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Davies on Ireland.

COLONIA VALENTIA, a town of Spain, on the

To these new inhabitants and colonies he gave th Turias; destroyed by Pompey, and restored by same law under which they were born and bred. Julius Cæsar; still called Valencia.

Spenser on Ireland. COLONNA'DE, n. s. Ital. colonna, a column; Rooting out these two rebellious septs, he placed a series of columns disposed in a circle, and in English colonies in their room. sulated within side; any series or range of pillars. The rising city, which from far you see, Here circling colonnades the ground inclose,

Is Carthage and a Tyrian colony. Dryden's Virgil. And her the marble statues breathe in rows.

Osiris, or the Bacchus of the ancients, is reported Addison. to have civilized the Indians, planting colonies, and

Arbuthnot on Coins. For you my colonnades extend their wings. Pope. building cities. COLONNADE, POLYSTYLE, is that whose num

While Chrysoloras admired the venerable beauties ber of columns is too great to be taken in by the of the mother, he was not forgetful of his native eye at a single view. Such is the colonnade of country, her fairest daughter, ber imperial colony.

Gibbon. the palace of St. Peter's at Rome, consisting of 284 columns of the Doric order, each above four

COLONY is a term that has been applied to feet and a half diameter, all in Tiburtine marble. three different kinds of emigrants, viz. 1. Those COLONOS, in ancient geography, an emi- who leave their native country, when its inhabi

2. Those esta pence near Athens, whither Edipus, after his tants are become too numerous.

blished by victorious princes among vanquished banishment from Thebes, is said to have retired : and hence Sophocles calls the tragedy on that nations, to keep them in awe and obedience. 3.

Colonies of commerce, of which the sole object subjeci, Edipus Coloneus. A place sacred to Neptune, and where stood an equestrian statue

is the extension of trade. I. By the first kind of of him. Here also stood Timon's tower: who, colonies, some ages after the deluge, the east for his love of solitude, and hatred to mankind, first, and successively all the other parts of the was called Misanthropos,

earth, became inhabited; and not to mention the COLONSA, or Colonsay, one of the Western ancient history, it is notorious that it was for the

Phænician and Grecian colonies, so famous in Islands of Scotland, so named from Colon, a popish saint, lying in the Atlantic Ocean, he establishment of such colonies, that, during the ween the coast of Årgyllshire and that of Ireland, of barbarous nations, issuing mostly out of the

declension of the Roman empire, those torrents four miles and a half west of Jura. It is sepa- north, overran Gaul, Italy, ard the other southern rated from Oronsay by a narrow sound, which is dry at low water, and therefore both islands ap- parts of Europe ; and, after many bloody battles, pear as one. They are both flat, compared with shared it with the ancient inhabitants. "II. The the towering peaks of Jura and Mull, though second kind of colonies were planted by the Rothere is a considerable number of rugged heath

mans more than any other people, to secure the covered hills in them. They measure about numerous conquests they had made. The inha8000 acres, of which 3000 are arable. The air and even England, still value themselves on their

bitants of many cities in France, Germany, Spain, is pure and salubrious; the soil light and fertile. The best part of the ground maintains a fine breed having been originally Roman colonies. There of black cattle. There is a great quantity of fine those sent by the senate ; and the military ones,

were two kinds of colonies among the Romans : coral on the banks round these islands, and a considerable quantity of kelp is annually made consisting of old soldiers, disabled by the fatigues from the sea-weed thrown upon the coast. These the reward of their services. The colonies sent

of war, who were thus provided with lands as islands constitute the west division of the parish by the senate were either Roman or Latin, 1. €. of Jura and Colonsay.

COLONUS, a husband man, or villager, who composed either of Roman citizens, or Latins. was bound to pay yearly a certain tribute, or at

The coloniæ Latinæ were such as enjoyed the certain times of the year to plough some part of jus Latii; viz. 1. that whoever was edile or præthe lord's land; and from thence comes the word tor in a town of Latium, became for that reason

a Roman citizen; and, 2. that the Latins were COʻLONY, n. 8.1 Lat. colonia. A body of the Roman magistrates. The coloniæ Romanæ,

subject to edicts of their own, and not to those of Coʻlonize, v.a. I people drawn from the mother country to inhabít some distant place. The its full extent; i. e, they had no right of suffrage,

were such as had the jus Romanum, but not in place itself by a metonymy; to plant with inha- putting up for honors, magistracies, command in bitants; to settle with new planters.

the armies, &c.; but the jus Quiritium only, or There was never an hand drawn, that did double private right; as rights of liberty, sacrifice, marthe rest of the babitable world, before this; for so a riage, &c. For it was long a rule, never to grant man may truly term it, if he shall put to account as well that that is, as that wbich may be hereafter, by

the liberty of the city in full to colonies. There the farther occupation and colonizing of those coun

were other colonies, which had little more than tries : and yet it cannot be affirmed, if one speak in Italicum, i. e. freedom from the taxes paid by the

the name; only enjoying what they called jus tian faith that was the adamant of that discovery, provinces. Such were the colonies of Tyre, Beentry, and plantation ; but gold and silver, and tem- rytus, Heliopolus, Palmyra, &c. M. Vaillant poral protit and glory; so that what was first in God's has filled a volume in folio with medals struck providence, was but second in man's appetite and in. by the several colonies, in honor of the emperors

Bacon's Holy War, who founded them. III. The colonies of comDruina hath advantage by acquest of islands, which merce are those established in modern times by she colonizeth and foreidieth daily. Howel's Vocal Forest. the English, French, Spaniards, Portuguese,

clown.

tention.

What

Dutch, &c.; partly, certainly, for the motives property of a great and commercial people, the already enuinerated, and the peculiar condition laws of policy and revenues (such especially as of the inother country; but that have been mainly are enforced by penalties), the mode of mainencouraged and protected by their home gobern- tenance for the established clergy, the juristie. ments for the extension of trade.

tion of spiritual courts, and a multitude of other The practice of settling commercial colonies provisions, are neither necessary, nor convenient in distant countries has been adopted by the for them, and therefore are not in force. wisest nations of antiquity, who acted systema- shall be admitter, and what rejected, at what tically upon maxims of sound policy. This ap- times, and under what restrictions, must, in cases pears to have been the case with the ancient of dispute, be decided in the first instance by Egyptians, the Chinese, the Phænicians, the their own provincial judicature, subject to the commercial states of Greece, the Carthaginians, revision and control of the king in council; the and even the Romans; for though the colonies whole of their constitution being also liable to of the latter were chiefly military, it could easily be new modelled and reformed by the general be shown that they were likewise made use of for superintending power of the legislature in the the purposes of trade. The savage nations who mother country. But in conquered or ceded ruined the Roman empire, sought nothing but to countries, that have already laws of their own, extirpate and hold in vassalage those whom they the king may indeed alter and change those overcame; and, therefore, whenever princes en- laws; but, till he does actually change them, the larged their dominions at the expense of their ancient laws of their country remain, unless such neighbours, they had recource to strong forts as are against the law of God, as in an infidel and garrisons to keep the conquered in awe. country.' Dr. Adam Sinith thus argues against · Machiavel labors to show, that the settling of what has been called, in modern times, the colocolonies would have been a cheaper and better nial system. method of bridling conquered countries, than • The European colonies of America have building fortresses in them. John de Witt, who never yet furnished any military force for the dewas one of the ablest and best statesmen that fence of the mother country. The military force ever appeared, strongly recommended colonies; has never yet been sufficient for their own deas affording a refuge to such as had been unfor- fence; and in the different wars in which the tunate in trade; as opening a field for such men mother countries have been engaged, the defence to exert their abilities, as through want of inte- of their colonies has generally occasioned a very rest could not raise themselves in their own considerable distraction of the military force of country; and as a supplement to hospitals and those countries. In this respect, therefore, all other charitable foundations, which he thought the European colonies have, without exception, in time might come to be overcharged. Some, been a cause rather of weakness than of strength however, have ridiculed the supposed advantages to their respective mother countries. of colonies, and asserted that they must always “The colonies of Spain and Portugal only have do mischief hy depopulating the mother country. contributed any revenue towards the defence of The history of our American colonies undoubt- the mother country, or the support of her civil edly shows, that when colonists become nume- government. The taxes which have been levied rous and opulent, it is very difficult to retain upon those of other European nations, upon them in subjection to the parent state. It be- those of England in particular, have seldom comes then a question not easily answered, how been equal to the expense laid out upon them in far they are entitled to the rights they had as time of peace, and never sufficient to defray that inhabitants of the mother country, or how far which they occasioned in time of war. Such they are bound by its laws? Judge Blackstone colonies, therefore, have been a source of exsays, • Plantations, or colonies in distant coun- pense and not of revenue to their respective tries, are either such where the lands are claimed mother countries. by right of occupancy only, by finding them • The advantages of such colonies, to their redesert and uncultivated, and peopling them from spective mother countries, consist altogether in the mother country; or where, when already those peculiar advantages which are supposed to cultivated, they have either been gained by con- result from provinces of so very peculiar a naquest, or ceded to us by treaties. And both the ture as the European colonies of America; and rights are founded upon the law of nature, or at the exclusive trade, it is acknowledged, is the least on that of nations. But there is a difference sole source of all those peculiar advantages. In between these two species of colonies with re- conseqnence of this exclusive trade, all that part spect to the laws by which they are bound. For of the surplus produce of the English colonies, it has been held, that if an uninhabited country for example, which consists in what are called be discovered and planted by English subjects, enumerated commodities, can be sent to no all the English laws then in being, which are the other country but England. Other countries birthright of every subject, are immediately there must afterwards buy it of her. It must be in force. But this must be understood with cheaper therefore in England than it can be in many and very great restrictions. Such colonists any other country, and must contribute more to carry with them only so much of the English increase the enjoyments of England than those law as is applicable to their own situation, and of any other country. It must likewise contrithe condition of an infant colony: such for in- bute more to encourage her industry. For all stance, as the general rules for inheritance, and those parts of her own surplus produce which of protection from personal injuries. The arti- England exchanges for those enumerated comficial refinements and distinctions incident to the modities, she must get a better price than any

other countries can get for the like parts of On the first of the topics here sug rested, that theirs, when they exchange them for the same the colonies are burdens, on account of the expense commodities. The manufactures of England, for of the protection, &c., it has been well remarked example, will purchase a greater quantity of the 1. That in making up the accounts something sugar and tobacco of her own colonies, than the must be allowed for the naval force necessary to like manufacturers of other countries can pur. be kept up in remote parts of the world, even if chase of that sugar and tobacco. So far, there- we had no direct interests in those of this kind. fore, as the manufactures of England and those 2. That the colonies themselves, in many instanof other countries are both to be exchanged forces, contribute materially to their own defence the sugar and tobacco of the English colonies, and protection. With Jamaica, Canada, and our this superiority of price gives an encouragement East India possessions this is the case : in some to the former, beyond what the latter can in these instances all the civil and military expense is circumstances enjoy. The exclusive trade of bonâ fide, met by them; in others, as in many of the colonies, therefore, as it diminishes, or, at the West India islands, a duty of 4 per cent. is least, keeps down below what they would other- laid on the commerce of the colony, with this wise rise io, both the enjoyments and the indus- object directly in view. When the charge on the try of the countries which do not possess it; mother country shall be ascertained, making so it gives an evident advantage to the countries these allowances, what she also draws from them which do possess it over those other countries. in taxes must be estimated, before the relative ad

This advantage, however, will, perhaps, be vantages or disadvantages to her industry for the found to be rather what may be called a rela- possession, can be fairly computed. tive than an absolute advantage; and to give a In entering upon these more fully, we avail superiority to the country which enjoys it, rather ourselves of an able abstract of the whole quesby' depressing the industry and produce of other tion, in a late number of the Quarterly Review. countries, than by raising those of that particular The ties of intercourse between protectors and country above what they would naturally rise dependent states, it is suggested, give rise to the to in the case of a free trade. The tobacco formation of multifarious commodities in a of Maryland and Virginia, for example, by European country, to pay for the exotic producmeans of the monopoly which England enjoys tions sent into it in return. If these articles equal of it, certainly comes cheaper to England than it in the value the expense of the colonies, here is can do to France, to whom England commonly a source of profit and enjoyment, not a burden, sells a considerable part of it. But had France created. But on examination of the value of and all other European countries been, at all colonial intercourse, compared with that of indetimes, allowed a free trade to Maryland and pendent states, it will appear that the exports Virginia, the tobacco of those colonies might, made to the colonies exclusively originating in by this time, have come cheaper than it actually their deinand, vastly exceed their real expense. does, not only to all those other countries, but Were this demand therefore to cease, so much likewise to England. The produce of tobacco, of the labor of the producers would have to be in consequence of a market so much more ex- directed to other objects, or cease also. tensive than any which it has hitherto enjoyed, To this it may be added, that the very habits might, and probably would, by this time, have and prejudices of a colony, in close intercourse been so much increased as to reduce the profits with the mother country, will always cause its of a tobacco plantation to their natural level with thriving classes to imitate her manners, and to those of a corn plantation, which, it is supposed, introduce the articles of her greatest profit and they are still somewhat above. The price of skill. But could we without the colonies rely tobacco might, and probably would, by this on possessing the same extent of production, and time, nare fallen somewhat lower than it is at consequently power to purchase of them or of present. An equal quantity of the commodi- other states, still the security and permanence of ties either of England, or of those other countries, an intercourse under our control is an important might have purchased in Maryland and Virginia consideration. The certainty of a home trade is a greater quantity of tobacco than it can do at acquired. The whole of the produced wealth is present, and, consequently, have been sold there the property of natural born subjects. It is not for so much a better price. So far as that weed, on one side that of foreigners; nor are we extherefore, can, by its cheapness and abundance, posed to interruptions from caprice or policy, or increase the enjoyments or augment the industry the occurrence of hostilities between other powers. either of England or of any other country, it A foreign state may, by regulations, draw its

supwould probably, in the case of a free trade, have plies, even of the staples and manufactures in produced both these effects in somewhat a which this country is confessedly superior, from greater degree than it can do at present. Eng- other sources: and this stability in our relations land, indeed, would not in this case have had will repay many sacrifices. any advantage over other countries. She might Another object of primary importance, attenhave boughi the tobacco of her colonies some- dant upon a colonial trade, is the employment what cheaper, and, consequently, have sold of seamen. The right to supply and manage a some of her own commodities somewhat dearer large portion of the conveyance has ever been than she actually does : but she could neither accounted a source of natural strength and prohave bought the one cheaper nor sold the other perty. Without the possession of colonies it is dearer than any other country might have don difficult to say how this can be attained, unless She might, perhaps, have gained an absolute, but the sources of the produce were independent she would certainly have lost a relative advantage.' states, and would forego (what no state possessing Vol. VI.

o

shipping ever did forego) compensating duties take measures certain to be adapted to the customeand favor shown to its own vessels.

house regulations of that empire, and their effect Dependent possessions, again, scattered over upon consumption.' all parts of the world, become secure marts from We are then supplied with the following interwhich commerce can be carried on with every esting facts respecting the colonial system of our quarter : without them, the intercourse with neighbours. In 1699 Colbert estimated the many places, in an imperfectly civilised or often number of French vessels engaged in foreign disturbed state, would be precarious and hazard- trade at 600. Of these not more than 100 were ous; and they confer, wherever situated, a local supposed to be employed in the commerce of the influence, upholding the character and interests West Indies. At the revolution, France bad not of the country. Thus Jamaica and the Westmore than 1000 vessels engaged in distant voyaIndia Islands have been the means of our exten- ges, or about 200,000 tons. Far the larger part sive intercourse with South America, amid all the of this very limited tonnage (compared with the troubles to which that quarter has been subject great commerce of France) was owing to her and in the Mediterranean, Gibraltar and Malta, West India colonies; for, from various reasons, although not in themselves productive, become her commerce with other parts was carried on in beneficial chains of communication with Barbary, foreign shipping; that with her colonies was and other parts. Our East India possessions, wholly her own. The tonnage of her European besides the commerce actually held with them, trade was only 152,000 tons. So entirely did are the means of conducting an intercourse with the strength of the French marine appear, at that every shore of the Indian seas.

time, to depend on the colonies, that one of the "The question, in fine,' says the able paper ad- ministers, M, Arnould, to whom we are indebted verted to,“is, whether that country is best situated for the statements we present, exclaims; 'Quelles which is secure of a given place where the pro- ressources a donc la France pour entretenir une ducts of its labor can be exchanged, or that which force publique maritime ? Quels moyens lui has to seek throughout the world for permission restent pour élever, instruire, et multiplier la to exchange them? Whether the colonies are best classe préciuse des matelots ? Le commerce de circumstanced ,in seeking all the markets of the con- l'Amerique,-ne l'oublions pas, le commerce de tinent, or in being sure

of the certain great mar- l'Amerique.' ket of this country? Whether it is better on both • The followiug table will show the rapid prosides, to be subject to the caprices of nations, gress of the French West India colonies within the as well as the vicissitudes of seasons, or to be last century, and their importance to that country; dependent only on the latter? Whether to give together with the value of the product re-exportsafety to the exchanges of labor, so far as in used, and of that which was consumed at home. lies, or to commit ourselves to all the chances It will be seen that the general export of coloand windings of other states? Let those who nial produce, in the seven years average ending deal with independent countries answer how far 1733. was 50,630,000 livres. In the five years their intercourse is secure and stable, and the na- ending 1788 the average was 93,056,000 livres, ture and extent of their vent to be foreseen. being an increase of four-fifths in five years. In Let the traders with Russia speak to the varia- 1788 the annual import of sugar into France was tions, not only arising from seasons but from al- about 2,600,000 cwt. She was supposed to extered tariffs, which every year brings forth, and port about 1,400,000 cwt.; that is, more than tell us, whether at any period, it is possible to half the quantity imported.

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• France, on the late peace, was no sooner re- our shipping, for which we are indebted to the possessed of colonies than her legislative body same source, will exhibit the tonnage clearing proceeded to establish her maritime commerce on outwards to the principal colonial possessions, a footing the first feature of which is favor to during the year ending the 5th of January, 1821; them; in a similar spirit she has granted the and will, likewise, furnish a contrast with the highest encouragement to her fisheries : thus a shipping engaged in the intercourse with the more few years have sufficed to re-animate a marine important independent states. It will show, too, which was nearly extinct, and which might have how large a portion of our foreign intercourse is remained in that listless state, had she permitted carried on by the shipping of other countries; those nations already in possession of the naviga- and how considerable a share of our navigation tion of the seas to become her carriers.'

owes its existence to the strict colonial system. The following statement of the employment of

British Tonnage. | Foreign Tonnage.

British North American Colonies
British West India Colonies
East Indies
France
United States
Fiolland
Germany
Russia
Sweden and Norway

300,695
217,744
76,833
80,361
44,589
53,828
107,601
111,290
15,641

50,954 133,516 37,222 19,680 14,995 51,102

The following is a statement of the official value of exports to the colonies at this period, and will show that they take as much British produce as the greater part of Europe ; while again the colonial produce imported for re-exportation, forms a large portion of the exports to Europe.

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COLOPHON, in ancient geography, a town Of Venetian turpentine, slowly evaporating about of Ionia, seated on a promontory on the Ægean a fourth or fifth part, the remaining substance sufferSea, and washed by the Halesus. It was de- ed to cool, would afford me a coherent body, or a fine stroyed by Lysimachus, in his war with Anti- colophony.

Boyle. gonus, in order to enlarge Ephesus : but, ac

Turpentines and oils leave a colophony, upon a cording to Pausanias, it was rebuilt in the neigh- separation of their thinner oil. bourhood, on a more commodious site. This is

Floyer on the Humours. one of the cities that laid claim to the honor of giving birth to Homer. Of this town was the COLOQUI’NTEDA, n. s. Lat. colocynthis; poet Antimachus.

κολοκυνθις. The fruit of a plant of the same COLOPHONEM ADDERE, the addition of a name, brought from the Levant, about the biguess preponderating weight, a proverbial saying, ex- of a large orange, and often called bitter apple. plained by Strabo, who says, that the Colopho- Both the seed and pulp are intolerably bitter. It nian horse generally t'a ned the scales in favor of is a violent purgative, of considerable use in methe side on which they fought.

dicine. COʻLOPHONY, n. s. Rosin; from Colo- COLOQUINTIDA, in botany. See Cuphon, a city, whence i. came.

CUMIS.

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