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most favorable parts of the country for colonisa- There are several volcanoes in this part of that tion are, unquestionably, the four maritime pro- chain, particularly Cotopaxi, Pichincha, Sangai, vinces of Orinoco, Caraccas, Zulia, and Magda- and El Altar, or Altair, the aescription of which lena, near the Gulf of Paria : in the first of having been so fully given in the article ANDES, these provinces the land is extremely fertile, and we forbear to enlarge. Caraccas, as well as Quito, particularly famous for the culture of the cocoa. and the central parts, is liable to very sensible The district of Barcelona is not only very fruit- shocks of earthquakes. In 1797 dreadful raful, but it is almost uninhabited. Of all these vages were produced by them in the month of provinces, however, Caraccas is the most beau- December; on the first of May, 1802, at eleven tiful, and unrivalled for fertility; but a small at night, there was a pretty strong shock, with portion only of its land is uncultivated, and oscillation, from west to east; on the 20th of there is hardly a single estate, that is not so the same month, at four in the morning, another shackled, as to involve a purchaser in endless was felt in a vertical direction, and the earth did litigations. Besides this, perhaps, emigrants not recover its horizontal level for the space of would do well not to visit this province, since two minutes; on the 14th of July following, two they might with great difficulty renounce its ce- shocks occurred at forty minutes past two o'clock lestial climate and its lovely valleys for the, con- in the morning, and another at thirty-five minutes fessedly, greater advantages of other parts of past six. The causes and local origin of these Columbia. In Zulia the province of Merida has earthquakes must exist in the province of Cumost attractions for the foreign settlers; it has mana, since they are more violent there than a charming climate, and though its territory is elsewhere. mountainous it is fruitful; all the grains and The seasons of this part of South America are fruits of the temperate zone are produced in only two, winter and summer; and these are abundance on the high lands, while every tro- marked not so much by heat and cold as by rain pical production, particularly sugar cane and and drought. In Caraccas, during the wet season, cocoa, is yielded by the warmest valleys below. it rains for the space of three hours a day, and Maracaibo also, from its immense lake and gulf, more commonly in the evening than in the possesses great advantages for agriculture and morning. There are, however, some days in which commerce; nearly a hundred rivers discharge not a drop of rain falls, and others when it rains themselves into its basin, the banks of which incessantly, the country generally, plains, mounare amazingly fertile; but many of the settle- tains, and valleys sharing its blessings and its ments have been abandoned on account of their inconveniences. It is not drizzling rain as in unhealthy climate. But Magdalena is the most the northern regions; but it descends in torrents, advantageous for a foreign settlement; its lands producing more water in a single day than that are almost unoccupied, and produce in great of Europe does in a week. The total quantity abundance coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugar, rice, in- is ten times that of the polar regions. The rivers digo, tobacco, maize, and fruits and vegetables inundate the country during the greater part of of every kind. There are also extensive pas- this season, and the lands are covered to an imtures for cattle, the soil of which is excellent. mense depth, only the tops of the tallest trees The climate is generally healthy, and the settler being visible, and serving for land-marks. This may find a temperature suited to his constitu- is the case, especially, in the north plain of Orition, hy ascending the mountains to a greater or noco, which extends 450 miles in length and 120 less elevation. Game and fish are found in in breadth. M. de Humboldt describes the dry great plenty in the woods and in the adjacent season in Guiana as a horrible time, and gives

Two principal ports, Santa Marta on the an excellent picture of the regeneration of nature, west, and Cuidad del llacha on the east, tend especially of vegetation, on the return of the much to forward the commercial business of this rain. Crocodiles, and other reptiles, seem then province; the latter, especially, affording an ex- to revive, and multitudes of horses, oxen, wild cellent market for the produce raised in the asses, and ferocious animals, rush, panting with country, and for every article of consumption eagerness, from the burning desert to quench brought from other parts. Savinilla or Salda- their thirst in the marshes, plunging into them nilla, in Carthagena, is the natural port of Mag- and drinking with so much avidity, that they dalena, and is destined, no doubt, by its situa- become swollen, and often die in a few hours. tion, to become the principal mart for the trade The effect is different, however, in some parts ; of the interior, though it is now closed in favor along the coast of Cayenne, Surinam, Berbice, of Santa Marta, the communication between Demerara, and Essequibo the air is refreshed by which and the river Cauca is circuitous and the sea-breezes, the dry season is delightful, while, troublesome, whereas Savanilla lies at the very on the other hand, the rainy season is hotter and mouth of that river. The principal defect of this more unhealthy. The climate of Condinamarca port is the extreme shallowness of water above is very various; the lofty Cordillera of the Andes, il, so that even flat boats, when loaded, with dif- and the snows which constantly cover its sumficulty can reach Baranquilla, but this might be mit, subject this country, though lying under the remedied were the mouth, called Boca Viega, equator, to all the cold of the polar regions, stopped up, and the great body of the water di- while on the lower plains the heat is intense. rected to the other outlet.

The elevated spots between the ridges of the In common with all those countries through mountains are temperate and settled in their cliwhich the mighty chain of the Andes passes, mate, and there Europeans chiefly fix their abode. Colombia is subject to frequent earthquakes. There are many lakes in Colombia, a great


number of which are formed by the rains, and covered with waters, and there were probably others are the reservoirs of rivers, which flow shoals or islets in the midst of it. The lake has into them. The former are frequently met with many islands on it, not less than fifteen, forming in the low grounds in the neighbourhood of the three clusters, the largest of these, Burro, is two Orinoco ; the greatest of the second description miles long, and is inhabited by Mestizoes, who are Maracaibo and Valencia. The lake of Ma- rear a few goats. The fish is abundant, but there racaibo has been already referred to in our article are only three sorts, the guavina, the vagra, and AMERICA, under the division of Colombia; it is the sardina; their flesh, however, is very insipid very deep and navigable for the largest vessels; in flavor. On the southern shore tobacco is its waters are always fresh ; but violent storms raised, and here are some of the finest plantations will sometimes force those of the neighbouring in the whole province. In Guiana is the lake gulf into it. There is generally a considerable of Parima or Paranatipinca, an oblong piece of undulation on it, and when the north wind blows water about 100 miles long by fifty broad ; in hard the waves rise very high. The shores in an island of which there is a rock of glittering the vicinity are unhealthy in consequence of the mica, said to have been the site of the city of vapors that arise in the night; but the richness El Dorado, a supposed place, the streets of which of the soil in the western part has induced some were asserted to be paved with gold. This lake Spaniards to take up their residence there, in gires rise to the large river Rio Blanco, and is order to cultivate cacao and provisions. On the described as situated in lat. 3° 40' N., and long. south it is uncultivated, and without inhabitants; 67° 20' W. the northern side, though hotter, is much more It is difficult to find a country in the world so healthy. The Indians build their villages on the abundant in rivers ; every valley has them, either margin of the lake, deeming it the most healthy of the larger or smaller description, and, if they plan; to one of these the Spaniards gave the are not navigable, yet they would copiously name of Little Venice, or Venezuela, which was supply all the wants of the population, were it afterwards transferred to the whole province. even increased a hundred fold. Those streams There are four of these villages remaining, under which take their rise on the northern sides of the the superintendence of a monk. There is a mine mountains in Caraccas, and flow into the sea, or vein of mineral pitch on the north-west of are so fenced in by their rocky banks, and faLake Maracaibo, used in graving vessels, which vored by the declivity of their channels, that emits, during the hot weather, corruscations from they seldom overflow, and never for any length its surface like frequent lightnings; the natives of time, or with much detriment to the country; call them St. Anthony's lanterns; they make use but those which rise on the south of the same of them in steering by during the dark nights of mountains, running in smoother and shallower the torrid zone. The lake of Valencia is of much beds, frequently mingle their water through a less extent, being only forty miles long and great part of the year, and form an immense sea twelve broad; it is situated in a valley, every- in the country.

Almost all of these flow to where, except on the west, surrounded by lofty augment the waters of the Orinoco, which is not and steep precipices. Its banks are covered only one of the largest, but the finest of the with the most luxuriant herbage. The waters of rivers of the southern peninsula. We have this lake are much subject to evaporation, and, treated of it among the rivers of South America, being elevated more than 1300 feet above the and shall not therefore repeat our observations. level of the ocean, it is thought that they have Rising in the lake Ipava, it winds a circuitous some subterraneous communication. This gra- course, passing through lake Parima, and afterdual retreat of the waters, and some new islands wards receiving the Guaviare; and more northappearing frequently, have given reason to be- ward the Meta, the Apura, the Arauca, and a lieve that the lake may perhaps become dry. multitude of other streams, large and small, it The southern shores are desert, and a gloomy issues by numerous estuaries into the Atlantic monotony prevails in consequence of their being opposite to Trinidad. Seven of its mouths are overshadowed by a ridge of high mountains, navigable, but very dangerous; the largest is while on the north the country is cheerful and eighteen miles broad. The scenery on the banks richly cultivated. This part of the shore has the of this great river is truly magnificent, forests of appearance of a garden, regularly laid out with aromatic trees diffuse, to a great extent, their borders of cestrums, azedaracs, and other shrubs delighful odors and agreeable shade; birds of always blooming, which join together the scat- the most beautiful plumage are observed in every tered farms. The houses are surrounded with direction, and the traveller is astonished at the trees; the ceiba, with its large yellow flowers, innumerable monkeys that are seen leaping from entwines its branches with the purple erithryna; tree to tree, with the most surprising agility. the most vivid vegetable colors form a pleasing Vast plains of the greatest verdure extend from contrast with the unclouded uniformity of the the forests to a distance that no eye can reach. sky; and in the dry season artificial watering The cataracts of the Orinoco, said to be the most preserves the burning soil in a state of continual awful in the world, occur near the bend of the verdure and fertility. Here and there vast river at the villages of Maypures and Atures, in masses of granite rock break abruptly through about 6° north latitude. From the end of April to the cultivated vegetation of the valley, nourishing October the waters are swelled by the rains, rising on their bare and forked surfaces a few succulent to the height of forty feet above their lowest level; plants that prepare mould for distant ages, and they then begin to subside, and continue sinking with their withered branches stand like signals till March, when they are at the lowest : they on a high cliff. In ancient times this valley was fluctuate in this way with constant regularity

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The rains are not the only causes of this varia- consequently, difficult for vessels to take in their tion; the principal cause, no doubt, is the melt- lading: this operation is done by the negroes ing of the snows in the mountains of Bogota. and mulattoes, a remarkably strong race of men, The seas that wash the coasts of Colombia are who go up to their middles through the water; not remarkable for any great variation in the and it is particularly deserving of notice, that tides; in some parts on the north and north-east, the sharks here, and at Santa Martha, are pernear the gulf of Paria, they rise during the fectly harmless, and never attack any one ; while, equinoxes to six or seven feet; but near the at the opposite island, they are dangerous and mouths of the Orinoco they scarcely attain the blood-thirsty. The people, generally superstiheight of ten inches. The trade winds prevail tious, attribute this to a bishop's haring given his off the coasts, blowing from north-east by east; blessing to the sharks at both these places. In but nearer to the shore they blow only from peaceable times the imports into this port amount nine in the morning till evening, and are suc- to rather more than £500,000, and the exports of ceeded in the night by the land breezes. All cacao, indigo, cotton, coffee, and hides, are the coasts of Caraccas are exposed to rolling and nearly £350,000. “When in the season of the monstrous billows, and there is only one port, great heat,' says the author of Colombia, the road of Porto Cabello, where the navy can breathe the burning atmosphere of La Guayra, ride securely

and turn our eyes towards the mountains, we are The principal place on the north of this vast strongly impressed with the idea, that at the country is Caraccas; its port, La Guayra, is direct distance of 5,000 or 6,000 toises, a posituated in lat. 10° 36' N. and 67° 10 Wilong. pulation of 40,000 souls assembled in a narrow This port is singularly situated; it is separated valley, enjoys all the coolness of spring, of a from the elevated valley of Caraccas by a chain temperature, which at night descends to 12° of of mountains descending directly into the sea, the centesimal thermometer.

This near apand forming a rocky wall for the backs of the proach of different climates is common in the houses of the town, not much more than 140 Cordilleras of the Andes; but everywhere at toises from the ocean. On this account serious Mexico, at Quito, in Peru and in New Grenada, damage is sometimes occasioned by the stones a long journey must be made into the interior that fall from the heights. This circumstance either by the plains, or by proceeding up the also occasions a striking peculiarity in the sur- rivers, in order to reach the great cities, which rounding prospect, there being no visible hori- are the centres of civilisation. The height of zon, except what the sea forms on the north. Caraccas is but a third of that of Mexico, Quito, This town bas only two streets running east and and Santa Fe de Bagota; yet among all the cawest, and parallel to each other, but not in a pitals of Spanish America, which enjoy a cool direct line; they are narrow and badly paved, and delicious climate in the midst of the torrid and the houses generally mean. The place is zone, Caraccas stands nearest to the coast. What defended by batteries, of which that of Cerro- a privilege to possess a sea-port at three leagues colorado is the chief; and the works on the sea- distance, and to be situated among mountains on side are well disposed, and in good repair. The a table land, which would produce a heat, if the appearance of this town is singularly gioomy; cultivation of the coffee-tree were not preferred.' one seems to be on an island, rocky and desti. Nothing can be finer than the road from La tute of vegetation, and except Cape Blanco and Guayra to the valley of Caraccas; it requires Maiquetia, where there are a few cocoa trees, but three hours to travel it with good mules, and the horizon, the sea, and the heavens, are the two to return; it takes about four or five hours only objects that meet the eye. The climate is to go on foot. It is very similar to that of St. Gothe most ardent in all the country, not only from thard, or of the Great St. Bernard in Switzerland; the scorching rays of the sun, but from the heat at first you ascend by a ridge of steep rocks, retained by the almost perpendicular rocks; and afterwards the ascent is rather more easy, and the the air is considerably stagnated in the hollows windings of the road render the declivity more of these mountains, and consequently has a easy as in the old road over mount Cenis. The more unwholesome effect upon the organs of the leap or Salto is a crevice that is crossed by a human frame, than the same degree of heat in drawbridge, and on the top of the mountain there the open country. By the thermometrical ob- are real fortifications. At La Venta you fud servations of Humboldt, it appears that La some most beautiful scenery; and when the clouds Guayra is one of the hottest places in the world, permii, the sea and the neighbouring coast prethat the quantity of heat there, in the course of sent a magnificent prospect. You have an horizon the year, is a little more than at Cumana; of more than sixty-six miles in radius, the barren, but that from November to January the at- white shore reflects the light in such a mass as to mosphere is cooler at La Guayra: probably dazzle the beholder; while, at your feet, you see this may arise from its more westerly posi- Cape Blanco, Maiquetia with its groves of cocoation. This port, however, was not formerly so trees, La Guayra, and the ressels entering its unhealthy, nor the yellow fever so prevalent as in port; and, when the sky is not clear, long trains Porto Cabello, Carthagena, and Santa Martha ; of clouds, brightly illumined on their upper surbut since the year 1797, to whatever cause it face, present the appearance of islands floating may be owing, this destructive malady has com- on the ocean. Houses and trees are often seen mitted dreadful ravages. La Guayra is not a bursting through the openings of the clouds, safe anchorage for ships; the depth of the water that are rolling one over another; and these nearly a quarter of a league from the beach, is objects thus appear at a greater depth, than when not more than eight fathoms; the sea is in con- beheld through a serene atmosphere. Caraccas stant agitation, and the surge runs high. It is, lies in a small valley near the lofty mountains of Avila and the Silla, which give a character of Sea, eight leagues to the west of Caraccas. It gloom to its scenery, especially towards the end stands in a dry sandy plain, where scarcely anyof the year; when the atmosphere in the evenings thing grows but Indian figs, and plants of the is thick, and when streams of vapors cling to the Cactus family; the inhabitants have their fruit evergreen slopes of the hills. But in June and and vegetables from a place three leagues distant, July the nights are delicious, the air is pure and and such is the great scarcity of water, that it is transparent, and this is the season for enjoying brought two miles on mules and asses into the the beauty of this scenery. The climate of the town. It is, however, so well situated for trade place is remarkably mild, the temperature in the with Porto Rico and St. Domingo, that the day time being between 20° and 26°; and at night Spaniards fixed on it for their settlement on the between 16° and 18°, being favorable equally to coast of Terra Firma. Its streets are regular, the plantain, the orange-tree, the coffee-tree, the but not paved, and the houses are mean; there apple, the apricot, and to corn.

It is, however,

are about 10,000 inhabitants, who possess little generally, inconstant and variable, the inhab- activity or enterprise, but are very proud oi itants complain of having several seasons in a being descended from those who conquered the day, and those in rapid succession These va- country. There are very few negroes; the Iudians riations act violently on the human frame. Two who live in the suburbs doing the laborious work, winds generally prevail, one from the west, or they are paid very low wages, and live with se sea side, and the other from the east or the in- much parsimony that they will not accommodate terior of the country; the first called Catia, be- each other with a bit of fire without receiving a cause it blows from that place through the ravine piece of wood in return. The next place of consof Tipe, is loaded with humid vapors, which it quence is Porto Cavello or Puerto Cabello, thiriy deposits, as its temperature decreases; it causes leagues to the north-east of Caraccas, in a fine hardreadful head-aches to persons of irritable nerves, bour in theGolfo Triste; it is near Curacoa, to which and the people shut themselves up in their island it owes its importance. About a league houses to avoid it, as they do the sirocco in from Porto Cavello is Barburatæ, a village and Italy. The mean temperature of the air may be harbour, long infested by smugglers, but afterabout from 20° to 22°. Rains are frequent, and wards in the possession of the Guipuzcoa comhail occurs here about every four or five years, pany, who built a town, wharf, and forts with though none falls in the low regions of the tro- immense warehouses, and ejected these most pics. The comparative coolness of the climate troublesome inmates. Guanara, ninety-three agrees well with the cultivation of equinoctial leagues south-west of Caraccas, is situated in a productions. The sugar-cane thrives even on fine plain towards Varinas; the river, which gives the heights above Caraccas; but in the valley its name to the town, affords excellent water for the coffee-tree is preferred, which yields little the inhabitants and their cattle, and irrigates their fruit; but that little of the finest quality. Pine- land; while there is no impediment to prevent apples of the highest flavor are produced at the free circulation of the air. This city has a Baruto Empedrado, Buonavista, and on the way number of uniform and regular streets, with wellto Victoria. The traveller is surprised here with built houses, a handsome church, and a good a sight of the culinary plants of our climates, and hospital; its population is about 12,000. It is beholds the strawberry, the vine, and all the surrounded with fertile lands and rich pastures fruit trees of the temperate zone growing by the for cattle, of which they keep great numbers, and side of the coffee and banana tree. The best in which, as well as mules, their chief trade conapples and peaches come from Macarao on the sists. Formerly they raised good tobacco in west of the valley, and the quince, not above some parts, which was a great source of riches. four or five feet in height, has become wild. Ex- The next place of importance is Barquisimecellent apples are sometimes produced from trees to, about 120 miles W. S.W. of Caraccas, situnot grafted; there are no cherry-trees, and theated in an elevated plain, where it enjoys a olive-trees, though luxuriant in vegetation, bear happy temperature. It has a fine parish church, little fruit. Four small rivers water the vicinity in which is a crucifix famed for working miraof Caraccas, the Guayra on the south, the Anauco cles, that is an object of devotion to the people, and the Caroata on the east, and the Ca- and yields an abundant revenue to the clergy. tucho; these, after supplying the domestic wants The town has a population of about 11,000 perof the town, unite in one bed, and flowing sons, who find sufficient employ in the plains, through the valley Chacao, at length mingle with valleys, and rising grounds in the neighbourhoort, the Tuy, and under that appellation fall into the in feeding cattle, and cultivating sugar and excelocean about thirty-six miles east of Cape Codera. lent wheat. Besides these there are Tocuyo, The streets are in straight lines about twenty feet with about 10,000 inhabitants, who are said to wide, crossing each other at right angles, at a be much addicted to suicide; San Carlos, a large distance of 300 feet; there are three squares and handsome town on the small river Aguare, that deserve the name; the houses are well built, with a population of 9500 persons; Araura, and in the interior there are many storied and of with about 11,000 people, who are very indofine appearance, some of brick, but the greater lent, and addicted to pleasure; Maracay, a beaupart of stone, with sharp roofs. The houses of tiful town, forty miles south-west of Caraccas, the principal people are neatly and even richly having three-fourths of its houses built of stone, furnished.

with an industrious, cleanly, and moral popuCoro is another principal town in Venezuela : lation; Victoria, founded by the missionaries, in it is situated on an isthmus separating the Gulf the plain of which, though rery low, European Venezuela or Maracaibo, from the Carribbean corn is cultivated in large quantities by a popu

lation of nearly 8000 persons; Tulmero, in a according to the differeni elevations of the mounvalley near that or Aragua, containing about 8000 tains, valleys, and plains, in the interior. The inhabitants, many of whom are free Indians, who most flourishing part of the country is the coast are active and laborious, but much addicted to on the Gulf of Paria, where there are two vilstrong liquors, in which they spend in one week lages, inhabited by French refugees and Spathe produce of two months ; San Matheo, the niards, which are rising in importance; this inhabitants of which are rich and industrious; district promises soon to be the richest in the Valentia, about sixteen miles south-west of Ca- province. The port of Cumana is capable of raccas, remarkable as the scene of the death of receiving all the navies of Europe, and the whole the tyrant Lopez de Aguieme, who having de- Gulf of Cariaco, thirty-five miles long, and sixtyclared against Philip II., at the moment when he eight broad, asfords very good anchorage; the fell, plunged a dagger into the bosom of his ocean being calm, and hurricanes never felt here. only daughter, that she might not have to blush The city, situated at the foot of a hill, is combefore the Spaniards at the name of the daughter manded by the castle of St. Antonio, which forms of a traitor. Here the ants are so innumerable, a beautiful object to vessels advancing into the that their excavations under the houses resemble port, appearing as a bright object on the dark underground canals, which fill with water in the sides of the mountains that rise into the clouds. rainy season, and cause great danger to the The town is only fifty-three feet above the level buildings; San Felipe, surrounded with a fertile of the sea; the heat is very intense, and scarcely soil, watered by a great number of rivulets, and any rain ever falls in the plain, though in the exposed to violent rains and excessive heats; neighbouring mountains it is frequent. There Carora, a handsome town, having three parish are no very remarkable buildings, owing to the churches, in a parched and thorny plain, but dreadful effects of the last earthquake; on favored with a bealthy climate; San Juan Bap- account of the frequency of these, the houses are tista del Pao, a city inhabited solely by propri- low and slightly built

, beauty and elegance beetors of cattle; Calabozo, round which it is ing sacrificed to safety. In 1530 the whole computed about 98,000 head of cattle wander in coast was shaken, and a city called New Toledo the pastures; San Luis de Cuba, San Sebastian destroyed; towards the end of the sixteenth cende los Reyes, both feeding large herds of catile; tury these shocks were very frequent, the sea Nirgua, erected on account of the mines in its sometimes rising fifteen or twenty fathoms; on soil, but which is going to decay; and the Bay the 21st of October, 1766, Cumana was overof Ocumara, five leagues east of Porto Cavello, thrown, and great numbers perished ; the tremwhich is an excellent port; the valleys round blings continued hourly for fourteen months. which contain a population of about 52,500 per- The next year the inhabitants lived in the streets, sons of different descriptions. The greater part when the shocks happened only once a month; of the inhabitants of these towns are farmers, in this earthquake the ground opened, and quanwho cultivate their lands, or feed numerous herds tities of hot water were thrown out. In 1794 and Aucks in the surrounding country; the rest there was another tremendous convulsion, and in are priests, physicians, escrivanas (who discharge 1797 the earth heaved with frightful noises, and the offices of barristers, attorneys, notaries, and four-fifths of the city were destroyed. Half an even bailiffs), and a few shopkeepers. The ter- hour before this there was a strong sulphureous ritory of one town or village is separated from smell, a loud noise was beard from under ground, that of another by forests and natural meadows, and fames arose from the banks of the river. or savannahs; and occasionally we find missions Though so constantly exposed to this dreadful or villages of half-civilised Indians.

visitation, the inhabitants of this place are very The government of Cumana, including New insensible to it; they think it never happens but Barcelona and New Andalusia, is bounded on the at certain intervals, and that the weather and north and east by the sea, on the west by the other appearances indicate its approach. The river Unara, and on the south by the Orinoco, population of this town, comparing all the stateon the left bank of which there are some inhabi- ments that have been given, may be about tants in several places. It is very mountainous, 17,000; they are not so rich as the Caraccans, the Andes running through it as far as the Gulph but they are inclined to business, economical, of Pariz, and giving birth to the rivers that flow and industrious; they trade abundantly in catinto the Caribbean Sea on the north, and into the tle, smoked meat, and salted fish; the retail Orinoco on the south. The Unara is navigable trade is mostly carried on by Catalans, Biscaynearly twenty miles from the sea, up to the vil- ans, and Canarians, men who begin with a few lage of San Antonio de Clarinas, its whole course dollars, and in a few years acquire fortunes by being about sixty miles. By the Neveri the port frugality and industry. These people first taught of Barcelona carries on its trade in cattle and the natives to derive advantage from their local skins; at Cumana the small river Manganares is productions. remarkable for having its banks lined with fruit- Provisions are remarkably cheap hers; two ful plantations. The soil in some parts is rather pounds of beef,' says the author of Colombia, fertile; in others sandy, and presenting nothing are sold at Cumana for twopence-halfpenny; but an inexhaustible mine of salt, boih inarine and twenty-two pounds of sait meat at froin and mineral. In other places it is wonderfully three shillings and fourpence to four shillings fruitful, producing every species of vegetation, and twopence. Fish is never weighed there : and the most precious trees, as the guiacum, ana- some days there is a quantity caught by the cardium, Brasil

, and Campeachy woods, down to fishermen, that they give ten, twelve, or fifteen, the very coast of Paria. The climate varies pounds weight for fivepence. The poor go to tho

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