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nution when viewed simply in relation to the punishment, it is, however, to be considered as an aggravation when viewed in relation to the offence. But personal dignity is available in a Surety, who makes satisfaction, not for his own transgressions, but for the transgressions of others.

IX. But WHAT hath Christ suffered? In one word, he has suffered the wrath of God, which was kindled against the sins of the whole human race; for "the "wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men". That wrath signifies a most holy detestation of sin, together with the just punishment of it; and accordingly "wrath and "the revelation of the righteous judgment of God," are joined together by the Apostle.*

x. God, who is holy, cannot but hate sin, and the sinner. "Thou art not a God that hath pleasure in "wickedness-thou hatest all workers of iniquity." Now the natural consequence of this hatred is punishment; for the hatred is most just, and is essential to him who has the right and the power to punish. Hence the Psalmist deduces the following conclusions: "Evil "shall not dwell with thee; the foolish shall not stand "in thy sight; thou shalt destroy them that speak leas"ing.""

XI. There is in sin a wanton indignity and disparagement to the Divine majesty and glory; for whoever sins, acts as if there were no God whom he is bound to revere, or as if he were a God to himself, and the supreme governor of his own actions. And what is this but wantonly to insult the majesty

and glory of God?


Rom. i. 18.

y Ps. v. 4, 5.

* Ps. x. 4. xiv. 1.


* Rom. ii. 5.

Ibid. and ver. 6.

b Ps. xii. 4.

But the glory of God is justly dear to himself; and he can no more suffer an indignity done to it to pass wholly unpunished, than he can become " altogether "such a one as the sinner;" for so himself hath taught us to reason.c


XII. To this concern for his own glory, violated by the sinner, God has given a very significant appellation, namely, jealousy ;* which alludes to an honourable husband, who is greatly enraged at the least approaches to the violation of conjugal fidelity. "Jealousy " is the rage of a man." Now the necessary consequence of that jealousy, by which God secures the vindication of his own glory, than which nothing is dearer to him, is the punishment of sin. Hence the following expressions—“ a jealous God, visiting iniquity”; e "He "is a holy God, he is a jealous God; he will not forgive your transgressions, nor your sins."f

XIII. Nay, further, even when he "forgives iniquity, "transgression, and sin, he will by no means clear the

guilty." But in that eminent act of his mercy, he demands also some demonstration of his justice. It is deserving of notice, that this sentiment is repeatedly inculcated in those passages, where the great clemency of God towards sinners is celebrated either by himself, or by his servants. Thus believers are apprized, that they must not expect, or even desire, the pardon of their sins, without some manifestation of the Divine severity against them. Now God gives a twofold display of his severity. 1st, By chastising sin in believers


d Prov. vi. 34.

f Josh. xxiv. 19.

Ps. 1. 21.

• Exod. xx. 5.

* Exod. xxxiv. 7.

Num. xiv. 18. Jer. xxx. 11. xlvi. 28.

themselves, at the same time that he forgives them.i Of this we read in Jeremiah, "I will correct thee in "measure; yet will I not leave thee wholly unpu"nished." 2dly, He displays it chiefly by punishing in the Surety, the sin which he forgives to believers; for he neither forgives, nor can forgive, but in a manner consistent with righteousness.

XIV. "It therefore BECAME him, for whom are "all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their "salvation perfect through sufferings." It was required by the rogov, that is, by what is proper and becoming on the part of the Deity, that whilst he forgives sins, he should one day manifest his justice in demanding the blood of the Surety. The same truth is again clearly taught by the Apostle in the following passage: "Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through "faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness-that "he might be just, and the justifier of him that be"lieveth in Jesus." And truly never was God's holy indignation against the sins of mankind more brightly demonstrated, than when it pleased him, whilst he forgives them to us, to punish them so severely in his beloved Son. Thus it appears that Christ sustained the wrath of God kindled against the sins of men.


XV. WHEN did Christ suffer? He suffered from the beginning of his life, and principally towards the end of it. Sin rendered man obnoxious to misery through the whole course of his life, and made him worthy to experience, without intermission, the bitterness of his own transgression, and the galling scourge of the Supreme

Ps. xcix. 8.
Heb. ii. 10.

j Ch. xlvi. 28.

1 Rom. iii. 25, 26.

Judge; in conformity to the sentence pronounced upon man immediately after the commission of his crime: "Cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt "thou eat of it all the days of thy life."m Christ, therefore, by becoming our Surety, voluntarily subjected himself to a whole life of abasement and sorrow, always bearing "the form of a servant," and appearing "in "the likeness of sinful flesh." And since all those sufferings proceeded from the curse of God against sin, and were undergone by our Lord in virtue of his surety-undertaking for sin, it follows that they all jointly concurred, and were collected, so to speak, into one sum, to make up a perfect satisfaction.

XVI. Christ may be considered as undergoing his sufferings, at four periods. 1st, At the commencement of his life; where we find his emptying of himself by assuming the form of a servant, the meanness of his birth, and his circumcision on the eighth day;-in which we are to consider not only the pain with which that rite was attended, but also the obligation arising from it to fulfil the whole law, and the prelude it exhibited of Christ's being at last cut off out of the land of the living for the salvation of his mystical body,—as in circumcision a small part of the skin was cut off for the preservation of the whole man. To these add, the persecution of Herod, the flight into Egypt, the murder of the infants of Bethlehem, and the consequent lamentation of so many sorrowful mothers. 2dly, In his private life; which he spent with his relations in obscurity, being regarded as a carpenter, and the son of a carpenter. 3dly, In his public life, from the thirtieth year of his age, during which he had to maintain a per

Gen. iii. 17.

" Philip. ii. 7.

• Rom. viii. 3.

petual conflict with poverty, envy, malevolence, reproaches, calumnies, snares, persecutions, particularly those of the scribes and Pharisees, and rulers of the people. 4thly, At the end of his life, and on the last day of it, when tremendous sufferings of all sorts assailed him with incredible vehemence.

Here again we may distinctly consider, 1. What he suffered in the garden of Gethsemane, after eating the last passover, and also the supper, with his disciples, in which an affecting picture of his approaching sufferings was seen,-in the garden, I say, where he was afflicted with an extreme anguish and sorrow of spirit, sold and betrayed by Judas, apprehended by his enemies, and forsaken by his disciples. 2. What he suffered before the tribunal of the Jews, where he was falsely accused, unjustly condemned, cruelly derided, and, mean time, thrice denied by Peter, that highly favoured disciple. 3. What he suffered in the houses of Pilate and Herod, where, after new accusations were brought against him, Barabbas the robber was preferred before him by all the people-where he was torn with cruel scourges at the command of Pilate, obstinately demanded for the cross by his countrymen, and at last condemned by the judge, in defiance of the remonstrances of conscience. 4. In fine, what he suffered after his condemnation by Pilate till his death.

XVII. For WHAT END did our Lord endure these sufferings? That he might reconcile elect sinners unto God, and restore them to the divine favour, in which life and happiness consist. Two things indeed may be considered in his sufferings;-the sorrow to which he submitted, when bearing the penalties due to our sins, in order to expiate their guilt;-and the noble ardour of love to his Father in heaven and to his brethren on earth, from which he exhibited a pattern of

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