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CHARLES KNIGHT AND Co., 22, LUDGATE STREET.

MDCCCXXXVIII,

Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence, bound in cloth.

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COMMITTEE.
Chairman - The Right Hon. LORD BROUGHAM, F.R.S., Member of the National Institute of France.

Vice-Chairman-JOHN WOOD, Esq.

Treasurer-WILLIAM TOOKE, Esq., F.R.S.
W. Allen, Esq., P.R. and R.A.S.
I. L. Goldsmid, Esq., F.R. and R.A.S.

R. I. Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S.
Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R, and R.A.S., Francis Henry Goldsmid, Esq.

The Right Hon. Lord Nigent.
Hydtrographer to the Admiralty.
B. Gompertz, Esq., F.R. and R.A.S.

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G. Burrows, M.D.
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Allon, Staffordshire-Rev. J. P. Jones,
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Rev. W. Johnson.

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and G.S.

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C. H. Hebb, Esq.
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TAOMAS COATES, Esq., Secretary, No. 59, Lincoln's lan Fields.

london ; Printed by WILLIAN CLow 8 and Sons, Stamford Struota

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FUEGO, TIERRA DEL, is the name by which the rupted range, and some of which rise to an elevation of Archipelago is designated which constitutes the southern 4000 feet. extremity of America. It is not known for what reason the

The mountainous portion of the Archipelago compreSpaniards, who discovered it, gave it the name of Fire-land, hends the southern and western part of King Charles's but it is supposed that they observed some volcanic erup- Southland, and all the other islands besides. It presents a tion on it, though modern navigators have never observed succession of hills and mountains, valleys and ravines; the any thing of the kind, except Capt. B. Hall, whose descrip- mountains rise in general to 2000 or 3000 feet, and several tion leaves no doubt that he really saw one.

attain the snow-line, being more than 3500 feet in elevation. If we exclude the islands lying along the western coast of Mount Sarmiento, on Magdalen Sound, is 6000 feet high. South America, north of the Strait of Magalhaens, and con- The shores are intersected by deep but narrow arms of the sider those only as belonging to this Archipelago which sea, on whose sides rise the mountains, whose summits for are on the south of it as far as Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego the greatest part of the year are covered with snow, while lies between 52° 30' and 56° S. lat., and between 65o and their steep and rocky declivities are partially overgrown 76° W. long. Staten Land however extends more than a with evergreens. The natives of this country differ condegree farther east, but is divided from the Archipelago by siderably from the Patagonians: they are low in stature, the Strait le Maire, which is nearly 20 miles across. The varying from 4 ft. 10 in. to 5 ft. 6 in. in height, and live in whole length of the Archipelago, from Cape Good Success, a very barbarous condition; they have frequently no other on Strait le Maire, to Cape Pillar, at the western entrance of covering than a scrap of hide, which is tied to their waists. the Strait of Magalhaens, exceeds 400 miles. Its greatest Their colour is darker than that of copper, and like mahobreadih, between 680 and 70° W. long., is not less than 250 gany or rusty iron. miles. In surface perhaps it may be equal to Great Bri- The climate of this Archipelago is considered as extremely tain, or at least not much less,

cold, and doubtless it is much colder than that of North Tierra del Fuego consists of one large island, four others Britain, which is situated at the same distance from the of moderate extent, and a great number of smaller islands pole. The difference is perhaps best indicated by the and rocks. The larger island forms the eastern and north- different elevations at which the snow-line occurs. In eastern portion of the group, and occupies considerably North Britain it is supposed to be at an elevation of 5000 more than one-half of the whole. It is called King Charles's feet; but in Tierra del Fuego it occurs between 3000 and Southland. On the south of it lie the islands of Navarin and 3500 feet. The climate of Bergen, in Norway, is perhaps Hoste, which are separated from it by Beagle Channel, extend very similar to that of Tierra del Fuego, where, as at Bergen, ing in a straight line, east and west, for 120 miles, and being cloudy weather, rain, and wind prevail throughout the year, only from one-third of a mile to one mile across. Navarin and fine days are rare. No season is quite free from frost; island is separated from Hoste island by Ponsonby Sound. the thermometer, even in February, which corresponds to To the west of King Charles's Southland are two other large our August, descends occasionally some degrees below the islands, Clarence island and South Desolation. The former freezing point; but even during ihe winter, the mean temis separated from King Charles's Southland by a crooked perature is, according to the observation of Capt. King, 24 channel, which towards the Strait of Magalhaens is called degrees above that point, though it occasionally descends to Magdalen Sound, but towards the open sea Cockburn Sound. 121° of Fahrenbeit. It seems that this peculiarity of the South Desolation, which forms the most western portion of climate is chiefly to be attributed to the high temperature the Archipelago, is separated from Clarence island by Bar- of the sea, which on its surface is never lower than 45° of bara Channel.

Fahrenheit, more especially in the Strait of Magalhaens, The northern portion of King Charles's Southland is a where the observations were made at Port Famine. The plain, on which there are a great number of low hills, with a coasts, which are exposed to the influence of the open ocean, gentle ascent. No trees grow upon it, but there are shrubs have probably a much colder climate, as during the winter and grasses. The shrubs are thinly scattered, but the they are surrounded by large fields of ice, which at that grasses are abundant, and though of a harsh and dry ap- season occur as far north as 54° S. lat., along the shores pearance, they feed large flocks of guanacoes. Capt. Fitz- of King Charles's Southland. The level portion of that roy considers this plain more fertile than those of Patagonia island suffers rather from want than from abundance south of 45° S. lat., and thinks that parts of it may be cul- of moisture, like the eastern coast of Patagonia. The tivated. It is at present occupied by natives, resembling natural productions of this antarctic region are nearly unthe Patagonians. '[PATAGONIA.] The line of separation known. Captain King found parrots and humming-bird; between this plain and the mountain-country begins on the on the shores of the Sirait of Magalhaens. The natives of Strait of Magalhaens, on the northern shores of Admiralty the mountainous portion live on fish, which seem to abound Sound, and extends thence to Cape Good Success. It is in the inlets. The extensive forests do not appear to contain formed by mountains, which perhaps constitute an uninter- | trees fit for timbor. Guanacoes feed on the extensive and P. c., No. 658.

Vor. XI.-B

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