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danger, nor did the Pope himself, though he felt very unwell and was much troubled by the catarrh,1 but in consequence of pressing business he soon again completely neglected his health. On April 29th he not only received the Dukes of Urbino and Ferrara, who had come to Rome to pay homage, but also Cardinals Farnese, Guise, Este and Sforza, and other persons, among them Massarelli, upon whom he enjoined the reform of the Penitentiary.2 The exertions of this day, during which Marcellus had given audiences until evening,3 were too great. On April 30th an unusual feeling of weakness overcame him while he was at work, so he took a restorative and lay down. As he was sleeping peacefully the doctors thought that the danger was over, but at last the long sleep made the Pope's attendants anxious, and they sought to revive him, at first with mild measures but afterwards by stronger ones, but in vain. A stroke of apoplexy had deprived him of consciousness. In the evening Marcellus came to himself, but his condition re

1*Per ancora il Papa non si truova libero dal catarro, ma l'hanno atteso a purgare in modo, che sperano fra quattro o sei giorni si habbi esser fuori, e poter dare audientia. Dicono bene che si sente debole et stracco et in tutto senza febre et si è di poi inteso che il mal suo è stato molto maggiore di quel che si è detto. Piaccia a Dio renderli l'intera salute la quale recuperata che harà intendo che vuol spedire all' Impre et al Re d'Inghilterra il signor Hiermo da Coreggio per rallegrarsi con quelle Mtà dell' assuntione sua et per fare altri complimenti . Serristori on April 27, 1555 (State Archives, Florence).

2 MASSARELLI, 260. Lett. de' princ., I., 187. CARO-FARNESE, Lett., II., 180. Cardinal A. Farnese had arrived in Rome on April 16, 1555, and it was expected that he would play an important part in affairs of state (cf. Lett. de' princ., I., 185, and the *letter of Ipp. Capilupi of April 16, 1555, in Gonzaga Archives, Mantua). According to Avanson, Marcellus offered him the post of secretary of state, which, however, Farnese refused (see RIBIER, II., 608). Several authorities, including J. v. Meggen (Archiv für schweiz. Ref.-Gesch., III., 517), place the audience of the Duke of Urbino on April 28, thus differing from Massarelli. 3 See the Memorie of Jacobo delli Herculani in the Cod. Gesuit. 170, p. 796 of the Vittoria Emanuele Library, Rome.



mained hopeless, and in the early morning of May 1st, he gave up his noble soul to God.1

The paralysing effect which the sudden death of this admirable Pope had on his contemporaries is reflected in numerous characteristic utterances. People could not understand why such a man, from whom the much needed reformation was confidently to be expected, should only have had a reign of twenty-two days, during which he had not enjoyed good health for more than ten. Panvinio applied to him the words spoken by Virgil of another Marcellus "Fate wished only to show him." Seripando saw in the sudden calling away of Marcellus an indication that God did not mean to bring about the reformation of His Church by means of human help, but by His own divine power, at a time and by means of which mortal men knew nothing. Another contemporary saw in the death of the Pope a divine punishment for the wickedness of the age, which was so great that God would not allow the good to live long in it. "Oh, unhappy Pope, who hast hardly touched the tiara," writes Massarelli in his diary, "unhappy we, his servants, who have been so soon robbed of so admirable a

1 Besides MASSARELLI, 260, cf. J. Riballus loc. cit.; Cocciano in DRUFFEL, IV. 668 seq.; Lett. de' princ., I., 187; the two *letters of U. Gozzadini of April 30, 1555 (State Archives, Bologna); the *reports of Camillo Titio and Serristori of April 30, 1555 (State Archives, Florence; ibid. *letter of A. Lorenzini of May 1, 1555) and Avanson's report in RIBIER, II., 609. The hour of the Pope's death, hora 7 noctis (FIRMANUS, 508 and most of the reports of the ambassadors), is expressed by J. v. Meggen after the German fashion, "dritthald stunden vor tag" (Archiv für schweiz. Ref-Gesch., III., 517). The supposition that Marcellus II. was poisoned is groundless (DRUFFEL, IV., 679. OLDECOP, 383); see POLLIDORUS, 137.


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2 In the *correspondence of Olaus Magnus with Cardinal Madruzzo there is an **account of the death of Marcellus II. with the remark: "qui poterit dicere: dum adhuc ordirer succidit me" (Vice-regal Archives, Innsbruck).

3 Lett. de' princ., III., 189.

4 Lat. Latinius in POLLIDORUS, 145.

master, unhappy all Christians, who justly expected from such a holy Pope wonderful and great things for the honour of God; the restoration of the authority and majesty of the Apostolic See, the reform, splendour and unity of the Catholic Church, the spread of the faith, the furtherance of everything that is good. Unhappy century, that was not permitted to rejoice over such a shepherd, nor, indeed, even to see him!" The nuncio at the court of the Emperor describes the deep sorrow which Charles V. experienced at the news of the death of the Pope. The hopes which were buried with him in the grave had been founded on his well-known holiness and his practical talents, and had been strengthened at the beginning of his pontificate by his zeal for the advancement of God's service and the furtherance of morality.2

Marcellus II. had lived in apostolic simplicity, and so was he buried. The Canons of St. Peter's bore his body into the basilica, where a grave had been made ready for him, so modest that the poet Faustus Sabaeus could write :

Non ut Pontificem Summum, Sanctumque decebat
MARCELLE; indigno conderis hoc tumulo;

Parce; ubicumque iaces, semper celebrabere: honorat
Non tumulus cinerem, sed cinis ipse locum.4

1 MASSARELLI, 260. Greek distichs on the death of Marcellus II. in the Cod. Ottob. gr., 228, p. 76-82. Vatican Library.

2 See the beautiful *letter in Appendix No. 8 (Secret Archives of the, Vatican). Cf. also the letter of the Swiss nuncio Raverta in the Archiv für schweiz. Ref-Gesch., III., 518; REINHARDT, VIII. CARO-FARNESE, Lett., II., 179, 180, 188; POLLIDORUS,

144 seq.

3 Cf. MASSARELLI, 260; FIRMANUS, 508; PANVINIO, Vita Marcelli II.; POLLIDORUS, 160 seq. The following inscription was put up in the town hall of Montepulciano: Marcello II. Cervino Politiano Pont. Max. Terris tantum ostenso, coelis repente asserto urbe et orbe prae desiderio lugente. *Miscell. in the Ricci Archives, Rome.

4 CIACONIUS, III., 805; see BRUNNER, Italien, II., 8.



In the autumn of 1606, at the re-opening of St. Peter's under Paul V., the remains of Marcellus II. were removed to the crypt, where they are buried in a simple early Christian sarcophagus of marble, and only the short inscription, "Marcellus II." indicates who lies there.1 Nevertheless the memory of this admirable Pope still lives to the present day. He is assured of an honourable place in the history of the Catholic struggle for reform. He occupies a high place in the esteem of all scholars on account of the services he rendered to the Vatican Library, and to the devotees of music his name will always be familiar through the wonderful mass which Palestrina composed in honour of his memory.2

1 Bellarmine's report on the finding of the body and its translation on September 15, 1606, in the Römischen Quartalschrift, XV., 192. Concerning the tomb see CIACONIUS loc. cit.; FORCELLA, VI., 71; Katholik, 1901, II., 543 seq.; DUFRESNE, 97 seq., with illustration.

2 Concerning the Missa papae Marcelli see AMBROS, IV. 2, 19 seq.; HABERL, Musikkatalog der päpstlichen Kapelle, Leipzig, 1888, 9, 58 seq.; Stimmen aus Maria-Laach, XLVII., 125.



At the death of Marcellus II., the Sacred College consisted of fifty-six members, of whom thirty-nine were in Rome, while of the seventeen absent members, only four arrived in Rome in time for the beginning of the election proceedings; Cardinal Mendoza on the 3rd, Doria on the 9th, Madruzzo on the 12th, and Tagliavia on the 13th of May.1

The obsequies for Marcellus II., which had been begun on May 6th, on a very simple scale, on account of the want of money, 2 were concluded on the 14th. On the following morning the Mass of the Holy Ghost was celebrated, after which Uberto Foglietta delivered the usual discourse, in which he exhorted the members of the Sacred College to make a wise choice. After this the forty-three Cardinals entered the conclave, for which the same apartments were used as at the previous election. The number of electors was increased to forty-five by the arrival of Cardinals Gonzaga and Pacheco on May 16th and 17th. The guarding of the conclave was entrusted to the Duke of Urbino,3 and the greatest tranquillity prevailed in the city.4

1 See besides Panvinio in Merkle, II., 263, the contemporary : Conclave factum in Vaticano post mortem papae Marcelli II., preserved in the Secret Archives of the Vatican.

2 See the *report of U. Gozzadini, dated Rome, May 7, 1555 (State Archives, Bologna).

3 Cf. MASSARELLI, 263 seq. According to the *letter of Camillo Capilupi of May 15 (Gonzaga Archives, Mantua) Cardinal E. Gonzaga reached Rome on that date. Concerning the discourse of Foglietta see I. POGIANI epist. I., 103 n. An exact plan of the conclave, in which the cells of the Cardinals present are shown, is in the publication cited supra n. 1.

4 See the *reports of U. Gozzadini, dated 11, 1555 (State Archives, Bologna), and the of May 8, 1555 (State Archives, Mantua).

Rome, May 4, 8, and letter of C. Capilupi

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