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was raised for this purpofe, that they made themselves mafters of Ælia, or the new Jerufalem, and maffacred or chafed from thence the heathen inhabitants, and the Romans befieged and took it again; for we read in feveral authors, in (7) Eufebius, in (8) Jerome, in (9) Chryfoftom, and in (1) Appian who lived at that time, that Jerufalem was again befieged by the Romans under Adrian, and was entirely burnt and confumed.. However that be, the Jews were at length fubdued with a moft terrible flaughter; (2) fifty of their strongest castles, and nine hundred and eighty five of their beft towns were facked and demolished; five hundred and eighty thoufand men fell by the fword in battle, befides an infinite multitude who perifhed by famin, and ficknefs, and fire, fo that Judea was almoft all defolated. The Jewish (3) writers themselves reckon, that doubly more Jews were flain in this war, than came out of Egypt; and that their fufferings under Nebuchadnezzar and Titus were not fo great as what they endured under the emperor Adrian. Of the Jews who furvived this fecond ruin of their nation, (4) an incredible number of every age and fex were fold like horses, and difperfed over the face of the earth. The emperor completed his defign, rebuilt the city, reeftablished the colony, ordered the (5) ftatue of a hog in marble to be fet up over the gate that opened towards Bethlehem, and (6) published an edict ftrictly forbidding any Jew upon pain of death to enter the city, or fo much as to look upon it at a distance.
In this ftate Jerufalem continued, being better known
(7) Eufeb. Demonf. Evang. Lib. 2. Egypto. Alius libro qui infcribitur Cap. 38. p. 71. Lib. Cap. 18. p. 286., quem Drufius laudat in Edit. Paris. 1628. Pæteritis, Nonfic afflixiffe cos Nebuchadnezarem neque Titum, ficut Hadrianus imperator. Mede's Works. B. 3.p.443.
(4) Hieron. in Jerem. XXXI. Col. 679. in Zach. XI. Col. 1744. Vol. 3. Edit. Benedict. Chron. Alex. p. 596. (5) Eufeb. et Hieron. Chron. Ann. 137.
(6) Eufeb. Hift. Lib. 4. Cap. 6. Hieron. in If. VI. Col. 65. Vol. 3. Edit. Benedict. Juftin. Mart. Apol. Prim. p. 84. Edit. Par. p. 71. Edit. Thirlbii.
(8) Hieron. in Jerom XXXI. Col. 679. in Ezek. V. Col. 725. in Dan. IX. Col. 1117. in Joel I. Col. 1349. Vol. 3. Edit. Benedict.
(9) Orat. V. adverf. Judæos. Vol. 1. p. 645. Edit. Benedict.
(1) Appian. de Bell. Syr. p. 119. Edit. Steph. p. 191. Edit. Tollii.
(2) Dionis Hift. ibid. p. (3) Author libri Juchasin scribit Hadrianum duplo plures Judæos in boc bello trucidaffe quam egreffi fint ex
by the name of Ælia, till the reign of the first christian emperor, Conftantine the Great. The name of Jerufalem had grown into fuch difufe, and was fo little remembered or known, efpecially among the Heathens, that when (7) one of the martyrs of Paleftine, who fuffered in the perfecution under Maximin, was examined of what country he was, and anfwered of Jerufalem, neither the governor of the province, nor any of his affiftants could comprehend what city it was, or where fituated. But in Conftantine's time it began to refume its ancient name; and this emperor enlarged and beautified it with fo many ftately edifices and churches, that (8) Eufebius faid more like a courtier than a bishop, that this perhaps was the new Jerufalem, which was foretold by the prophets. The Jews, who hated and abhorred the Christian religion as much or more than the Heathen, (9) affembled again, as we learn from St. Chryfoftom, to recover their city, and to rebuild their temple; but the emperor with his foldiers repreffed their vain attempt; and having caused their ears to be cut off, and their bodies to be marked for rebels, he difperfed them over all the provinces of his empire, as fo many fugitives and flaves.
The laws of Conftantine, and of his fon and fucceffor Conftantius, were likewife in other refpects very fevere against the Jews: but Julian, called the Apoftate, the nephew of Conftantine, and fucceffor of Conftantius, was more favorably inclined towards them; not that he really liked the Jews, but difliked the Chriftians, and out of prejudice and hatred to the Chriftian religion refolved to re-establish the Jewith worship and ceremonies. Our Saviour had faid that Jerufalem fhould be troden down of the Gentiles; and he would defeat the prophecy, and reftore the Jews. For this purpofe he (1) wrote kindly to the whole body or community of the Jews, expreffing his concern for their former ill treatment,
de Mart. Palæft.
(7) Eufeb. Cap. 11.
(8) TAXA DE TAUrny your any dia @pontin@v DEOTIOμATNY NEXNPVYμemy XaIVERY Iεpeσanu. atque hæc forfitan fuerit recens illa ac nova Hierufalem, prophetarum vaticiniis prædicata. Eu
feb. de Vit. Conft. Lib. 3. Cap. 33.
(9) Chryfoftom. Orat. V. adverf. Jud. Sect. 11. p. 645. Orat. VI, Sect. 2. p. 651. Vol. 1. Edit. Benedict.
(1) Juliani Epift. 25. Iudas gl xowg. p. 396. Edit. Spanhemii.
and affuring them of his protection from future oppreffion; and concluding with a promife, that (2) if he was fuccessful in the Persian war, he would rebuild the holy city Jerufalem, rektore them to their habitations, live with them there, and join with them in worthipping the great God of the universe. His zeal even exceeded his promife; for before he fet out from Antioch on his Perian expedition, he propofed to begin with (3) rebuilding the temple of Jerufalem, with the greateft magnificence. He affigned immenfe fums for the building. He gave it in charge to Alypius of Antioch, who had formerly been lieutenant in Britain, to fuperintend and haften the work. Alypius fet about it vigorously. The Governor of the province affifted him in it. But horrible balls of fire bursting forth near the foundations, with frequent affaults, rendered the place inacceffible to the workmen, who were burnt feveral times: and in this manner the fiery element obftinately repelling them, the enterprise was laid afide. What a fignal providence was it, that this no more than the former attempts fhould fucceed and profper; and that rather than the prophe cies fhould be defeated, a prodigy was wrought even by the teftimony of a faithful heathen hiftorian? The interposition certainly was as providential, as the attempt was impious: and the account here given is nothing more than what Julian himfelf and his own hiftorian have teftified. There are indeed many witnesses to the truth of the fact, whom an (4) able critic hath well
(2) —iva xayw To Two Пepowy woλεμον διορθωσαμένος, την εκ πολλών ετων επιθυμωμένην παρ' ὑμῖν δεῖν οικεμενην πουλίν άγιων Ιερέσαλημ, εμοις καμάτοις ανοικοδόμησας οικήσως και εν αυτή δόξαν δώσω μεθ' ὑμῶν τῷ κρειττον..-quo et ipfe Perfico bello ́ex'animi sententia gelto, fanctam urbem Hierufalem, quam multos jam annos habitatam videre defideratis, meis laboribus refectam incolam, et una vobifcum in ea optimo Deo gratias agam. Ibid. p. 398.
(3) Ambitiofum quondam apud Hierofolymam templum, quod poft multa et interneciva certamina obfidente Vefpafiano posteaque Tito ægrè
eft expugnatum, inftaurare fumptibus cogitabat immodicis : negotiumque maturandum Alypio dederat Antiochenti, qui oliin Britannias curaverat pro præfeftis. Cum itaque rei idem fore titer inftaret Alypius, juvaretque provinciæ rector, metuendi globi flammarum prope fundamenta crebris assultibus erumpentes, fecere locum exuftis aliquoties operantibus inacceffum: hocque modo elemento deftinatius repellente, ceffavit inceptum. Amm. Marcell. Lib. 23. Cap. 1. p. 350. Edit. Valefii. 1681.
(4) Whitby's general Preface. p. xxviii.
drawn together, and ranged in this order. "Ammianus "Marcellinus an Heathen, Zemuch David a Jew, who "confeffeth that. Julian was divinitus impeditus, hin"dered by God in this attempt: Nazianzen and Chry"foftom among the Greeks, St. Ambrofe and Ruffinus "among the Latins, who florifhed at the very time "when this was done: Theodoret and Sozoinen ortho"dox hiftorians, Philoftorgius; an Arian, Socrates a fa66 vorer of the Novations, who writ the ftory within the fpace of fifty years after the thing was done, and whilst "the eye-witneffes of the fact were yet furviving.” But the public hath lately been obliged with the best and fulleft account of this whole tranfaction in Dr. Warburton's. Julian, where the evidence for the miracle is fet in the ftrongeft light, and all objections are clearly refuted, to the triumph of faith and the confufion of infidelity.
Julian was the laft of the Heathen emperors. His fucceffor Jovian made it the bufinefs of his fhort reign, to undo, as much as was poffible, all that Julian had done: and the fucceeding emperors were generally for repreffing Judaism, in the fame proportion as they were zealous for promoting Christianity. Adrian's edict was (5) revived, which prohibited all Jews from entering into Jerufalem, or coming near the city; and guards were pofted to enforce the execution of it. This was a very lucrative ftation to the foldiers; for the Jews (6) ufed to give money for permiflion to come and fee the ruins of their city and temple, and to weep over them, efpecially on the day whereon Jerufalem had been taken and deftroyed by the Romans. It doth not appear that the Jews had ever the liberty of approaching the city, unless by stealth or by purchase, as long as it continued in fubjection to the Greek emperors. It continued in fubjection to the Greek emperors, till this, as well as the neighbouring cities and countries, fell under the dominion of the Saracens. Only in the former part of
(5) Auguftini, Serm. 4. Sect. 5. Tom. 5. p. 23. Edit. Benedict. Antwerp. Sulpicii Severi Hift. Lib.
2. p. 99. Edit. Elzevir. 1656.
(6) Hieron. in Sophon. I. Col. 1655. Vol. 3. Edit. Benedict.
the feventh century after Chrift, and in the beginning of the reign of the emperor Heraclius, it was (7) taken and plundered by Chofroes king of Perfia, and the greateft cruelties were exercifed on the inhabitants. Ninety thoufand Chriftians are faid to have been fold and facrificed to the malice and revenge of the Jews. But Heraclius foon repelled and routed the Perfians, refcued Jerufalem out of their hands, and banished all Jews, forbidding them, under the fevereft penalties, to come within three miles of the city.
Jerufalem was hardly recovered from the depredations of the Perfians, before it was expofed to a worfe evil by the conquering arms of the Saracens. It was in the beginning of the fame feventh century, that Mohammed began to preach and propagate his new religion: and this little cloud, which was at firft no bigger than a man's hand, foon overfpread and darkened the whole hemifphere. Mohammed himfelf conquered fome parts of Arabia. His fucceffor Abukeker broke into Palestine and Syria. Omar the next caliph was one of the most rapid conquerors, who ever fpread defolation upon the face of the earth. His reign was of no longer duration than ten years and a half; and in that time he fubdued all Arabia, Syria, Mefopotamia, Perfia, and Egypt. His (8) army invefted Jerufalem. He came thither in perfon; and the Chriftians after a long fiege being reduced to the greatest extremities, in the year of Chrift 637, furrendered the city upon capitulation. He granted them honorable conditions; he would not allow any of their churches to be taken from them; but only demanded of the Patriarch, with great modefty, a place where he might build a mofque. The patriarch fhowed him Jacob's stone, and the place where the temple of Solomon had been built, which the Christians had filled with ordure in hatred to the Jews. Omar began him
(7) Theoph. ad Heracl. p. 252, &c. Edit. Paris. p. 200, &c. Edit. Venet. Cedren. ad Heracl, p. 408. Edit. Paris. p. 322, &c. Edit. Venet. Bainage's Hift. of the Jews. Book 6. Chap. 18. Sect. 7.
(8) Elmacini Hift. Saracen. Lib. 1. p. 22, et 28. Edit. Erpenii. Herbelot. Biblioth. Orientale. p. 687. Bafnage's Hift. of the Jews. B. 6. Chap. 19. Sect. 2. Ockley's Hift. of the Saracens. Vol. 1. p. 243, &c.