 2,
Bale, John (English reformer),
Bannissio, Jacopo, 147 n. 2,
210 n. 7.
Barberini, Family of the, 262.
Bellay, Jean du (Bishop of
57, 61, 91, 135 n. 1, 139 n.
Bello, Vincenzo, 223 n. 2.
Ricciardo Cervini, mother
Fano, nuncio), Cardinal, 2,
papal secretary), 86.
Bladus, Antonus (printer), 278.
252-254, 257 n. 3.
Bourbon, Louis de, Cardinal, 4,
Bourne, Gilbert (Bishop of
Bowes (English conspirator)
Brancaccio, Cesare (papal en-
Broet, Paschasius, S. J. (Pro-
Bromato, Carlo [Bartolomeo
(Swiss reformer), 407 n. 2.
CACCIA CONTI, Leonora Egidi
Calandra, Sabino (Mantuan
Calvin, John, 325, 326, 349,
Capece, Marcello (nephew of