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producing in the social condition of the lower and middle classes of every country, the circumstances in their ancient institutions, laws, and governments, which are retarding or accelerating the progress of these classes to a condition of higher moral and physical well-being, are objects particularly deserving the attention of the traveller. This field of observation, so important to the political philosopher, is scarcely entered into even at home. It is perhaps too homely to attract to it talent in proportion to its importance. To collect ordinary facts of common occurrence in a country, and to draw from them obvious conclusions on the state of its inhabitants, is not a work in which talent and genius are specially required, or from which much literary reputation can be gained. It is a field, however, in which the traveller, with the most ordinary intelligence and observation, may be emi- . nently useful. In Norway and Sweden, such inquiries are peculiarly interesting at the present period, because these two nations, although the furthest removed from the agitation of the French revolution, have by a singular chance, been affected by it more permanently, and one of them more beneficially, than any others in Europe. Norway received a new and liberal constitution, and has started with the freshness of youth, tion, as it were, called suddenly into life from among the slumbering feudal populations of the north. Sweden received a new dynasty, — and slumbers on amidst ancient institutions, and social arrangements of darker ages. Having attempted, in a former work, to give a sketch of the present

a new na

a social condition of the Norwegian people, I consi. dered it necessary, in order to complete the view of the present moral, political, and economical state of the inhabitants of the Scandinavian peninsula, to undertake the following sketch of the Swedish.

January 17th, 1839.


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Isolated Position of Sweden among the European Powers.

Steam. Hanoverian Impost on Goods in Transit on the

Elbe. — Hamburgh. – Lake. — Gas Lights. - Capital em-

ployed in Commerce or in Manufacture, which most benefi-

cial. - Kiel.-Improvement in 40 Years. - Doing every

thing for the People, and nothing by them. — Steam-Boats

and Canoes. Wordenborg. Zealand. Stones on the

Surface. – Soil. - Copenhagen. – Despotic Power con-

ferred in 1660. Lord Molesworth's Remarks on the Ef-

fect of Lutheranism on Civil Liberty. - Actual Arrange-


ments of the Absolute Government of Denmark.


- Beneficial Institutions. - Little Effect on the Condition of

the Danish People. — Population. — Proportion of Public

Functionaries. Causes of Poverty in Denmark. — Norway.

Salt Work. - Holmestrand. Basalt. — Norwegian Flag.

– Neighbourhood of Drammen. — Implements of Hus-

bandry. - Birch Poles instead of Ropes. — The Rolling of

Land. - Rapidity of Vegetation. — Valley of the Glommen.


Lands of First Quality only cultivated. Ricardo's

Theory of Rent exemplified. — Canada and Norway never

can repay Capital expended in Agriculture. — Cost of Tra-

velling. - Kongsvinger. – Sweden.— Roadside Inscriptions.

- Carlsbad. – Salmon of the Wener Lake. Arvika.

Country from the Glommen to the Wener. Elevation

above the Sea. State of People and Houses' — Develop-

ment of civilised Habits. Christinaham. Orebro.

Posting. -- Inns. Aases. — Rolled Stones. — Cottar Popu-

lation. Westeraas

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