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The Ulema as a Class
How Two Types of Ulema were Created?
Clergy in Service of the Ruler
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Abbasid Abdul Abul adopted Ahmad Sirhindi Akbar alim Arab attempts Aurangzeb authority Azad became beliefs British caliphate challenge colonial period condemned converted court cultural declared Delhi Deoband disciples East India Company emerged established European example fatwa favour festivals followers groups Hadith Hindus Holy Prophet PBUH Imam Imam Hanbal institutions intellectuals interest Iran Iranian Islam issued a fatwa Jihad Jihad movement Keeping in view Khalifa Khan Khanqah Khilafat movement leadership madaris madrassa Maulana migration missionaries modern Moinuddin Chishti monazira mosques Mughal mujahideen Muslim community Muslim countries Muslim League Muslim rulers Muslim society Muslims of India Nizamuddin Auliya non-Muslims opposed organised Pakistan Pathan political power preaching problems Qazi Quran realised reformist religion religious scholar result revive rituals role ruling classes Sayyid Ahmad Shaheed sects secular sermons Shah Waliullah Shaikh Shariat Shia Sikhs spiritual kingdom sufi sufi saints Sultan syllabus tawiz traditions ulema un-Islamic writes