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fallen on one who could not have been more unsuited for the dignity. Carlo Carafa was the type of an Italian "condottiere"; an able but unprincipled man, he had had a very stirring and adventurous career.

Born in the year 1517 or 1519, he had been, as a boy, page to Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, and had then entered the service of Pier Luigi Farnese, finally devoting himself entirely to the military profession, since, as the youngest son, and having no prospect of the family possessions, he had to carve out his own way with his sword. He fought for many years under the banner of the Emperor, in Piedmont under Vasto, and in the Schmalkaldic war under Ottavio Farnese. Disappointed in his hopes, and badly treated by the Spaniards, he at last abandoned the cause of the Emperor and fought for the French under Strozzi in the Sienese war. At the time of the conclave he was in Rome.1

At first sight it appears impossible to understand how the Pope, so austere with regard to morals, could suddenly summon this rough soldier, whose scandalous and licentious life was known to him,2 into the supreme senate of the Church. It was therefore supposed that the cunning nephew had deceived the old Pope by a comedy of conversion.3 The truth, however, was quite different. The bestowal of the purple on Carlo Carafa was the result of a cleverly devised intrigue of his elder brother Giovanni, Count of Montorio.4 Concerned above everything else with the splendour and greatness of the

1 NAVAGERO-ALBÈRI, 383. PETRAMELLARIUS, 91 seq. CIACONIUS, III., 842 seq. DURUY, 7 seq., 345 seq. RIESS, 19 seq. ANCEL, Disgrâce, 12 seq. Nonciat., II., 258.

2 Cf. the Motu Proprio by which Carafa was absolved from his former crimes, in CHRISTOFORI, Paolo IV. (Miscell. stor. Romana, 1888, I., Ser. 2, p. 56), and ANCEL, Disgrâce, 15, n. 3.

3 The story of Carafa's comedy of conversion, which has been widely circulated, chiefly through RANKE, (Päpste, 16., 188), is also repudiated by RIESS (p. 23 seq.)

4 The source of proof for this has been furnished by ANCEL (Disgrâce, 14 seq.) Cf. also COGGIOLA, Farnesi, 74, 75, and Corpo dipl. Port., VII., 424.

GIOVANNI

CARAFA.

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family, Giovanni Carafa saw the means of promoting this by a close connection with Spain. It is characteristic of the man and his times that he could conceive the plan of detaching his brother Carlo from the French service, which might cause serious embarrassments, and withdrawing this experienced soldier from the calling of arms, by procuring for him the dignity of Cardinal. Carlo himself, though it may be doubted whether he was in earnest, showed but little inclination for the change. At first the Pope would not hear of such a promotion, but in spite of this Giovanni Carafa contrived to bring it about; he was eagerly encouraged in his plan by the French Ambassador, Avanson, who, fearing the great influence of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, favoured the cause of the nephew in every way.1 At last Giovanni won over the representative of the Emperor to his plan, and the Pope, after some hesitation, finally gave way to the general pressure put upon him.2 He was destined, however, to regret nothing more bitterly than this choice, which remains a great slur upon his reputation.

The first, however, to repent of the elevation of Carlo was his brother Giovanni.3 In a very short time Carlo was able to ingratiate himself to such an extent with the Pope that the latter, after a few weeks, entrusted him with the entire direction of secular politics. Giovanni, who, since the beginning of

1 Cf. COGGIOLA, Conclave, 474 seqq. Avanson also feared the influence of the Imperialist Cardinal Carpi, who was very intimate with Paul IV., see his letter of May 24, 1555, in FAVRE, 436.

2* It is quite in accordance with the truth when Paul IV., in a *brief to Pole of July 16, 1555, says that he has appointed C. Carafa as Cardinal : non solum omnium consensu, sed hortatu." (Min. brev. Arm. 44, t. 4, n. 169. Secret Archives of the Vatican). 3 The second brother, Antonio, Marchese di Montebello, was a passionate man and not of any great talent, but, in spite of this he was appointed to the command of the Papal troops (see the *brief to him of August 31, 1555; Brev. ad princ. Arm. 44, t. 4, n. 226. Secret Archives of the Vatican). Antonio played no part in the time that followed. On the other hand his son Alfonso became a favourite of the Pope (cf. infra p. 202).

June, had had a decisive influence1 in this matter, found himself, to his great surprise, completely supplanted. The change found outward expression in the fact that Carlo Carafa now moved to the Borgia apartments, which had hitherto been occupied by his brother.2 The ambassadors and envoys of the powers now crowded these rooms, especially as Paul IV. granted audiences very unwillingly. The only person who saw His Holiness every day was Carlo Carafa; in his new position as head of the actual secretaryship of state, he could confer with the Pope as often and as long as he wished. The whole of the political correspondence with the nuncios and other representatives of the Holy See, as well as with the kings and princes, was directed by him. He alone had the right to open and answer all letters, even those addressed directly to the Pope. In addition to this, all political business, as well as everything that concerned finance, law, and the administration of the city of Rome and the States of the Church, was placed under the superintendence of the Cardinal-nephew.3

In order to carry on such an amount of work Carlo Carafa surrounded himself with a numerous and well-trained staff of officials, who were entirely devoted to him. Giovanni della Casa, his principal secretary, worked under him as his confidential assistant and representative (segretario intimo or maggiore). This Florentine humanist and open enemy of the Medici was the most distinguished of the numerous Florentines who had left their home and come to Rome. He alone had cognizance of all the projects of the Cardinal-nephew, and the whole of the diplomatic correspondence passed through his

1 See in Appendix No. 10 the *brief of June 2, 1555 (Secret Archives of the Vatican) and the Portuguese report in the Corpo dipl. Port., VIII., 431. As early as June 20, 1555, an agent of Cardinal Madruzzo *reported from Rome: the new Cardinal Carafa was indeed, "privato del papa," but: "Chi adesso fa tutte le cose è il conte di Montorio." Correspondence of Madruzzo in the Vice-Regal Archives, Innsbruck.

2 See ANCEL, Disgrâce, 17 seq. and Secrétairie, 10; cf. COGGIOLA, Farnesi, 77n.

3 See ANCEL, Secrét., 7 seq.

CARLO CARAFA'S SECRETARIES.

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hands; indeed, he alone was aware of the existence of many of these documents.1

Positions similar to that held by Giovanni della Casa for political affairs, were held by Annibale Bozzuto for the affairs of the States of the Church, and by the celebrated jurist, Silvestro Aldobrandini, for fiscal and criminal causes. Every morning, with the exception of that given over to the reception of the ambassadors, Carlo Carafa received these men for the delivery of their reports, and important questions were dealt with by all four.2 Aldobrandini, who belonged to a noble Florentine family, had been banished in 1531 as an opponent of the Medici. Bozzuto was a banished Neapolitan, and the appointment of these exiles who, full of spite and passion, were awaiting their return home by means of the fall of the Spanish power, counted for much in the warlike turn which affairs took in Rome.3

1 See ANCEL, Secrét. 5 seqq. Della Casa (see concerning him Vol. XII. of this work, p. 525) had already known Paul IV., in Venice; he owed his new position to Cardinal Farnese (CAROFARNESE, Lettere, II., 221). He was summoned to Rome by a *brief of May 30, 1555 (Min. brev. Arm. 44, t. 4, n. 110. Secret Archives of the Vatican) and definitely appointed on July 13 (see Studi storici, XVII., 592). After his death (November 14, 1556) he was succeeded by S. Aldobrandini. After the fall of the latter in 1557 (see infra p. 154) A. Lippomano succeeded to his important post, which he united to that of a secretarius domesticus"; see ANCEL, Secrét., 15 seq.

"

2 See the *Summario dell' attioni di Mons. Illmo in the minutes of the trial of Carafa (State Archives, Rome), of which Ancel justly remarks (loc. cit.) that it should not be attributed to Antonio Carafa, as Coggiola has it (Sull' anno della morte di m. della Casa, Pistoia, 1901, 8 seqq.) Passarini had already remarked (Aldobrandini, 118) this error of Nores (p. 272). Concerning the fall of Bozzuto F. Pasoto reports from Rome on September 1, 1557 *Domenica mattina si disse la notte inanci N.S. havea fatto levar di letto Monsig. Bozzuto cosi amalato com' era et fattolo mettere prigione in castello, dove è ancora. La causa non si dice. His successor was Annibale Brancaccio (Gonzaga Archives, Mantua.)

3 See NAVAGERO-ALBÈRI 391, 405. The apologetic counterremarks of Passarini (Aldobrandini, 118) prove nothing.

Five secretaries were appointed in addition to della Casa to carry on the Italian correspondence. Of these, Antonio Elio, Bishop of Pola, and Giovanni Francesco Commendone, Bishop of Zante, held the first place. There were also three other secretaries, Girolamo Soverchio, Angelo Massarelli and Trifone Bencio, the latter for the cypher letters. All of these highly placed officials of the department of the secretary of state had a corresponding number of lesser officials at their disposal. Besides these, Cardinal Carafa employed various private secretaries and agents, who were partly made use of for purposes of his own. Among these a great part was played by Annibale Rucellai, although he had no special title; he was a nephew of Giovanni della Casa, and was initiated into many secrets of the policy of his master.1

Like

The secretariate of briefs was strictly separated from the secretariate of state, and had its own archives. This department, which was exclusively occupied with ecclesiastical affairs and the administration of the States of the Church, was directly under the Pope. Giovanni Barengo held, as first "segretario domestico," a similar position in this department to that of della Casa in that of the secretariate of state. Barengo, who composed all the important briefs and bulls, a second "segretario domestico," Giovanni Francesco Bini, lived in the Vatican. The latter, a humanist of the school of Sadoleto, had to draw up the briefs to the princes. Besides those mentioned, there also appear, as highly placed officials of the secretariate of briefs, Antonio Fiordibello, once secretary to Sadoleto, and Cesare Grolierio. All of these, who in their turn had many officials under them, are distinguished from the great functionaries of the secretariate of state principally by the fact that they did no independent work of their own, but had only to carry out the orders they received, these being given by the Pope himself, or by those to whom the head of the Church had transferred some part of his authority.2

1 See the thorough investigations of ANCEL, Secrét., 14 seqq. 25 seqq., 32 seqq.; concerning Elio cf. MERKLE, I., 377

2 See ANCEL, Secrét., 47 seqq. Concerning Barengo cf. MASIUS, Briefe, 244,251 for Bini (died September, 1556) see MERKLE, II.,

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