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"in the hieroglyphic writing the fun, moon, and stars, were used to reprefent ftates and empires, kings, queens, and nobility; their eclipfe and extinction, "temporary difafters, or entire overthrow, &c. fo in like manner the holy prophets call kings and empires by the names of the heavenly luminaries; their mif"fortunes and overthrow are reprefented by eclipfes "and extinction; ftars falling from the firmament are employed to denote the deftruction of the nobility, &c. "In a word, the prophetic ftyle feems to be a fpeak"ing hieroglyphic. Thefe obfervations will not only "affift us in the ftudy of the Old and New Testament, "but likewife vindicate their character from the illite"rate cavils of modern libertines, who have foolishly miftaken that for the peculiar workmanship of the prophet's heated imagination, which was the fober "eftablished language of their times, and which God " and his Son condefcended to employ as the properest conveyance of the high myfterious ways of providence "in the revelation of themselves to mankind."
To St. Matthew's account St. Luke addeth, (XXI. 24.) And they shall fall by the edge of the fword, and fhall be led away captive into all nations; and Jerufalem fhall be troden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. The number of thofe who fell by the edge of the fword, was indeed very great. Of thofe who perifhed during the whole fiege, there were, as Jofephus (4) faith, eleven hundred thoufand. Many were alfo flain (5) at other times and in other places. By the command of Florus, who was the first author of the war, there were flain at Jerufalem (6) three thousand and fix hundred By the inhabitants of Cæfarea (7) above twenty thoufand: At Scythopolis (8) above thirteen thoufand: At Afcalon (9) two thoufand five hundred,
(4) των δ' απολυμένων καλα πασαν την πολιορκίαν, μυριάδες έκαλον και δεκα· totius autem obfidionis tempora undecies centena hominum millia perierunt. De Bell. Jud. Lib. 6. Cap. 9. Sect. p. 1291. Edit, Hudson.
(s) Juft. Lipfius de Conftantia. Lib. 2. Cap. 21. Ufher's Annals in
the conclufion. Bafnage's Hift. of the Jews. B. 1. Chap. 8. Sect. 19.
(6) Jofeph. ibid. Lib. 2. Cap. 14
(7) Ibid. Cap. 18.
and at Ptolemais two thoufand: At Alexandria, under Tiberius Alexander the prefident, (1) fifty thoufand: At Joppa, when it was taken by Ceftius Gallus, (2) eight thousand four hundred: In a mountain called Afamon near Sepphoris (3) above two thoufand: At Damafcus (4) ten thousand: In a battle with the Romans at Afcalon (5) ten thoufand: In an ambuscade near the fame place (6) eight thoufand: At Japha (7) fifteen thoufand: Of the Samaritans upon mount Garizin (8) eleven thoufand and fix hundred: At Jotapa (9) forty thoufand: At Joppa, when taken by Vefpafian, (1) four thousand two hundred: At Tarichea (2) fix thousand five hundred, and after the city was taken twelve hundred: At Gamala (3) four thoufand flain, befides five thoufand who threw themfelves down a precipice: Of thofe who fled with John from Gifchala (4) fix thousand: Of the Gadarenes (5) fifteen thoufand flain, befides an infinite number drowned: In the villages of Idumea (6) above ten thousand flain: At Gerafa (7) a thoufand: At Machærus (8) feventeen hundred: In the wood of Jardes (9) three thousand: In the caftle of Mafada (1) nine hundred and fixty: In Cyrene by Catullus the governor (2) three thoufand. Befides thefe many of every age, fex and condition, were flain in this war, who are not reckoned; but of thefe who are reckoned, the number amounts to above one million, three hundred fifty-feven thousand, fix hundred and fixty; which would appear almost incredible, if their own hiftorian had not fo particularly enumerated them.
But befides the Jews who fell by the edge of the fword, others were alfo to be led away captive into all nations: and confidering the numbers of the flain, the number of the captives too was very great. There were taken
(1) Ibid. Sect. 8.
(2) Ibid, Sect. 10.
(7) Ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 31:
(9) Ibid. Sect. 36.
(2) Ibid. Cap. 9. Sect. 9, 10.
particularly at Japha (3) two thousand one hundred and thirty: At Jotapa (4) one thoufand two hundred: At Tarichea (5) fix thousand chofen young men were fent to Nero, the reft fold to the number of thirty thousand and four hundred befides thofe who were given to Agrippa: Of the Gadarenes (6) two thoufand two hundred: In Idumea (7) above a thoufand. Many befides these were taken at Jerufalem, fo that as Jofephus hime felf (8) informs us, the number of the captives taken in the whole war amounted to ninety-feven thousand; the tall and handfome young men Titus referved for his triumph; of the reft, thofe above feventeen years of age were fent to the works in Egypt, but most were diftributed through the Roman provinces, to be destroyed in their theatres by the fword or by the wild beafts; thofe under feventeen were fold for flaves. Of thefe captives many underwent hard fate. Eleven thoufand of them (9) perished for want. Titus exhibited all forts of shows and fpectacles at Cæfarea, and (1) many of the captives were there destroyed, fome being expofed to the wild beafts, and others compelled to fight in troops against one another. At Cæfarea too in honor of his brother's birth-day (2) two thousand five hundred Jews were flain; and a great number likewife at Berytus in honor of his father's. The like (3) was done in other cities of Syria. Those whom he referved for his triumph (4) were Simon and John, the generals of the captives, and
(3) Lib. 3. Cap. 7. Sect. 31. (4) Ibid. Sect. 36. (5) Ibid. Cap. 9. Sect. 10. (6) Lib. 4. Cap. 7. Sect. 5. (7) Ibid. Cap. 8. Sect. 1. (8) των δε νεῶν τες υψηλότατες και κάλες ἐπιλέξας ετηρει τῷ θριαμβῳ το δε λοιπε πλήθες τὰς ὑπες ἑπλακαίδεκα έτη δήσας επέμψεν εις τα κατ' Αιγυπτον εργα, πλείσες δ' εις τας επαρχίας δεις δωρήσατο Τιτις, φθαρησομενὲς ἐν τοῖς θέατροις σιδηρῷ και θηριούς. οἱ δ' ἑπλακαίδεκα έτον ἑπράθησαν.-Των μεν εν αιχμαλωτών παντων, ὅσα καθ ̓ ὅλον ελήφθη τον πολέμων, αριθμός εννέα μυ γιαδες και ἑπλακισχιλίοι συνήχθη. juvenes autem lectos, qui proceritate et forma cæteris præftarent, triumpho fer
vabat. Ex reliqua autem multitudine,
annum ætatis erant, fub corona venditi
(9) Ibid. Sect. 2.
feven hundred others of remarkable stature and beauty. Thus were the Jews miferably tormented, and diftributed over the Roman provinces; and are they not ftill diftreffed and difperfed over all the nations of the earth?
As the Jews were to be led away captive into all nations, fo Jerufalem was to be troden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. And accordingly Jerufalem has never fince been in the poffeffion of the Jews, but hath conftantly been in fubjection to fome other nation, as first to the Romans, and afterwards to the Saracens, and then to the Franks, and then to the Mamulucs, and now to the Turks.
Titus, as it was related before, (5) commanded all the city as well as the temple to be deftroyed: only three towers were left standing for monuments to pofterity of the ftrength of the city, and fo much of the wall as encompaffed the city on the weft, for barracks for the foldiers who were left there in garrifon. All the rest of the city was fo totally demolished, that there was no likelihood of its ever being inhabited again. The foldiers who were left there, (6) were the tenth legion, with fome troops of horse and companies of foot, (7) under the command of Terentius Rufus. When Titus (8) came again to Jerufalem in his way from Syria to Egypt, and beheld the fad devaftation of the city, and called to mind its former fplendor and beauty, he could not help lamenting over it, and curfing the authors of the rebellion, who had compelled him to the cruel neceffity of deftroying fo fine a city. Vespasian (9) ordered all the lands of the Jews to be fold for his own ufe; and all the Jews, wherefoever they dwelt, to pay each man every year the fame fum to the capitol of Rome, that they had before paid to the temple at Jerufalem. The defolation was fo complete, that Eleazar (1) faid to his country
(5) Jofeph. de Bell. Jud. Lib. 7. Cap. 1. Sect. 1. Edit. Hudfon. (6) Ibid. Sect. 2. (7) Ibid. Cap. 2. (8) Ibid. Cap. 5. Sect. 2. (9) Ibid. Cap. 6. Sect. 6.
(1) πυ γέγονεν ἡμῖν ή τον Θεον εχειν οικοςην πεπιτευμενης προρριζος εκ βα θρων ανηρπασαν, και μόνον αιης μνη μειον ὑπολελειται. το των ανηρηκότων αυτην ςρατοπεδον, ετι τοις λειψανοίς, εποίκων, πρεσβυται δὲ δύσηνοί τη σποδώ
men; What is become of our city, which was believed to be inhabited by God? It is rooted up from the foundations, and the only monument of it that is left, is the camp of those who deftroyed it, still pitched upon its remains. Some unhappy old men fit over the athes of the temple, and a few women referved by the enemy for the bafeft of injuries.
The first who (2) rebuilt Jerufalem, though not all exactly on the fame fpot, was the Roman emperor Ælius Adrian, and he called it after his own name Ælia, and placed in it a Roman colony, and dedicated a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus in the room of the temple of the true God. While he was vifiting the eastern parts of the empire, he came to Jerufalem, as (3) Epiphanius informs us, forty-feven years after its deftruction by Titus, and found the city all leveled with the ground, and the temple of God troden under foot, except a few houfes and he then formed the refolution of rebuilding it, but his design was not put in execution till towards the latter end of his reign. The Jews, naturally of a feditious fpirit, were inflamed (4) upon this occafion into open rebellion, to recover their native city and country out of the hands of heathen violators and oppreffors and they were headed by a man called (5) Barchochab, a vile robber and murderer, whofe name fignifying the son of a ftar, he confidently pretended that he was the perfon prophefied of by Balaam in thofe words, (Numb. XXIV. 17.) There shall come a ftar out of Jacob, and a fceptre fhall rife out of Ifrael. They were (6) fuccefsful in their firft enterprises through the neglec of the Romans: and it is probable, as the rebellion
τ8 τεμενες παρακαθηνται, και γυναίκες – ολογάν προς ύβριν αισχιςἣν ὑπό των πολημνων τετηρημεναι. quid de ea factum eft, quam Deum habitaffe credidimus? Radicitus ex fundamentis evulfa eft, et id folum ejus monumentum relictum, caftra fcilicet illorum a quibus excifa eft jam reliquiis ejus impofita. Senes vero infelices templi cineribus affident, et paucæ mulieres ad turpiffimam pudoris injuriam ab hoftibus refervatæ. Ibid. Cap. 8.