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Let us tenderly sympathize with the Church in her adversities. 4thly, Let us rejoice in her prosperity, congratulating her in affectionate terms; “ The Lord “ bless thee, O habitation of justice, and mountain of “ holiness.”_" That I may see the good of thy chosen, " that I may rejoice in the gladness of thy nation, that " I

may glory with thine inheritance.”u 5thly, Let us promote the edification of the Church by all the means in our power, by discourses, by labours, by prayers.

« For Zion's sake will I not hold my peace, “ and for Jerusalem's sake will I not rest, until the “ righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the " salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth.” » my

brethren and companions' sakes, I will now say, “Peace be within thee; because of the house of the “ Lord our God, I will seek thy good.”w

xxxix. This is a duty which all of every rank and condition are bound to perform. Let the princes of this world devote entirely to the enlargement of Christ's kingdom, that sceptre, and that dignity, which they have received from Christ. · Kings shall be thy “ nursing-fathers, and their queens thy nursing-mo“thers." Let rulers of Churches esteem it the sole business committed to them, to exert their abilities with unwearied diligence in promoting the interests of the Church. “I have set watchmen upon thy walls, “O Jerusalem, which shall never hold their peace day "nor night: ye that make mention of the Lord, keep “not silence.”y Let believers of the common people remember, that it is incumbent on them also, by holy conferences on religion, and by the example of an irreproachable life, to allure to the fellowship of the Church, and to confirm in her communion, first of all, their domestics; then their neighbours; and in fine, all of every description with whom they have intercourse. “ Wherefore, comfort yourselves together, and edify one “ another, even as also ye do,” &c. And here I include even our wives, a and our daughters, whom it no less becomes to lend their assistance in building the walls of the spiritual Jerusalem, than it became the daughters of Shallum of old to repair the walls of the earthly Jerusalem. And who is there, in short, that is not under indispensable obligations to offer up daily prayers on behalf of the Church ? Thy kingdom come.” “ Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion; build “ thou the walls of Jerusalem.” “Oh! that the sal“ vation of Israel were come out of Zion! When the “ Lord bringeth back the captivity of his people, Ja“cob shall rejoice, and Israel shall be glad.”d

s Nehem. i. 3, 4.
t Jer. xxxi. 23.
v Is. lxii. 1.
* Is. xlix. 23.

Ps. cii. 14. Amos vi. 6.

u Ps. cvi. 5.
w Ps. cxxii. 8, 9.
y Is. lxii. 6.

XL. The article in the Creed immediately following, namely, that of THE COMMUNION OF Saints, is so closely connected with the one relating to the Holy Catholic Church, that it appears to be nearly the same. For what is the Church but a Society? What is a Society, but the union of persons possessing some privilege in common? Who are they, besides, that compose the Church, excepting the Saints? What is the Catholic Church, in fine, but the association of Gentiles with Jews in the paths of holiness? Hence also this additional article of the Communion of Saints, is not found in many of the ancient copies of the Creed. * 1 Thes. v. 11, 14.

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It is not in Jerome against the Luciferians,71 nor in Augustine on Faith and the Creed, nor in Rufinus, nor in Maximus of Turin; and many others, both in the East and West, have purposely omitted it. Yet as it is now received amongst all Christians, and as it expresses more explicitly some ideas which are rather implied in the article respecting the Church, we shall now briefly treat of it. Let us show, First, Whom we are here to understand by SAINTS. Secondly, In what the COMMUNION OF SAINTS consists. Thirdly, What is implied in BELIEVING the Communion of Saints.72

XLI. God is eminently, originally, and exemplarily HOLY;e for he is infinitely removed from all that is vile and impure. Rational creatures that are conformed to God's image in purity, that is, who resemble him in the love and practice of truth, are also called holy. This honourable epithet, accordingly, is ascribed to Angels. We read of the “ holy Angels;" and they are termed absolutely “ Saints,” or “ holy ones.”g But it is attributed, likewise, to men, whether they still remain on earth, or have been received into heaven and crowned with perfection and glory. The Psalmist speaks of “ the saints that are in the earth, and the ex“ cellent;"h and the Apostle, of “the spirits of just “ men made perfect.”i

XLII. COMMUNION is a certain relation subsisting between several persons, who by an undoubted title are in possession of the same privileges. Thus, there is a communion betwixt husband and wife, of persons as well as goods, by an equal right on each side, according to the rule, Ubi tu Caius, ego Caia.* And truly it cannot be denied that there is a certain communion betwixt all that are called Holy. Believers have undoubtedly communion with God and Christ, as we have lately remarked from Scripture ;j for they are God's portion, and at the same time have God for their portion,k and consequently, whatever belongs to God, belongs also to believers.' And Christ not only shares his good things with them,m but took their evil things upon himself. There is also a communion of holy men with Angels, who cheerfully perform their ministrations for us, and are our patterns of piety towards God,p our fellow-servants in obedience to the same Lord, and our associates in the same felicity. Hence Paul represents believers who are still on the earth, as having “come to an innumerable company of angels." But what is chiefly intended in the Creed, is the communion which holy men have with one another.

• Lev. xi. 44. Is. xli. 14.

f Mat. XXV. 31. * Deut. xxxiii. 2. 1 Thes. iii. 13. comp. 2 Thes. i. 7. h Ps. xvi. 3.

i Heb. xii. 23. 71 See Note LXXI.

72 See Note LXXII. VOL. 11. 30

33.

XLIII. This again may be considered in three different views. 1st, As the Saints in heaven hold fellowship with one another. 2dly, The Saints that are on earth, with the blessed in heaven. 3dly, The Saints on earth, with each other. That those parts of the Church which are in heaven, are joined together by a mutual communion, which is even more intimate than the fellowship betwixt them and the blessed Angels, no one, I suppose, entertains a doubt. They are at once members of the same mystical body, and enjoy the same glory and felicity, whilst they behold the face of the same God, are blessed through the merit of the same Redeemer, join with perfect harmony in the same songs of praise to God, and love one another with the most ardent affection. But since the Scripture says very little on this subject, and since the Creed contains principally such articles as are both most certain and most necessary, and appears to have been intended for the use of Catechumens, who, when about to be admitted to baptism, were examined concerning the faith, it is not likely that the compilers of the Creed, in framing this article, had much in their view, that communion which the spirits of the faithful have with one another in heaven.

* 1 Cor. vii. 4.-Caius and Caia were names deemed fortunate by the Romans. At the celebration of marriage, when the bride first entered the bridegroom's house, being asked by him who she was, she replied, UBI TU Caius, IBI EGO Cava: i.e. Ubi tu Dominus, ibi ego Domina, “Where you are Master, I will be Mistress." See Adam's Roman Antiquities, pp. 465, 466. T. j 1 John i. 3. 1 Cor. i. 9.

k Jer. x. 16. 1 i Cor. iii. 22.

m 1 Cor. i. 30. n Is, liü. 4, 5, 6.

. Heb. i. 14. P Mat. vi. 10.

4 Rev. xix. 10. Mat. xxii. 30.

s Hleb. xii. 22.

xliv. The Scripture more expressly teaches the communion of saints on earth with the blessed spirits above. Paul at least makes mention of “the gather“ing together in one of all things in Christ, both “ which are in heaven, and which are on earth.” The original expression signifies the gathering together into one sum, as in computation, all the particulars are united and mixed together in one complete sum. It is said to be the gathering together“ of all things,” not surely of all creatures, or even of all mankind, but of all believers,—of all that are in Christ. . “ Both

Ανακεφαλαίωσιν των παντων των εν Χριστώ, τών τε εν τοις 'ερανούς και für iri ons gyms, Ephes. i. 10.

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