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CARAFA'S INFLUENCE WITH THE POPE.
It is characteristic of Paul IV. that he placed a limit to the powers of Carlo Carafa, as far as the actual inner administration of the Church was concerned.1 The nephew, however, ruled all the more freely in the matter of politics; in this department he eventually got such a grip that he managed the Pope like a child. Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, in whom the Pope, at the beginning of his reign, had shown, in the fullness of his gratitude, an almost unlimited confidence, was now put on one side; as had been the case with Giovanni Carafa.3 The crafty and intriguing Carlo, who could adapt himself to every situation, understood perfectly how to lead the unwary old Pope.
The unusual capabilities of his nephew, and his hatred of the Spaniards, had made Paul IV. forget everything which he had formerly blamed in him. He bore all the more willingly with the warlike nature of Carlo, which was quite opposed to his principles as a strict churchman, because their characters were in reality much akin; both were true Neapolitans, passionate, credulous and rash in their resolves.4 Carlo possessed, moreover, a wonderful skill in managing his old uncle, and in accomodatiig himself to his weaknesses and favourite theories. Paul IV. became more and more persuaded that the Holy See possessed no more faithful, honest and capable servant than his nephew. So completely was he
xxii. Bini's successor was A. Lippomano; when Barengo died in June, 1559, he was suceeded by Francesco Aragonia.
1 See NAVAGERO-Albèri, who twice emphasizes this limitation of authority (384 and 411). It cannot therefore be said with RANKE (1.6, 188) that the Pope entrusted his nephew with the whole, not only of secular, but also of ecclesiastical affairs." In the report of Salvago (Atti Lig., XIII., 755) he says distinctly that Cardinal Carafa had possessed the suprema authorità et cura de' negotii appartenenti a stato et a giustitia.”
2 See MASIUS, Briefe, 222.
3 Cf. COGGIOLA, Conclave, 476 seq., and FARNESI, 81 seq.; ANCEL, Secrét, 14 seq. Concerning the great influence of Farnese at the beginning see also the report of the Portuguese ambassador of June 18, 1555, in the Corpo dipl. Port., VIII., 420. 4 Cf. the opinion of Cardinal Farnese in RIESS, 53.
beguiled, that he did not hesitate repeatedly to assure the Venetian ambassador that Carlo excelled all his predecessors as a statesman. The nephew, who was soon overwhelmed with tokens of favour,1 was able to make himself so indispensable that the Pope longed for him when he was absent, and put off all important business until his return. As Navagero points out, Carlo was able, with wonderful sagacity, to find out exactly what pleased the Pope, and to make use of every circumstance for the attainment of his own ends. He was exceedingly jealous of his own influence, and wanted to be recognized everywhere as the master, and to see others in a position of dependence; he also treated the representatives of the powers with abrupt self-assurance. In the same way as he promoted his friends and adherents, he revenged himself on his rivals and opponents. He had reached an age when he had come to the full vigour of his powers, and he devoted himself with indefatigable energy to the affairs of state. Sagacious and skilled in all manner of plots and intrigues, a master of the art of always having irons in the fire, unprincipled, double-faced and calculating, like a true follower of Machiavelli, full of bold and far-reaching schemes, which he was exceedingly skilful in carrying into effect, and entirely possessed by an insatiable ambition, Carafa's fiery nature was more and more inflamed by his unexpected good fortune, of which he was determined to make full use as long as his aged uncle lived. It was only in appearance that he was working for the noble end of liberating the Holy See and Italy from the oppressive yoke of foreign rule, in reality his activities
1 C. Carafa received the legation of Bologna, as well as all the offices connected with it on October 26, 1555 (see the *brief of that date in the Secret Archives of the Vatican, Arm. 44, t. 4, p. 143). This office brought in to the nephew 8000 ducats. Concerning this and other revenues see NAVAGero-Albèri, 384-385. In February, 1556 Cardinal Carafa also received the governo d'Ancona' (see the *letter of Card. Medici to Card. Carafa of February 5, 1556. Cod. Barb. lat. 5698, p. 8. Vatican Library), in July, 1556 he received the bishopric of Comminges; see Mél. d'archéol., XXII., 101 seq.
CARAFA'S SELFISH AIMS.
were wholly selfish and unscrupulous, and directed to his own advancement and that of his family. Such was the man who, in these exceedingly dangerous times, was to direct the secular policy of the Holy See.
1 For a character sketch of Cardinal Carafa, cf. of contemporaries, especially Navagero-AlBÈRI, 384 seq., and Charles Marillac in VAISSIÈRE, Charles de Marillac, Paris, 1896, 327; of later historians PALLAVICINI, 13, 12, 6; MARCKS, Coligny, 81, and especially ANCEL, Secrét, 11 seqq., and Disgràce, 13 seq. In his admirable work, La question de Sienne, ANCEL remarks: "Entre les bas calculs de Carlo Carafa et l'idéal du pape qui voudrait soustraire l'Église et l'Italie a la tutelle qui va désormais peser si lourdement sur elles, il y a un abîme." (p. 90).
COMMENCEMENT OF THE STRUGGLE OF PAUL IV.
AGAINST THE SUPREMACY OF SPAIN.
On the same May 29th, 1555, on which Paul IV. had announced his intentions concerning reform in his first consistory, he signed a Bull in which he solemnly promised to devote the whole of his powers to the restoration of peace in Christendom and the renewal of the ancient discipline in the Church.1
The Pope had already taken steps towards securing peace,2 and he now set about putting his plans for reform into immediate execution. A decree was therefore issued in a consistory on June 5th that in future, those who had the right of patronage should only present for bishoprics and abbeys those who were thoroughly fitted for such positions, and who were absolutely free from any suspicion of ambition or simony.3
A decree of July 17th forbade dispensations being granted for the occupation of bishoprics by those who had not reached the canonical age. 4 On the same day an important consistory was held, in which three bulls were published; the first concerned the proclamation of a Jubilee Indulgence for all those who prayed for the peace of Christendom; the second imposed the severest restrictions on the Jews in the
1 See MASSARELLI, II., 272; BROMATO, II., 224.
2 See the briefs to the Emperor and Ferdinand I. of May 24 and 26, 1555, in RAYNALDUS, 1555, n. 24 seq., the *letters to the nuncio G. Muzzarelli, to *Philip II. and Queen Mary, as well as to *Cardinal Pole, all of May 24, 1555. Brevia ad princ., Arm. 44, t. 4, n. 98, 99, 100 (Secret Archives of the Vatican).
3 Cf. *Acta consist. (Consistorial Archives); see Appendix,
4 Cf. Acta consist. (Consistorial Archives); see Appendix No. 12 and Bull., VI., 496 seq.; cf. *Report of Camillo Titio to C. Pagni, dated Rome, July 18, 1555 (State Archives, Florence).
A REFORM COMMISSION.
States of the Church; the third was directed against all alienation of the property of the Roman Church. After these documents had been read, the Pope exhorted the Cardinals to reform, blamed such as had not lived up to their high dignity, and repeated his intention of employing all his powers for the improvement of the condition of the whole Church.
He accordingly appointed five Cardinals who were to superintend the work of reform in the different countries. These were du Bellay for France, Pacheco for Spain, Truchsess for Germany, and Puteo and Cicada for Italy.1 A constitution of August 7th provided for the strictest regulations against heresy.2 A few days later a correspondent, who was inimical to Paul IV., reported that the Pope was thinking day and night of the amendment of morals of all classes, and that a great reform and a thorough purification were awaiting the clergy.3 Ignatius of Loyola expressed a similar opinion when writing to the rectors of the Jesuit colleges. With how little consideration Paul IV. proceeded is shown by the painful dismissal of Palestrina from the Papal choir, which took place on July 30th, 1555, on the ground that married members would, in future, no longer be allowed.5 In a consistory of August 23rd, Paul IV. spoke about the appointment of a commission of Cardinals for the examination
1 How incomplete the official *Acta consist. are is best shown by the fact that the important events which we learn from MASSARELLI (p. 276) are not even mentioned. Cf. also the report of G. Grandi of August 7, 1555 in ANCEL, Concile, 9.
2 See RAYNALDUS, 1555, n. 54.
3 Report from Rome on August 10 to Kurpfalz, in DRUFFELBRANDI, IV., 704 seq. Cf. also the letter of Cardinal du Bellay of July 26, 1555 in RIBIER, II., 613, that of Carafa of July 27 and of Serristori of August 27, 1555 (State Archives, Florence); Nonciat. I., lxi., n. 248; MASIUS, Briefe, 515. A brief of August 2, 1555 concerning the reform of monasteries in Ferrara in FONTANA, 433.
4 Of August 13, 1555. Cartas, V., 288 seq. Mon. Ign. Ser. I., IX., 463 seq.
5 Cf. AMBROS, IV., 9.