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producing in the social condition of the lower and middle classes of every country, the circumstances in their ancient institutions, laws, and governments, which are retarding or accelerating the progress of these classes to a condition of higher moral and physical well-being, are objects particularly deserving the attention of the traveller. This field of observation, so important to the political philosopher, is scarcely entered into even at home. It is perhaps too homely to attract to it talent in proportion to its importance. To collect ordinary facts of common occurrence in a country, and to draw from them obvious conclusions on the state of its inhabitants, is not a work in which talent and genius are specially required, or from which much literary reputation can be gained. It is a field, however, in which the traveller, with the most ordinary intelligence and observation, may be emi- . nently useful. In Norway and Sweden, such inquiries are peculiarly interesting at the present period, because these two nations, although the furthest removed from the agitation of the French revolution, have by a singular chance, been affected by it more permanently, and one of them more beneficially, than any others in Europe. Norway received a new and liberal constitution, and has started with the freshness of youth, tion, as it were, called suddenly into life from among the slumbering feudal populations of the north. Sweden received a new dynasty, — and slumbers on amidst ancient institutions, and social arrangements of darker ages. Having attempted, in a former work, to give a sketch of the present
a new na
a social condition of the Norwegian people, I consi. dered it necessary, in order to complete the view of the present moral, political, and economical state of the inhabitants of the Scandinavian peninsula, to undertake the following sketch of the Swedish.
Isolated Position of Sweden among the European Powers.
Steam. Hanoverian Impost on Goods in Transit on the
Elbe. — Hamburgh. – Lake. — Gas Lights. - Capital em-
ployed in Commerce or in Manufacture, which most benefi-
cial. - Kiel.-Improvement in 40 Years. - Doing every
thing for the People, and nothing by them. — Steam-Boats
and Canoes. Wordenborg. Zealand. Stones on the
Surface. – Soil. - Copenhagen. – Despotic Power con-
ferred in 1660. Lord Molesworth's Remarks on the Ef-
fect of Lutheranism on Civil Liberty. - Actual Arrange-
ments of the Absolute Government of Denmark.
- Beneficial Institutions. - Little Effect on the Condition of
the Danish People. — Population. — Proportion of Public
Functionaries. Causes of Poverty in Denmark. — Norway.
Salt Work. - Holmestrand. Basalt. — Norwegian Flag.
– Neighbourhood of Drammen. — Implements of Hus-
bandry. - Birch Poles instead of Ropes. — The Rolling of
Land. - Rapidity of Vegetation. — Valley of the Glommen.
Lands of First Quality only cultivated. Ricardo's
Theory of Rent exemplified. — Canada and Norway never
can repay Capital expended in Agriculture. — Cost of Tra-
velling. - Kongsvinger. – Sweden.— Roadside Inscriptions.
- Carlsbad. – Salmon of the Wener Lake. Arvika.
Country from the Glommen to the Wener. Elevation
above the Sea. State of People and Houses' — Develop-
ment of civilised Habits. Christinaham. Orebro.
Posting. -- Inns. Aases. — Rolled Stones. — Cottar Popu-
Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Languages. – Quans or Fins. –
Mistake of a Word in Adam of Bremen.- Si-
milarity between Scotch and Swedish. — Intercourse between
Scotland and Sweden in the Sixteenth Century. — Troops
from Scotland. Pedlars. — Family Names in Sweden of
Scotch Origin. — Language of the Saga. — Doubts of their
Value as Pictures of the Manners of the Ages they describe.
- Swedish Soldiers. Appearance. Accoutrements.
Evening Parade with Religious Service. - Indeldta System
of supporting Troops. - Gustavus Adolphus. - Muskets. -
Military Movements introduced by him. — Military Exer-
cise before his Time.— Military Colonies introduced by him.
Expense of the Swedish Army. · How composed. - Avail-
able only to a limited Extent. - In what Time could be
brought to bear on particular Points if the Country were
attacked. — Defenceless State of the North. — The Condition
of the Swedish Soldier.—Disproportion of Officers. — Fond-
ness of Titles among the Swedes. — Fru, Fröken. Madame,
Mamselle. Brick Cathedral. Port of Westeraas.
- Voyage on the Lake Malere. Scenery. - Stockholm.
Lodgings. - Hotels.— Restaurateurs.— Table d'Hôte.- Sup.
- Royal Palace. - Population of Stockholm. - Houses.
Means of living of Inhabitants. Poverty. Dress
The Exercise of Industry abroad is Property.
Effects of this System.-On the Continent. — In Sweden.
Britain the only Exception.- Probable Results.- M. Cruzen-
Agitation of Stockholm. - Tumults.
Count Fersen's Murder in 1810, connived at. Charles
XIII.'s Character. - War between the periodical Press and
the Swedish Government. The Newspapers. Aftonblad.
Circulation. Price. Editorial Talent in Swedish and