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in toe interior of their edilices for the purpose of catcoing, according to him, embraces the Iguanida, as well as spiders, on which they fed, under the naines of Ascalabotes Geckos. and Galeotes. That the Stellio of Pliny was no other than M. Latreille (1801-1825) seems to have adopted the views a Gerko, Schneider has shown.

and descriptions of Lacépède in the first instance, and r.ot Linnæus placed the Geckos under his great genus La- to have gone much beyond a change of nomenclature in the certa, and recorded but three species (1766).

last work published by him. Laurenti (1768) seems to have been the first modern who M. Fitzinger (1826) makes his_ Ascalabotöids consist of established the Geckos as a genus. Gmelin (1789—13th the genera Sarrubus, Uroplatus, Ptyodactylus, Hemidacty. edit. of Syst. Nat.) introduced a section in the genus La- lus, Thecadactylus, Ptychozöon, Platydactylus, Ascalabotes. certa, consisting of five species, under the name of Gek- Stenodactylus, and Phyllurus. kones, and the term Gecko was used as a generic appella- Mr. Gray (1827-1834) arranges the following genera tion for these Saurians by Lacépède (1790), Schneider under the family Geckotidæ :- Hemidactylus, Playducty(1797), Cuvier (1798), and Brongniart (1801).

lus, Gecko, Pteropleura, Thecadactylus, Ptyodactylus, Daudin (1803) divided the genus Gecko into three sec: Phyllurus, Eublepharis, Cyrtodactylus, Phyllod uctylus tions, taking for the basis of his division the number and Diploductylus (vol. ix., p. 11), and Gehyra. connexion of the toes, the form of the tail, and the disposi- Wagler" (1830), under the family name of Platyglossi, tion of the scales. These sections consisted of the Geckos makes the Geckotidæ consist of the following genera :properly so called, the Geckottes, and the Geckos with a Ptychozöon (Kuhl), Crossurus (Wagler-Uroplatus of flat tail. M. Duméril, who has written so much and so Duméril in part), Rhacöessa (Wagler-one of Duméril's well on this subject, and to whose writings we are so much Uroplati). Thecadactylus (Cuvier), Platydactylus (Cuindebted, states that in 1806 he profited by the foregoing vier), Anoplopus (Wagler), Hemidactylus (Cuvier), Ptyoworks, and established in the Zvologie Analytique and in dactylus (Cuvier), Sphæriodactylus (Cuvier), Ascalabotes his public lectures the genus Uroplatus (1806), and he (Lichtenstein), Eublepharis (Gray), Gonyodactylus (Kuhl), says that Oppel, in his Prodromus (1811), established the and Gymnodactylus (Spix). family Geckotidæ after his (Duméril's) indications. M. Dr. Cocteau (1835) arranges the Geckos in six divisions. Duméril

, who established also the genus Urotornus, adopts !, Platydactylus, containing five subdivisions, represented in great measure the system of Cuvier, and separates the in part by Anoplopus of Wagler, Phelsuma (Cocteau), Geckotidæ into two great divisions, each embracing subdi- Pachydactylus (Wiegmann), Ptychozöon (Kuhl), and visions. These divisions take the structure of the toes for Pteropleura (Gray); with others resting principally upon their basis ; the first consisting of those Geckotide which the absence or presence of pores before the cloaca, and the have dila. toes; the second of those whose toes are not development of the claws; 2, those Geckos which corredilated. 1

subdivisions depend upon the variation in the spond to Thecadactylus of Cuvier; 3, Hemidactylus ; 4, structure 6. the lower part of the toes. The genera comprehending Ptyodactylus (Uroplatus, Dumeril, RhacöAscalabotes, Platydactylus, Hemidactylus, Ptyodactylus, essa, Wagler, Crossurus, Wagler); 5, Sphæriodactylus, Thecadactylus, Stenodactylus, and Gymnodactylus (1836). comprehending Diplodactylus, Gray, and Phyllodactylus,

Cuvier (1817–1829) placed these Saurians under his Gray; 6, Stenodactylus, (Eublepharis, Gonyodactylus, great genus Gecko, which he divided into the following | Gymnodactylus, Cyrtodactylus, Pristurus, Phyllurus). subgenera - Platydactylus, Hemidactylus, Thecadactylus, M. de Blainville ('Nouvelles Annales du Muséum,' April, Ptyodactylus, Sphæriodactylus ; at the same time arrang-, 1836) places the family of Geckos at the head of the family ing those Geckos which have retractile claws, but slender of Saurophians. The species forming the genus Platydaćor rather not enarged toes, in three groups, under the tylus of Cuvier he designates as Geckos ; those ranging names of Stenoductylus, Gymnodactylus, and Phyllura, the under Hemidactylus as Demi-Geckos ; the Ptyodactyli as latter embracing those with a horizontally-flattened, foliated Tiers-Geckos ; the Stenodactyli as Quart-Geckos; and the tail.

Gymnodactyli as Sub-Geckos. Merrem (1820) places the Geckos in the 1st tribe (Gradi. The following cuts will convey an idea of the form o entia) of the class Pholidoti. The sub-tribe Ascalabotes, some of the Geckotidæ :


[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[graphic][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small]

1. Gymnvaactyrus Miliusii (Cyrtodactylus Miliusii, Gray).

1. a, the underside of one of its toes. (Duméril.) Locality, New Holland.

The student who wishes to follow out the natural history | translation of the Bible into the English language, for the of this family of Saurians should consult the works of Al- use of the Roman Catholics ; but pecuniary difficulties predrovandi, Aristotle, Bonaparte (Prince of Musignano), vented him during his residence at Auchinhalrig from obBrongniart, Creveldt, Cuvier, Duméril, Edwards, Eichvald, taining the necessary books. On his removal to London, Feuillée, Flacourt, Geoffroy, Gesner, Gmelin, Gray, Her- in 1779, he was introduced to Lord Petre, who warmly apmann, Houttuyn, Knorr, Kuhl, Lacépède, Latreille, Lesson, proved of his purpose, and engaged to allow him 2001. aLichtenstein, Linnæus, the Prince of Neuwied, Oppel, year for his life, and to procure for him all the works that Osbeck, Pallas, Perrault, Pisa, Pliny, Rafinesque, Risso, he considered requisite. Thus encouraged he published, in Rüppel, Ruysch, Schneider, Schinz, Seba, Sparmann, Spix, 1780, a pamphlet under the title of an Idea of a new verTilesius, Wagler, White, Wiegmann, and Wormius. sion of the Holy Bible, for the use of the English Catholics,'

GEDDES, ALEXANDER, LL.D., was born at Arra- in which he proposed to make the Vulgate the basis of his dowl, in the parish of Ruthven and county of Banff, in new translation. This plan being afterwards abandoned, he Scotland, in A.D. 1737. His parents, who were in humble resolved to make an entirely new translation from the Hecircumstances, were enabled, by the kindness of the laird of brew and Greek; for if he had adopted the former methoa, the village, to give their son a respectable education. After he stated that he must have been perpetually confronting spending seven years at Scalan, a Roman Catholic seminary the Vulgate with the originals, and very often correcting it in the Highlands, he was removed at the age of twenty-one by them ; or presented his readers with a very unfair and to the Scotch college in Paris, where he diligently studied imperfect representation of the sacred text.' In accomtheology, and made himself master of most of the modern plishing this work, his first object was directed to obtaining European languages. On his return to Scotland he resided an accurate text, and no labour was spared by this indefatifor some time in the house of the Earl of Traquaire ; and, gable scholar to render the translation as complete as posafter paying another visit to Paris, he accepted, in 1769,sible. He consulted the most eminent biblical scholars of the charge of a Catholic congregation at Auchinhalrig in the day, among whom were Dr. Kennicott, and Dr. Lowth. the county of Banff

, where he remained for ten years, beloved the bishop of London, who assisted him with their advice. by his people, and attentive to the duties of his station. He The prospectus, which contained an account of his plan, was had resolved—in the early vears of his life to make a new published in 1786; this was soon followed by a letter to the

bishop of London, containing “Queries, doubts, and difficul: I the latter of whom observed that Dr. Geddes was the on., ties, relative to a vernacular version of the Holy Scriptures,' individual by whose opinion he would consent to be judged. by a specimen of the work, and by a General Answer to the In addition to his translation, Dr. Geddes published many queries, counsels, and criticisms' which his prospectus and other works, most of which had only a temporary interest, specimens had called forth. It was not howerer till 1792 as they were written on the politics of the day, or on some that the first volume of the translation was published under theological or literary dispute which has long since been setthe title of. The Holy Bible, or the Books accountel sacred tled. A complete catalogue of them is given in the beginby the Jews and Christians, otherwise called the Buoks of ning of Dr. Mason Good's Memoirs of the Life and Writthe Old and New Covenants, faithfully translated from cor- ings of the Rev. Alexander Geddes, LL.D.,' published in rected texts of the originals, with various readings, explana- 1803. (See Graves on the Pentateuch, and the 4th, 14th, tory notes, and critical remarks; the second, which con- | 19th, and 20th volumes of the British Critic, old series, for tained the translation to the end of the historical books, ap- a review of his theological opinions.) peared in 1793 ; and the third, which contained his critical GEDIKE, FRIEDRICH, was born at Boberow, near remarks upon the Pentateuch, in 1800. The remainder of Lenzen in Brandenburg in the year 1754. The death of his the work was never finished; he was employed at the time father, when he was but nine years old, plunged him in of his death on a translation of the Psalms, which he had great distress, and he was taken to the Orphan Asylum at finished as far as the 118th Psalm, and which was published Züllichau. Dr. Steinbart, who was director of the public in 1807. He died at London on the 26th of February, 1802, institutions for instruction in this place, educated him seven in the 65th year of his age.

years at the Asylum. In 1766 Steinbart founded a school In his translation and commentary Dr. Geddes main- of his own, where Gedike became a pupil, and here talents tained opinions very similar to those held by that class of which had hitherto lain dormant began to manifest themdivines in Germany denominated Rationalist, and of whom selves. He went to the university at Frankfort in 1771, Eichhorn and Paulus were the most celebrated in his day. and studied under Töllner. On the death of Töllner, SteinHe considered the writers of the Scriptures to have had the bart, who succeeded him, once more became his instructor. same degree of inspiration which has been granted to good | In 1775 Spalding appointed Gedike private teacher to his two men in all ages, and which, according to the common sons, and in 1776 he was made subrector of the Friedrichmeaning attached to the word inspiration, amounts to none werder Gymnasium at Berlin, of which in a few years he at all. He disbelieved the divine mission of Moses, and became director. He now showed himself to be one of the asserted that 'Moses only did what all other antient legis- most eminent teachers in Germany. Indefatigable in lators had done, required a greater or less degree of impli- devising new methods of instruction, and constantly cit obedience to their respective laws, and for that purpose aiming at improvements, he animated both pupils and feigned an intercourse with the Deity to make that obe- tutors, and raised the almost sinking establishment to a dience more palatable to the credulous multitude.' He re-higli eminence. He became in 1795 director of the Berlin jected the various miracles ascribed to him, or laboured to Gymnasium, having previously received the degree of doctor reduce them to the standard of natural phenomena. He of theology. He died in 1803. explains the account of the creation in the book of Genesis The works of Gedike are chiefly school-books and works 'as a most beautiful mythos or philosophical fiction, con on education, but he also published an edition of the ‘Phitrived with great wisdom, and dressed up in the garb of real loctetes' of Sophocles, and of select dialogues from Plato, as history.' These and similar opinions exposed the author to well as some translations of Pindar, which are mentioned severe censure; and charges of infidelity and of a desire with respect. to undermine the authority of the Scriptures were widely GEERTRUYDENBERG. [BRABANT.] circulated against him. His own church was the first to GEESE. [Goose.] condemn him; a pastoral letter, signed by three out of four GEHLENITE, a mineral which occurs in imbedded and of the apostolical vicars of England, forbad the faithful from massive aggregations of rectangular or slightly rhombic reading his translation; and Dr. Geddes himself was soon crystals. Primary form uncertain. Cleavage parallel to afterwards deposed by the apostolical vicar of the London the planes of a rectangular or rhombic prism. Surface district from the exercise of his duties as a priest. We usually rough and dark. Fracture uneven, passing into cannot be surprised at this, for though he professed himself splintery. Hardness, 5'5 to 6. Colour in general grey, frea member of ihe Catholic Church, he disclaimed all papal quently with a yellowish or greenish tint. Lustre slightly authority, and was strongly opposed to many of the tenets vitreous, resinous. Translucent slightly or opaque. Specific of that church. His heterodox opinions on these subjects gravity, 2.832 to 3.029. had occasioned a similar suspension from his office when he Before the blowpipe gehlenite suffers no change when officiated as priest at Auchinhalrig. To vindicate his cha- | alone. With borax it melts with difficulty into a glass racter Dr. Geddes published an 'Address to the public on coloured by oxide of iron. When heated in hydrochloric the publication the first volume of his new translation of acid it gelatinizes. the Bible,' in which he repelled the charge of infidelity, and This mineral occurs only in the valley of Fassa in tho asserted, I willingly confess myself a sincere though un- Tyrol. By analysis it yielded, according to worthy disciple of Christ; Christian is my name, and Ca

Dr. Thomson tholic my surname-rather than renounce these titles I


29.64 29:132 would shed my blood.' We have no reason for doubting


24.80 25.048 the truth of this declaration ; his whole life showed that he


35.30 37.380 was a diligent inquirer after truth. Though we may consi

Protoxide of iron


4.350 der the opinions of Dr. Geddes as detrimental to the autho



4.540 rity of the Scriptures, we have no reason on that account for charging him with infidelity, since he believed that his in

99.60 100.450 terpretation of the Scriptures tended to place Christianity on a firmer basis, and that those were the enemies of reli- GEHYRA. [GECKO, vol. xi., pp. 104, 105.] gion who seek to support her on rotten props, which moulder GELA, a Grecian colony on the south-western coast of away at the first touch of reason, and leave the fabric in Sicily, was founded by a joint colony from Crete and from the dust. His translation is well described by Dr. Mason Lindus, a city in Rhodes, forty-five years after the foundaGood (Life of Geddes, p. 358) to be," for the most part, tion of Syracuse. (Herod., vii. 153; Thuc., vi. 4.) It was plain and perspicuous, conveying the sense of the original in its native simplicity. But his language is occasionally unequal, and strongly partakes of the alternations of his own physical constitution; in consequence of which, in the midst of a passage most exquisitely rendered in the main, we are at times surprised with scholastic and extraneous expressions, cr disgusted with intolerable vulgarisms.' It cannot be denied that his work was a valuable help to the science of biblical criticism in this country, and it must have been a source of consolation to him, in the midst of the virulence with which he was assailed in England, to know that such men as Paulus and Eichhorn appreciated his labours ; British Museum. Actual Size. Silver. Weight, 265 grains.


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Coin of Gela.

Coin of Gela.

one of the most powerful of the Grecian colonies in to keep a common-place book in which he entered whatever Sicily, and continued so to the time of Gelon (Gelon), who he heard in conversation or met with in his private reading removed the greater part of its inhabitants to Syracuse : that appeared worthy of memory. In composing his 'Noctes after which it rapidly sunk in importance, and never again Atticæ,' he seems merely to have copied the contents of his obtained its former power.

The modern town of Terra common-place book with a little alteration in the language, Nova is supposed to have been built upon its site. The Mi- but without any attempt at classification or arrangement. notaur on the coin of Gela, below, is symbolical of the origin This work contains anecdotes and arguments, scraps of hisof the city.

tory and pieces of poetry, and dissertations on various points in philosophy, geometry, and grammar. Amidst much that is

trifling and puerile, we obtain information on many subjects KEAAS

relating to antiquity, of which we must otherwise have been ignorant. It is divided into twenty books, which are still extant, with the exception of the eighth and the beginning of the seventh. He mentions, in the conclusion of his preface, his intention of continuing the work, which he probably never carried into effect. The 'Noctes Atticæ' was printed for the first time at Rome, 1469, and has been frequently reprinted; the most valuable editions are the Bipont., 2 vols.

8vo. 1784, the one published by Gronovius, 4to. 1706, and a British Museum. Actual size. Silver. Weight, 2694 gralns. recent one by Lion, 2 vols. 8vo., Göttingen, 1824. The work GELA'SIMUS, a genus of Brachyurous Crustaceans. has been translated into English by Beloe, 3 vols. 8vo., Lon. (OCY PODIANS.)

don, 1795; and into French, by Douzé de Verteuil, 3 vols. GELA'SIUS I. succeeded Felix II. as bishop of Rome, 12mo., Paris, 1776—1777. A.D. 492, and carried on the controversy with the Greek GELON, a native of Gela, rose from the station church which had begun under his predecessor, but without of a private citizen to be supreme ruler of Gela and bringing it to any conclusion. He died in 496, and was Syracuse. He was descended from an ancient family, succeeded by Anastasius II. Gelasius wrote several theo- which originally came from Telus, an island off the coast logical works, such as “ De Duabus Naturis in Christo,' in of Caria, and settled at Gela when it was first colonized which he expresses sentiments which are considered as by the Rhodians; at which place his ancestors held the opposed to transubstantiation. It is found in the Lyon office of hereditary minister of the infernal gods (XOóvio Bibliotheca Maxima Patrum.

θεοί (Herod vii. 153). During the time that HippoGELA'SIUS II., a Benedictine monk, succeeded Paschal crates reigned at Gela (B.C. 498—491), Gelon was appointed II., A.D. 1118. The popes were then at open war with the commander of the cavalry, and greatly distinguished himemperors of Germany; and the partizans of the latter at self in the various wars that Hippocrates carried on against Rome, headed by the powerful family of Frangipani, opposed the Grecian cities in Sicily. On the death of Hippocrates, the election of Gelasius, and afterwards seized him and who fell in a battle against the Siceli, Gelon seized the supersonally ill-treated him, until he was rescued from their preme power (B.C. 491). Soon afterwards a more splendid hands by the præfect of Rome. Soon after, the Emperor prize fell in his way. The nobles and landholders (yauópoi) Henry V. came himself with troops, and the pope having of Syracuse, who had been expelled from the city by an run away to Gaëta, an anti-pope was elected by the Im- insurrection of their slaves supported by the rest of ihe peoperial party, who styled himself Gregory VIII. 'Gelasius, ple, applied to Gelon for assistance. This crafty prince gladly after many wanderings, repaired to France, where he held | availing himself of the opportunity of extending his domia council at Rheims. He died at the convent of Cluny, in nions, marched to Syracuse, into which he was admitted by January, 1119, after a short but stormy pontificate, and was the popular party (B.C. 485), who had not the means of resistsucceeded by Calixtus II.

ing so formidable an opponent. (Herodotus, vii. 154, 155.) GELATIN. [Food, vol. x., p. 343.]

Having thus become master of Syracuse, he appointed his broGELDER ROSE, or rather, GUELDRES ROSE, a ther Hieron governor of Gela, and exerted all his endeavours double variety of the Viburnum Opulus, a marsh shrub, to promote the prosperity of his new acquisition. In order to common in this country and all the north of Europe. The increase the population of Syracuse, he destroyed Camarina, name of this variety is supposed to indicate its origin in the and removed all its inhabitants, together with a great numLow Countries : it is also called the snowball-tree, in ber of the citizens of Gela, to his favourite city. As he was allusion to its large white balls of tlowers.

indebted for his power in Syracuse to the aristocratical GELE'E. CLĂUDE. (CLAUDE LORRAINE.]

party, he took care to strengthen it against the people. GELLERT, CHRISTIAN FURCHTEGOTT, born Thus when he conquered the Megarians and Eubeans of near Chemnitz, in Saxony, acquired a great reputation as a Sicily, he transplanted to Syracuse all those who were writer of fables and as a moralist. The simplicity of his possessed of wealth, but sold the remainder as slaves. (Hemanners, his candour, and goodness of heart, contributed to rod. vii. 156.) By his various conquests and his great render him popular with all classes. Frederic II. and Prince abilities he had become a very powerful monarch; and Henry were very partial to him, notwithstanding his habitual therefore, when the Greeks expected the invasion of Xerxes, shyness. His Fabeln und Erzählungen' had a prodigious ambassadors were sent to Syracuse to secure if possible his success in Germany. He also wrote ‘Sacred Odes and assistance in the war. Gelon promised to send to their aid Songs,' which are much esteemed. His · Letters ' have also 200 triremes, 20,000 heavy-armed troops, 2000 cavalry, and been published. The collection of his works, · Sämmtliche 6000 light-armed troops, provided the supreme command Werke,' forms part of the Karlsruher Deutscher Classiker,' were given to him. This offer being indignantly rejected 1823-6. His fables and letters were translated into French, by the Lacedæmonian and Athenian ambassadors, Gelon 5 vols. 8vo., with a biographical notice of the author. Gel- sent, according to Herodotus, an individual named Cadmus lert died at Leipzig, where he was professor of philosophy, to Delphi with great treasures, with orders to present them in December, 1769, and a monument was raised to him in to Xerxes if he proved victorious in the coming war. (He the church of St. John, with a cast of his head in bronze. rod. vii. 157–164.) This statement however was denied The bookseller Wendler, who published his works, also raised by the Syracusans, who said that Gelon would have assisted a monument to the memory of Gellert in his garden. the Greeks, if he had not been prevented by an invasion of

GE'LLIUS, AULUS (or, according to some writers, the Carthaginians with a force amounting to 300,000 men Agellius), the author of the 'Noctes Atticæ,' was horn at Rome under the command of Hamilcar. This great army was entirely in the early part of the second century, and died at the be- defeated near Himera by Gelon, and Theron, monarch of ginning of the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. We Agrigentum, on the same day on which the battle of Salamis have few particulars of his life; we know that he studied wils fought. (Herod. vii. 165–167.) An account of this rhetoric under Cornelius Fronto at Rome, and philosophy expedition is also given by Diodorus (b. xi.p. 254, Steph.), who under Phavorinus at Athens, and that he was appointed at states that the battle between Gelon and the Carthaginians an early age to a judicial office. (Noct. Att. xiv. 2.) The was fought on the same day as that of Thermopylæ. • Noctes Atticæ' was written, as he informs us in the pre- Gelon appears to have used with moderation the power which face to the work, during the winter evenings in Atlica, he had acquired by violence, and to have endeared himself to amuse his children in their hours of relaxation. It ap- 1 10 the Syracusans by the equity of his government and the pears from his own account, that he had been accustomea | encouragement he gave to commerce and the fine arts.

There are still existing many coms of Gelon and his suc-, of Castor (or a Geminorum) and Pollux (or B Geminorum) cessor Hieron, of beautiful workmanship, of which a descrip- are given. The latter star is marked by Flamsteed as of the tion is given in Mionnet, vol. i. p. 328. It is supposed by first magnitude, by the greater part of astronomers as of the some that these coins were not struck in the time of Gelon, second, and by Piazzi as of the third ! These two stars, whose but by order of Hieron II. (B.C. 275—216), a supposition proximity will cause them to be easily recognised when once somewhat inconsistent with the number of coins still re- known, may be found by drawing a line through the belt maining. We are informed by Plutarch, that posterity of Orion and the two bright stars the line of which cuts remembered with gratitude the virtues and abilities of through the belt. This line, lengthened upwards, will pass Gelon, and that the Syracusans would not allow his statue very near to the two stars of Gemini. They are also about to be destroyed, together with those of the other tyrants, halfway between Regulus and Aldebaran: and if the Great when Timoleon was master of the city. (“Life of Timoleon,' Bear and Orion be seen together,then Capella on the one side, p. 247.) He died B.C. 478, and was succeeded by his bro- and Castor and Pollux on the other, will be conspicuous ther Hieron. (Aristotle, Polit., b. v., c. 12, p. 678, Elzevir.) | boundaries of the intermediate space.

GEMINIA'NI, FRANCESCO, a very distinguished EYPAK.SI

composer, and also a famous violinist, was born at Lucca, about the year 1680. The foundation of his profesional knowledge was laid by Alessandro Scarlatti, but he completed his studies under Corelli. England was then, as now, the place of attraction for foreign musical talent, and Gemi

niani arrived in London in 1714, where his performance CEALN

speedily gave him celebrity. He soon became acquainte. Coin of Gelon.

with Baron Kilmansegge, chamberlain to George I. os

Elector of Hanover, through whose means he was introBritish Museum. Actual size. Silver. Weight, 98 grains.

duced to the king, and had the honour to perform before GEMELLA'RIA. (CELLARIÆA, vol. vi., p. 405.] that sovereign some of his recently published Sonatas, for GEMICELLA'RIA. [CELLARIÆA, vol. vi., p. 404.] * Violino, Violone, e Cembalo,' in which Handel accompa

GEMINI (the Twins), the third constellation in the nied him on the harpsichord. Successful as he was profesZodiac. The Greeks refer it not only to the fable of Castorsionally, bis finances were continually in a disordered state, and Pollux, but also to those of Hercules and Apollo, Trip- for some demon whispered • Have a taste,' and following tolemus and Iasion, Amphion and Zethus, &c.

such seductive advice, he indulged in the passion for collectThe principal stars are as follows:

ing pictures, which he often sold again at a loss, and thus

not only expended all that his talent and labour acquired, No, in

No, in
Catalogue of

Catalogue of

but too frequently was tempted to neglect his business. Embarrassed circumstances were the unavoidable result; he therefore applied for the appointment of Composer of State Music in Ireland, and through the interest of the Earl of Essex was nominated to that good situation; but belonging to the Catholic communion, and, though no bigot,

refusing to take oaths irreconcilable to his conscience, the H 1 749 5

53 891 6} office was given to his pupil, Matthew Dubourg. He now 2 754

λ 54


5 sct down industriously to compose, and published numerous 3 760 61

55 900 3 works. Six of Corelli's Solos and as many of that great 4 762 7


65 musician's Sonatas he converted into Concertos for a band, 5 766 7

57 907 55 and in so efficient a manner, that some of them are yet 6 769 7


908 7? annually listened to with delight at the Ancient Concerts. 7 775 41

59 909 6

These were followed by his own Six Orchestral Concertos, 8 779 7}

60 911 41

Opera Terza, and Twelve Sonatas for Violin and Base, all 9 782 7

62 918 5 of which abound in beautiful melody, and evince his skill 11 786 8

(p) 63 916 6 in harmony. His deep knowledge of the latter was further 13 790 3

64 919 6 exhibited soon after, in his Guida Armonica, which the old 799 7 65 922 6

musicians treated as one of those attempts at innovation that 16



1 ought to be resisted, and omitted no means in their power 18 804

67 926 71

to prevent the sale of a work which they had not wit enough 19 809 7

(k) 68 929 6 to understand. A French critic however, the Père Castel, 21 811

69 933 5 wrote a vindication of it in the Journal des Savans, a pub7 24 820 2.1

74 940

lication of vast influence at that time, and Geminiani finally

6 25 825 7

943 5 triumphed over his obstinate and jealous opponents. But 26 828 5

76 946 6 as the emoluments arising from his many publications were 27 831 3

947 41 by no means commensurate to the thought and time neces28 832 6 B 78 948 2 sarily bestowed on them, or to his expensive habits, his 30 833

79 949 7 necessities still pursued him, and he had recourse to a kind 31 836

81 951 6 of benefit-concert at Drury Lane theatre, by which he made (G) 33 842


6 a considerable sum, and was thus enabled to gratify his love e 34 846 4

83 963 5 of travelling. He went to Paris, and there printed two sets 35 843

85 967 6 of Concertos. On his return to England he continued comd 36 844

(39) 893 7 posing and publishing. In 1761 he paid a visit to his friend 37 850 6

(78) 792 7 Dubourg, in Dublin; but soon after his arrival in that city el 38 851

(87) 795 7 he lost, through the treachery of a servant, a manuscript 39 861 63

(89) 796 7

treatise on music, on which he had bestowed much time and (y) 864 6

(126) 808 7 labour, and on the success of which his hopes of future in41 866 6

(144) 814


dependence were founded. This he never recovered ; and 42 870

(144) 934


the circumstance so preyed on his mind, that we are told it % 43 872

31 (179) 945 7 shortened his life, though probably not by any long period, 44

876 67 (224) 960 7 for he reached his eighty-third year, and breathed his last 45 879


7 in the Irish capital in 1762.
881 5
(281) 859 7

47 882

865 7

GEMMULI'NA. (FORAMINIFERA, vol. X., p. 348.] 'm) 48 885 6

(305) 871 6.

GEMS. (Cameo; INTAGL10.] 51 888 53 [1090] 931 7

GENDARMERIE (from Gens d'Armes, men-at-arms) (n) 52 889 6* 110111 939 7 was a chosen corps of cavalry under the old monarchy of

France: it is mentioned with praise in the wars of Louis This constellation derives its name from two remarkable | XIII. and Louis XIV. Under the present system the stars, of the first and second magnitude, to which the names gendarmerie is a body of soldiers entrusted with the police

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