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and shortly afterwards married a German princess of the and renounced all external observances that might remind house of Baden. Of all the European monarchs he was him of his former rank. He refused the appanage which the most zealous partisan of legitimacy, and he proposed, as Sweden offered him; he urged forward a suit of divorce the great object of his life, the restoration of the dethroned from his wife, which he succeeded in obtaining on the 17th family of the Bourbons to the crown of France. In 1803 of February, 1812; and he declined having any commuhe made a journey through Germany in order to unite all nication with his family, and obstinately rejected all asthe sovereign princes of the Empire in arms against Napo- sistance from them. He subsisted on the produce of his leon; and to show his detestation of the usurper he sent labours as an author, together with a little pension which back to the king of Prussia the order of the Black Eagle, he drew as a colonel. because the same distinction had been given to Napoleon. Among his printed works, which appeared during his When Bonaparte concluded peace with Germany in 1806, residence in Switzerland, one very systematically develops Gustavus IV., through his ambassador, declared that he the mystical-religious and ultra-royal political tendencies would no longer take any part in the proceedings of the of his mind. The moderation and discretion, as well as Diet while it remained under the influence of a usurper. the stedfast tranquillity with which he endured his fall dil Nothing more was required to make him break off all him honour, and almost excuse the follies through which diplomatic relations with the most powerful courts of he tritled away the possession of a throne. He was a martyr Europe than an approach on their part to friendly relations to his principles, which were founded upon his extravagant with Napoleon. He thus involved his country in inde- notions of the divine right of kings over their subjects. scribable difficulties; irritated all his neighbours, and He died at St. Gall, toward the end of the year 1837, showed by his conduct that he would not scruple to sacri- lamented by all who had known him in the latter years of fice his people's welfare to his unreasoning obstinacy. His his life. His son, the heir of the line of Vasa, now lives at wars and negotiations exhausted the poverty of Sweden, Vienna, a colonel of an Austrian regiment. and the inhabitants sighed beneath an intolerable burthen GUSTROW. (MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN.] of taxes. Even England, his only ally, whom he certainly GUTENBERG, believed to be the first inventor of the could not reproach with any friendly feelings towards art of printing with moveable types, whose real name was Napoleon, he contrived to offend by his conduct. Upon John Genstleisch, was born in 1397 at Sulgeloch, a village the English government sending hini a message with some near Mentz. His youth was passed in the latter city, well-grounded complaints, he broke off with this power where he acquired the name of Henne (i.e. John) og also, and ordered all the English ships in Swedish harbours Gutenberg, from that of the family with whom he dwelt. to be laid under embargo.

During his residence in Mentz he became implicated in The Swedes soon became tired of seeing themselves an insurrection of the citizens against the nobility, and sacrificed to the extravagant follies of this Don Quixote of was compelled to fly to Strasburg to avoid the vengeance legitimacy, and the most influential patriots began seriously of his victorious adversaries. At Strasburg necessity comto consider how they could rescue their country from total pelled him to employ himself in mechanical occupatiors, destruction. Gustavus appears to have discovered through and by accident he made the discovery so pregnant wiih his spies that a storm was gathering about him, and, either future consequences. After the animosity of his persein order to avert it, or to make himself safe in any event, cutors had subsided, Gutenberg returned to Mentz, and he endeavoured to possess himself of the funds deposited in endeavoured, in conjunction with Fust, a rich citizen of the bank of Sweden. At first he made an attempt to get that town, and his son-in-law Schoeffer, to turn his inventhe money into his hands by means of a proposed loan of tion to a profitable account. But Gutenberg experienced eighty-two millions of Swedish rix-dollars (about twelve the hard fate that all great inventors have to endure from millions sterling), but as the bank commissioners refused to the misconceptions and ingratitude of mankind. The memcomply with this lemand, he resolved to carry his plan into bers of the Guild of Writers, at that time an influential effect by force.

body, together with the priests, persecuted him ; his partOn the 12th of March, 1809, he repaired to the bank, ners Fust and Schoeffer joined with his enemies against accompanied by a detachment of military, with the inten- him; through litigation he was deprived of all his property; tion of taking possession of the money deposited there. and once more he was forced to turn_his back upon the The commissioners of the bank had applied for protection ungrateful town. In the meantime Fust and Schoeffer to the Diet, and the Diet had directed Generals Klingspor pursued their business as printers, and thus reaped all the and Adlerkreutz to divert the king from his intention by profit, while the inventor was wandering in exile. After an persuasion, or to prevent him by force. The generals met interval of many years Gutenberg returned to Mentz, where the king in the court of the bank buildings, and endea he died in 1468. voured to make him aware of the impropriety of his conduct; Posterity has endeavoured in some degree to make but Gustavus treated them as rebels, and ordered the sol- amends for the ingratitude of Gutenberg's contemporaries. diers to remove them from his presence by force. Adler- Last year (1837) a splendid monument by Thorwaldsen was kreutz then advanced, seized the king by the breast, and erected to his memory in Mentz. The Gutenberg Society, cried with a loud voice- In the name of the nation, I to which all the writers of the Rhenish provinces belong, arrest thee, Gustavus Vasa, as a traitor.' of the soldiers hold a yearly meeting also in Mentz to honour his memory who were present, about forty endeavoured to defend the and to celebrate his discovery. [Fust.] The ‘Statuta Proking, but the majority followed the call of the general to vincialia antiqua et nova Moguntina, 4to., are thought to carry into effect the orders of the Diet. Gustavus defended have been printed by Gutenberg, with two or three edihimself with desperation, and it was only by force that tions, of which fragments only remain, of Donatus. Some they could disarm him. He tore himself loose from the have thought the Mazarine bible to have been a production hands of the soldiers, and had very nearly escaped, but of his press. _(Wagenseil, Biographieen.) was again secured, and confined in an apartment, where GUTHRIE, WILLIAM, was born at Brechin, in the for several hours he raged like a madman. Immediately county of Angus, Scotland, according to one account, in upon the arrest of Gustavus, Duke Charles of Suder- 1701, according to ano er in 1708. He was educated at mania issued a proclamation, in which he announced the University of Aberdeen; but little or nothing is known that he had been called to the head of a regency, and of his early years, except that it is said he was induced te exhorted the people to quietness till the decision of the leave his native country by a disappointment in love, on States-General should be promulgated. On the 24th of which he came to London, and commenced writing for the March Gustavus was brought to the castle of Gripehelm, booksellers. He was one of the most popular compilers of where he gave in his abdication. On the 29th there ap- his day, and must have been one of the most industrious peared the decision of the Diet, by which Gustavus IV. and writers ever known, if he was the author of all the volumiall his direct descendants were declared to have forfeited nous works to which his name is prefixed. Among them their rights to the Swedish crown, and the Duke of Suder- are a History of England, 3 vols. fol.; a History of Scotmania ascended the now vacant throne of Sweden under land, 10 vols. 8vo.; a General History of the World, 13 vols. the name of Charles XIII.

8vo.; a History of the Peerage, 1 vol. 4to.; a translation of Gustavus left the Swedish territories very shortly after the Institutes of Quintilian, 2 vols. 4to.; translations of his deposition. During his exile he travelled through most nearly all the writings of Cicero ; “The Friends,' a norel, of the countries of Europe, but lived chiefly in the little in 2 vols. 8vo.; ‘Remarks on English Tragedy,' &c. But town of St. Gall, the capital of the Swiss canton of the in the preparation of most of these works he is beliered

He assumed the pame of Colonel Gustavson, I to have had little share, beyond lending them his name,

same name.

which it would appear was in repute with the booksellers. | also here mention once for all that the affection is sometimes The well-known Geographical Grammar' which bears his merely hysterical, in which case though the blindness may name is believed to have been compiled by a bookseller in be total it is rarely permanent; and the same remark may the Strand, of the name of Knox. Guthrie found the trade be made of a kind of amaurosis which occasionally results of authorship not an unprosperous one; and to what he from the irritation of worms in the intestinal canal. gained with his pen was, in course of time, added a pension The effects of remedies and some other considerations from government, which it may be supposed he earned by appear to lead to the conclusion that amaurosis is generally some writings acceptable to the court, or by other unknown of an inflammatory nature, or dependent at least upon a political services. He was also placed in the commission congested state of the blood-vessels. It is however unquesof the peace for Middlesex, although it is said he never tionably sometimes the result of an opposite state, for it may acted as a magistrate. He died in 1770. Guthrie's 'Ge- be brought on by excessive or repeated losses of blood, by neral History of England, from the Invasion of the Romans long-continued nursing, and by other immoderate disunder Julius Cæsar to the late Revolution in 1688,' which charges and secretions, and is sometimes the effect of mere is the historical work of which his claim to the authorship debility. is the most undoubted, is written in a style by no means It may be caused by simple pressure on the optic nerve, without warmth and animation, though it has not much as by the growth of a tumour, or by apoplectic effusions claim to the praise either of penetrating judgment or exten- within the head: in this case it is analogous to the paralysis sive research. The author is rather fond of new and pecu- of a limb. A slight stroke received unexpectedly upon the liar views-one instance of which that may be mentioned is naked eye-ball may produce it, although a violent blow the light in which he endeavours to place the conduct and when the lids are firmly closed has no such consequence. character of Richard III., many of the common stories in In this case it is called concussion of the retina, and is anaregard to whom he disputes in a manner that led him after-logous to concussion of the brain. It may also be the inwards to claim the honour of having anticipated nearly all stantaneous effect of a flash of lightning. But the most that was most remarkable in Horace Walpole’s ‘Historic frequent causes of amaurosis are exposure of the eye to too Doubts.' But in truth both he and Walpole had been long bright a light, as in watching an eclipse of the sun; or overbefore preceded in the same line of argument by Sir George exertion of it in laborious study, especially at night, or in Buck. The History of England' bears throughout, and occupations such as that of the watchmaker. The Esquiespecially in the latter part, the marks of having been writ-maux are very subject to this complaint from the bright ten in haste, and under the pressure of limits too narrow reflexion of their snow-fields; and have learned by expefor the author's not very economical style. It is however a rience to guard against the danger by using snow-speclarge work; the first volume, which was published in 1744, tacles, which are pieces of wood pierced with small circular and comes down to the accession of Edward II., containing holes, bound before the eyes, so as to shut out a part of the 962 pages; the second, published in 1747, and coming down field of view. to the accession of Edward VI., 1130 pages; and the third, We cannot enter at length into the symptoms of amaupublished in 1751, 1396 pages. After all, the narrative stops rosis, which vary of course with the seat, the cause, and at the Restoration, the author apologising for putting a the degree of injury. The chief symptoms are a more or period to his work at that point, contrary indeed,' he less rapid failure of sight, by an increasing dilution of light says, “to my obligations to the public, but I hope not con- with darkness (if the expression may be allowed), rather trary to the sense of my readers, upon whom this volume than by the appearance of a cloud. Moving spots, called has already grown so enormously.'

muscæ volitantes, are generally seen to flit before the eyes, GUTTA SERE'NA is that kind of blindness which especially when they are closed. There is generally some arises from derangement or disease of the nerves of the eye, degree of pain in the organ itself, and in the forehead; when whether before or after their separation from the brain. The the complaint arises from exhaustion, it is felt chiefly towards name originated in a notion, long prevalent in the schools, the back of the head. Exertion of the sight is always fatiguing that all diseases are attributable to some deleterious fluid or and painful. The pupil is either preternaturally large or humour circulating in the blood or diffused in the substance small, and obeys the stimulus of light either not at all or of the part affected. The epithet serene was intended to very sluggishly. The eyeball is sometimes too soft; in intimate the comparative freedom from pain, and the ab- other cases unusually firm; or it may be of the natural desence of any unpleasant change in the appearance of the gree of hardness. A degree of fever is occasionally present. eye, which distinguish this class of ophthalmic complaints if one eye becomes affected, the other generally follows, esfrom others equally destructive of sight. Hence Milton, pecially if the cause be common to both. The complaint whose blindness was of this kind, thus addresses Light is most usual after the middle period of life; it is frequently (Paradise Lost, iii. 22):

found to affect members of the same family, and comes on

about the same age. Dissipation of all kinds, and especially Revisit'st not these eyes that roll in rain

habitual inebriety, predispose to it.
To find thy piercing ray, and find no dawn;
So thick a drop serere hath quenched their orbs,

Confirmed amaurosis is seldom cured; but in its early

stages much may be effected by careful and skilful treatand in the lines to Cyriack Skinner, he notices both the ment; and the means may generally be adapted with great external peculiarity and the cause (by far the most frequent precision to the nature of the case, by attentive consideraone) of his blindness, as well as the occasional suddenness tion of its symptoms and history. of its attack:

Depletion, aperient medicines, abstinence, and a darkened • Cyriack, this three years' day these eyes, though clear To outward view of blemish or of spot,

chamber, must of course form a part of the treatment when Bereft of light, their secing have forgote

the case is inflammatory: but mercury, pushed if necessary

to the extent of salivation, is the remedy most to be relied What supports me, dost though ask? The conscience, friend, to have lost them overplied

on; indeed, without it, the oculist would have little chance In liberty's defence, my noble task.'

of success in any case. But the rejection of the humoral pathology has been ex- When the symptoms arise from exhaustion, an opposite tended to the nomenclature derived from it; and this fanci- plan of treatment is obviously proper; but even then the ful, though still popular term, which seems to have been moderate action of mercury is sometimes requisite. Blisters devised expressly for the poets, has giren place in modern behind the ears and between the shoulders are frequently systems of nosology to that of amaurosis (äuavpos, blind). of great service in both descriptions of cases. In sympathe

The most frequent seat of the complaint is the retina; tic amaurosis the attention must of course be directed in the next is probably the brain itself, or that part of the optic the first place to the organ which is the original seat of nerve which, lying within the cranium, is in contact or irritation. communication with the brain, and partakes of its diseases. This complaint not unfrequently forms a complication of But recent observations and experiments have proved that cataract and of closed pupil ; probably from extension of the the affection of the optic nerve may be secondary; and that inflammation from the parts of the eye affected in those disorthe primary seat of the disease may be in certain other ders to the choroid coat or to the retina. Operations for the nerves connected with the eye, though not immediately cure of either of those causes of blindness would be attended subservient to vision. It may likewise be symptomatic of with no advantage in such cases, and should not be underirritation in some distant organ, probably through the inter- taken. vention of the same class of nerves. The temporary failure

GUTTI'FERÆ, or CLUSIA'CEÆ, form a small natural of sight during a bilious attack is of cais nature: we may order of Exogenous plants, inhabiting the hotter parts of

• But thou

Or dim suffusion veiled:'

tropical countries in both the Old and New World. They and some modern writers extend the British territory to the are readily known by their coriaceous opposite leaves, with very mouth of the river Orinoco, though others fix it at very fine veins running parallel with each other in a gentle Point Nassau (near 590 W. long.), more than a degree curve from the midrib to the margin; by the absence of farther east. The southern and western boundary are still stipules; their calyx composed of several sepals regularly more dubious, the district through which they run not overlapping each other, and bearing a definite proportion to having been visited; but it is understood that all the the petals; their numerous stamens; and their superior countries drained by the rivers which fall immediately into ovary, which is in most cases many-celled and many-seeded, the Atlantic Ocean belong to the European nations, while with a peltate radiant stigma. Their fruit is succulent, those which are drained by the streams which fall into the juicy, and in many cases resembling a large apple or orange. Amazon and Orinoco rivers are appurtenances of Brazil and The Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) is probably the Venezuela respectively. The upper valley of the Cuyuni most delicious of any known; but it has never been seen in however forms an exception, being annexed to Venezuela. a fresh state in Europe, for the tree will hardly exist out of The Oyapock falls into the sea near 55° W. long. and 40 its native humid heated atmosphere in the Indian Archi- N. lat., and the Orinoco 60°W. long, and 8° N. lat., so that pelago. In general the fruit of these plants is acrid and the sea-coast extends over more than 400 miles. The most astringent, and quite unfit for food. The most remarkable southern branches of the Essequibo river probably approach product of the order is Gamboge, which is secreted by the 1° N. lat. branches of Hebradendron Cambogioides, and perhaps The shores of this country are skirted by a mud bank, some other species. Others yield an astringent gum-resin, extending about seven or eight miles out to sea. The water called Tacamahaca.

on this bank decreases gradually towards the beach, so that vessels drawing more than twelve feet water stick fast in the mud about three miles from the land. The land is very low, and presents so great a uniformity for several hundred miles together that it is impossible to know what part of the coast a vessel has reached. Ships therefore which are strangers to the coast run along the land till they see a house, and then send a boat ashore through the mud to ask what part of the country it is. The sea exhibits the appearance of a dirty puddle of water, and nothing of the land is visible but the tops of the trees just above the sea; it is a perfect flat without any feature of variety. The mouths of the rivers are discovered by the difference of the colour of the fresh water, which extends a great many miles out to sea. Mud or sand has accumulated in front of them to such an extent that large vessels cannot enter them.

Surface and Soil.-The low and flat country extends from 40 to 70 miles inland, and is mostly on a level with the sea at high-water. When these lands are drained, banked, and cultivated, they become consolidated and sink fully a foot below the level just mentioned, and consequently it requires unremitting attention to the embankments and sluices to keep out the sea. The greatest part of this low plain is covered with an alluvium of strong blue clay, highly impregnated with marine and vegetable salt, and vegetable matter in the finest state of comminution. It is of great fertility, and as the first crop fully pays the original cost of embanking and cultivating the soil, the cultivated land in Guayana is rapidly increasing. At a distance from the rivers however there are in some parts tracts of land which in their natural state are without trees or shrubs, and overgrown with fern; these tracts are entirely unfit for cultivation, but they are not numerous nor extensive. In other places there are savannahs of considerable extent, which afford good pasture, but by far the greatest portion of the surface is covered with trees and fit for the growth of every kind of grain and tropical products.

The high land which lies at the back of this plain was 3

till recently almost entirely unknown. In the year 1835 Clusia Posea.

the London Geographical Society send out Mr. Schom

burgk, a naturalist and experienced traveller, to examine ,1, an expanded flower; 2, a calyx seen from below ; 3, the ovary, with a part this region, and to his industry we are indebted for our of the calyx cut awav; 4, a transverse section of a fruit.

acquaintance with the principal natural features of this exGUTTULI'NA. [FORAMINIFERA, vol. x., p. 348.] tensive region, as far as it is included in the British domiGUTTURALS. (ALPHABET.]

nions. Those portions of the high land which are annexed GUYA'NA, or GUAYA'NA, often called Guiana, is to the Dutch and French settlements have not been visited the name applied to the north-eastern portion of South and are almost entirely unknown. America extending from the banks of the river Orinoco The high land does not rise immediately from the plain southward to those of the Amazon river. It is bounded on to a great elevation, the hills on its southern edge attaining the west by the Guaïnia or Rio Negro, the natural canal of only a height of from 50 to 200 feet above the plain. Cassiquiare, and the middle course of the Orinoco. Its sur. Behind these hills the high land stretches out in level or face covers an area of more than 650,000 square miles, undulating plains, rising here and there into eminences ; exceeding three times that of France; but more than five- but farther south ranges of hills appear running north-west sixths of it are included within the boundaries of the and south-east parallel to the coast, or rather to the northern empire of Brazil and the republic of Venezuela, under edge of the upper region, and south of them the surface is which articles these portions are noticed. We limit the again depressed and extends in plains. The most elevated present description to those parts which comprehend the of these ranges is that which, near 5°N. lat., runs along the English, Dutch, and French settlements, and which may southern banks of the river Mazaroony, and on the east approbably cover a surface of about 100,000 square miles, or proaches the river Essequibo, where it is called the Twasinkie double that of England without Wales.

Mountains; they rise 1100 feet above the river, which here The boundary between Brazil and the French colony is breaks through the range, forming several rapids. On the formed, according to the common authorities, by the river other side of the river the range continues east-south-east to Oyapock, but the boundary which separates the English the banks of the river Berbice, where Parish Peak rises to settlements from Venezuela has never been determined, 910 feet above

the sea, near 4° 50' N. lat. From this point




it runs south-east to the great cataracts of the river Cou- / which the island of Gluck is 7 miles long, but narrow. rantin, situated 4° 21' N. lat. This chain seems to form the Fifty miles from its mouth occur the last rapids, which, boundary of the first great terrace. South of it the country though not high, are numerous, and render the ascent of again forms a level or undulating plain, but somewhat south the river impracticable for larger barges : up to this point of 4° N. lat. is the Sierra Pacaraima, which farther west the tides ascend. Five miles lower down the river enters constitutes the boundary between Brazil and Venezuela, the low plain, and is here from 1 to 14 mile wide, growing separating the rivers which fall into the Rio Branco from continually wider until at its mouth it forms an æstuary those joining the Caroni. In Guayana it separates the basins 14 miles wide. Within the plain it receives from the west of the rivers Rupunoony and Siparoony (both affluents of the the waters of the united rivers Mazaroony and Cuyuni, Essequibo), and terminates near the mouth of the Rupunoony which at the point of junction are more than a mile wide. with the Makarapan Mountains (3° 55' N. lat.), which rise The course of the Mazaroony is parallel to the lower course boldly to the height of 4000 feet. The general elevation of the of the Essequibo, and has been examined to a considerable range does not exceed 1500 feet. This chain does not appear distance; its bed is full of rocks, and the rapids are numeto continue east of the Essequibo. Farther south there is a The Cuyuni runs east and west, having its source in third range, which cuts the parallel of 3° N. lat. obliquely, a ridge of rocks situated a short distance from the banks running west-south-west and east-north-east between 58° of the Orinoco, and no great distance from the mouths of and 590 W. long. : it is called Sierra Taripona, and rises that river. It is said that it may be navigated for about from 500 to 1000 feet above the plains which surround it; 300 miles, but the greater part of its course lies within the the summits are of a conical shape. The fourth longitu- republic of Venezuela. The Mazaroony and Cuyuni unite dinal ridge in the upper region occurs farther south (2° N. 8 miles before they reach the Essequibo. In the wide lat.), and is called the Carawaymee Mountains. On its æstuary of the Essequibo there are numerous islands, some northern declivity the Rupunoony rises, and it seems to of which are extensive. Hog Island is large and well cultiform the western extremity of that chain of mountains vated. Across the entrance of the river are three islands. which on the Portuguese maps is called Sierra Acaray, and Wakenaam the largest, which lies in the middle, is from 7 to in which the Essequibo and Courantin probably have their 8 miles long; east of it is Leguan, 6 miles long, and half as

Farther east this chain has not yet been visited many broad; it is in a high state of cultivation; the most by travellers coming from the north. All these ranges, as western of the three islands, Tiger Island, is the smallest, far as is known, occupy an inconsiderable width, and the and not cultivated. The entrance of the Essequibo is very plains between them are of great extent.

dangerous and difficult, even for small craft, on account of Through the plain extending between the Sierra Paca- the banks of mud and sand. The best and safest of the raima and the Sierra Taripona there is a natural commu- four channels formed by the three islands is between the nication between the rivers which traverse British Guayana east shore and the island of Leguan. The course of the and the Rio Branco, which falls into the Amazon river. Essequibo from the point where it unites with the RupuThe Rupunoony flows near some of the upper branches of noony to its mouth, taking its windings into account, is the Rio Branco, and is separated from them by a low and about 240 miles, and when the Rupunoony is added, 460 level tract (near 59° W. long.). This tract contains the miles, which exceeds the course of any river of France. lake Amucu, which in the dry season is of small extent, but East of the Essequibo and parallel to it runs the Demeafter the rains have fallen inundates the adjacent low rara, whose sources have not been visited, but they are procountry, and its waters run partly eastward into the Rupu- bably a little south of 5° N. lat. At 5° 25' N. lat. it forms noony and partly westward into the Rio Branco. In the a great cataract, and below it becomes navigable for small dry season its waters are discharged only into the Rio craft. As far as Lucky Point (5° 57') it may be ascended Branco by the small river Pirarara.

by square-rigged vessels. Towards its mouth'it widens to a The plains south of the Pacaraima range are in general mile, and where it enters the sea it is more than a mile and very level and form extensive savannahs covered with a half across. A bar of mud extends 4 miles out to sea, grasses and plants; the winding course of the rivers alone and can only be passed, by vessels drawing 9 feet, at half is marked by a fringe of trees, and some swampy tracts of flood; but the channel along the eastern shore has 18 feet small extent are overgrown with the Mauritia vinifera. In of water at high tide. This river runs more than 200 miles, some places the savannahs are without any vegetation, but and as it affords an easy means of transport for goods, there a broad belt of good soil extends along the foot of the are many settlements on its banks. mountains. The country north of the Pacaraima range has Farther east runs the Berbice, whose source probably is a different character. Its surface is less level and more situated near 3° 40' N. lat. It has been ascended as far as diversified by eminences and depressions. The belt of a great cataract, which is south of 4° N. lat. Several other wooded and rich land along the water-courses is covered rapids and cataracts follow, but they cease at 4° 50' N. lat., with high forest trees, which are separated from the savan- and from that point the river is navigable for 165 miles, nah farther inland by a tract of bushes rising about twelve measured along its numerous windings. The influence of feet high, but displaying a great luxuriance of vegetation. the tide is perceptible nearly to this distance. Towards its The savannahs themselves are of comparatively small mouth the river widens, but south of New Amsterdam it extent, and contain many wooded tracts and elevations. The is not more than half a mile across. North of the town it proportion of rich and cultivable land in this region is gradually widens to 4 miles, where it meets the sea, in very great.

6° 24' N. lat. [BERBICE.] Řivers.-The largest river is the Essequibo, which tra- The Courantin river forms the boundary between the verses nearly the middle of British Guayana. It has been Dutch and British possessions. It has been ascended to ascended to 3° 14' N. lat., a distance of about 230 miles 4° 21' N. lat., where it forms two cataracts 100 feet high, and from its mouth in a straight line. At that point the river called Smyth Barrow Cataracts. Above them the river is is still some hundred yards wide, and forms a great cataract, still 900 yards wide, and hence it is inferred that its sources called King William's Cataract. From this point it runs are much_farther to the south, probably in the Sierra in a north-by-west direction, and receives, near 4° N. lat., Acaray. From the great cataracts the river runs north the waters of the Rupunoony, a large river whose course and north-east till it reaches 5° N. lat., and in this part of has been investigated nearly to its source in the Carawaymee its course there are several rapids. Near 5° N. lat. it turns mountains (2° N. lat.). The Rupunoony runs first north-east, and 12 miles from this point the rapids cease, and the west, and, after passing the western extremity of the Sierra river becomes navigable to the sea, a distance of about 150 Taripona, north-east, turning gradually to the north, and, miles measured along its windings. It runs 40 miles east where it approaches the Sierra Paracaima, to the east, in nearly in a straight line, and then turns north. The remainder which direction it continues along the foot of the range till of its course is very tortuous, except towards its mouth. it meets the Essequibo. Its course is 220 miles. After Seventy miles from the sea the tide rises 30 inches. At this junction the Essequibo continues in a north-western Oreála, 40 miles from its mouth in a direct line, it enters direction nearly up to 5° N. lat., receiving in this course a the low plain, and here it constantly preserves a width of a great tributary, the Siparocny, whose course has not yet mile, which towards its mouth increases to 4 miles. North been examined; and forming a great number of rapids and of 50 55' N. lat. it forms an æstuary, which is 10 miles cataracts, which can only be passed by small vessels, and across where it meets the sea. South of the æstuary is with danger. North of 5° its tortuous course is in general Parrot or First Island, which is 7 miles long and I wide, to the north; here too there are several dangerous rapids, and divided from the eastern bank by a channel only and a great number of rocky islands in the river, among 3 cables wide, but 9 feet deep at low-water. Along the


western shore is a mud bank, with 7 feet water over it at Agriculture is principally directed to the cultivation of low tide, but in the middle of the river a channel with 8} the articles of export. The sugar plantations are hardly feet of water at low tide.

inferior in extent to those in Barbadoes or Jamaica. Coffee The upper course of the river Surinam, which traverses and cotton are also cultivated to a great extent. Tobacco the middle of the Dutch territories, is not known; but if and indigo are at present less attended to. Ginger is one we may judge from the size of the river, its source cannot of the minor articles. Pepper, cloves, and nutmegs have be much south of 4° N. lat., or in the parallel of the sources been introduced by the French; the two first bave sucof the Berbice. It enters the low plain at about 4° 40' ceeded, but the nutmeg-tree does not thrive well. The N. lat., and so far it is navigable for river barges. Towards plant which produces castor oil grows wild, as well as the its mouth it increases to a mile in width, and north of cacao-tree, and the tree from which arnotto is obtained. Paramaribo it is still wider. Vessels of considerable size The domestic animals are the same as in England. Black can enter it and sail up to that town.

cattle grow to a greater size than in Europe, but their flesh The Marony, which divides the Dutch and French Co is not so tender nor of so fine a flavour. The wool of the lonies, resembles the Essequibo. Its upper course and sheep is converted into hair. Among the ferocious animals origin are not known, but its size justifies the supposition are the jaguar and couguar. Other animals are the armathat it rises at a great distance from the sea, probably in the dillo, agouti, ant-bear, the sloth, and a great variety of monSierra Acaray. It is known that many rapids and cata- keys, and among them the howling monkey. Lizards are racts occur in its bed south of 4° 45' N. lat., the most numerous and of various kinds; the iguana is common, northern of which is above Armina. From this place, to and its flesh esteemed a delicacy, as well as its eggs. Alliwhich the tide ascends, as far as its mouth, it is not less gators of great size are found in the larger rivers, and the than lg mile wide, but full of islands. Large river vessels manati, or sea-cow, is also sometimes met with. Among the can ascend to Armina.

bats, which are twice as large as those of England, are the The Oyapoc, which divides the French territories from vampires, which are said to suck the blood of persons when Brazil, has lately been explored by some Frenchmen, but asleep. [CHEIROPTERA, P. 22.] Among the snakes, which satisfactory details of the survey have not yet been published. are of different kinds and numerous, some are poisonous,

Climate.-Guayana has two rainy and two dry seasons. and others distinguished by their size, as the boa constrictor, The long rainy season sets in about the middle of April The pipa, a kind of frog, is remarkable for its hideous with frequent showers of short duration, which however in- aspect, and for other peculiarities. [Frogs, p. 493-4.] Birds crease as the season advances, until in the middle of June of several kinds are very numerous, as different species of the rain pours down in torrents. In the beginning of July parrots, mackaws, humming-birds, the flamingo, Muscovy the rain begins to decrease, and in August it ceases entirely. ducks, toucans, spoon-bills, peacocks, &c. Of insects, as The long dry season continues from August to November. the scorpions, centipedes, cockroaches, termites, and other December is showery, but in January much rain falls. kinds of ants, the chigoe, or sand-llea, and the mosquitoes, February and March constitute the short dry season, but are very troublesome. they are not quite so free from showers as the long dry Inhabitants.-Guayana is inhabited by Europeans, Afri.

During the rainy season it rains daily for some hours cans, and native Americans. The Europeans are mostly without cessation, and the remainder of the day is fine. descendants of Dutch settlers, but some are descendants of A few days occur in the course of the season during which Englishmen and Frenchmen. The Africans were brought it does not rain at all. The heat is not so great as might over to cultivate the country as slaves, and are much more be supposed, considering the position of the country near numerous than the whites. In British Guayana there are the equator and the lowness of the coast. The trade six tribes of natives. The Arawaaks surround the settlewinds, passing over the whole breadth of the Atlantic, ments on the Demerara and Berbice rivers; the Accaways reach this coast loaded with moisture, and both the wind live on the banks of the Cuyuni and Mazaroony, and also and the moisture render the heat less oppressive. Besides on the Essequibo, north of 5° N. lat. Between the Sierra this, there is the alternation of land and sea breezes, and as Pacaraima and Sierra Taripona are the Macoosie, and south the sea-breezes are colder and blow in the day, and the land of them the Warpeshana. The Warrows occupy the coast breezes during the night, both greatly contribute to main between the Pomaroon and the mouth of the Orinoco. Setain a more equal temperature and to diminish the differ- veral Carib tribes are dispersed among the natives, and some ence between the greatest and least degree of warmth within of them are said to be cannibals. (Lond. Geog. Journal, vol. the twenty-four hours. The mean temperature of the low ii., p. 71.) coast may be between 80° and 84o. The thermometer, even The natives of Guayana are much more civilized than the in summer, seldom rises above 90°, and it does not often de- aboriginal tribes who inhabit the adjacent countries. They scend below 75°. Though Europeans are subject to some cultivate Indian corn, cassava, and some other roots, but diseases on their arrival, it is now well known that the climate they are still much attached to a wandering life, and a slight of Guayana is more healthy than that of most places in the inducement, or sometimes only fancy, leads them to abanWest Indies. Thunder-storms occur only during the rainy don a well cultivated piece of ground, and to remove to a seasons, and are violent, but rarely do any damage. The wilderness, where they undergo much toil in rooting out the hurricanes so destructive in the West Indies are entirely forest trees and in preparing a new piece of ground. The unknown. Slight shocks of earthquakes sometimes occur, Arawaaks visit the British settlements, where they work in but they never cause any damage. The more elevated parts the wood-cutting establishments for daily wages, and are preof the country have the same seasons as the low coast, but ferred to the negroes, as steady labourers. Some of the tribes they take place a month later, and the rains fall in much are almost as fair as Spaniards or Italians, while those who greater abundance.

live near the sea-coast are of a very dark brown, sometimes Productions.--Few countries on the surface of the globe resembling the yellow-skinned negroes. But the straight, can be compared with Guayana for vigour and luxuriance strong, black hair, small features, and well-proportioned of vegetation, which shows itself especially the great limbs, always distinguish the Indian from the African. number of indigenous plants and the large forest-trees Guayana is, as we observed, divided among Great Britain, which cover perhaps not less than one-half of its surface. Holland, and France. Many of the trees produce excellent timber, others are used I. British Guayana comprehends the countries extending for furniture, as the mahogany, or afford dye-wood, and from the Courantin river westward to the Orinoco, and from others are valuable on account of their fruits. Some are the sea-coast to the sources of the rivers Essequibo and valued as being very ornamental, as the silk-cotton tree and Coʻrrantin, which have not yet been visited by Europeans. the Mauritia vinifera.

Its urea probably does not fall short of 50,000 square miles. Indian corn and rice are cultivated, and in some instances The most western portion, lying between the Orinoco and three crops of the former and two of the latter have been Pomaroon, a small river which falls into the sea about 20 obtained in one year from some fertile pieces of ground. miles west of the mouth of the Essequibo, is only inhabited Wheat does not succeed, and Humboldt seems to have con- by the tribe of the Warrows, and no European family is at ceived a just idea of the country, when he says that no portion present settled here. The settlements on the Pomaroon of the high lands in Guayana rises to such an elevation as to and Essequibo are few in number and not large; but the be fit for the cultivation of our cerealia. The roots which are settlements along the banks of the Demerara and Berbice, most cultivated are cassava, or mandiocca, yams and sweet as well as along the sea-shore between these rivers, are potatoes, and arrow-root. The chief fruits are the banana, the numerous, and extend from 30 to 30 miles inland. On the pine-apple, and the cacao-nut; the cabbage-treo grows wild.) Courantin there are only a few settlements, but they are

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