Daughters, Wives, and Widows After the Black Death: Women in Sussex, 1350-1535
It has long been thought that the post Black Death period offered unparallelled opportunities for women. However, through a careful consideration of economic and legal changes affecting women of all social classes and conditions, the author shows that this was not the case, taking issue with orthodox opinion. She argues that marriage at a late age was not customary for women, and that the ability of wives to supplement their income with intermittent paid labour (at harvest time, for example) was not so great as has been supposed: rather, most married women spent more time on unpaid agricultural labour on their own land than their peers had done in the pre-plague economy. Professor Mate also demonstrates that there is little evidence to support the current belief that widowhood was the period in a woman's life when she enjoyed most power, freedom, and independence; moreover, legal changes were a mixed blessing for women, leaving some widows with a larger portion and a more secure title to land, but totally depriving others. Throughout, the book pays much attention to class as well as gender, showing how many things were determined by it, from what a woman wore or ate to the age at which she married, her power within the household, and even her vulnerability to rape.Professor MAVIS E. MATEteaches in the Department of History at the University of Oregon.
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Fluctuations in the postBlack Death Economy
Percentages of Sussex polltax population married
Married Women and Work among Labouring and Craft Families
Women under the Law
Post mortem transfers of land 142080
Percentages of female tenants in east Sussex rentals 14001500
acres Additional Roll Agnes Alciston Alice annuity aristocratic women Battle abbey beer Black Death Bolney brewers brewing Chiddingly Christine de Pizan cloth cottage countryside court rolls daughter deathbed transfer demesne died dower downland early sixteenth century earn East Hoathly east Sussex economic Elizabeth ESRO estates Etchingham executors father female feoffees Fiennes fifteenth century fourteenth century free-bench gentry Goldberg granted Hanawalt harvest heir heiress held Henry hired household husband husbandmen income inherited Joan John joint tenure jointure labour land late fourteenth Late Medieval leased Lewes Lewkenore London Lord male manor Margaret Margery marriage married Medieval England merchet messuage mother Oxenbridge paid Pelham pence PROB quire rape received remarriage remarried rent Richard servants Sir Thomas social sons standard of living surviving Sussex women tenants tenement Thomas Fiennes town Udimore unmarried urban wages Weald widowhood wife William Winchelsea wives woman yeomen young