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pers, subject to violent gusts from trifling provocations: they have had singular opinions without any intelligible reasons for them, and have most of them had a peculiarly formal and solemn manner. After continuing many years in this state, and passing among their friends for eccentric characters, they have ultimately become deranged. I need not say that this peculiarity of mind, although constantly mistaken for eccentricity, is, in truth, slumbering undeveloped madness. The signs which ought to create suspicion of this state are these: insanity being more or less prevalent in the family; a singularity of opinions, manners, and actions, inexplicable by the peculiar pursuits of the individual; enormous self-esteem; mischievous schemes obstinately persisted in, and uncorrected by experience.'
A third mode of defence, in cases of monomaniacs, is to assert the impossibility of the mind being mad on one subject. The mind is one and indivisible, and cannot, therefore, be partially mad.' This is metaphysics against fact, and the direct answer is to quote one example, where it would be easy to quote thousands. But, to meet the argument as it is proposed, we have the analogy of other diseases to show that a general malady shows itself in a part only. Thus scrofula is a constitutional or general malady, and yet it will show itself only in the swelling of a single gland, while every function of the body shall, to all appearance, be performed in the healthiest manner. If the brain be the instrument of thought, where is the difficulty of supposing that one key may jar, while all the rest yield the usual tones to the same touch?
Such are a few of the thoughts suggested to us by the perusal of these two admirable essays. The extracts which we have made will satisfy the general reader that the opinions to which we have alluded have been moulded in the mind of one, who has seen well, thinks deeply, and explains his thoughts with that simplicity of language which always accompanies power. To the professional reader we have nothing to say; for, if he have attended at all to the progress of medicine, he will see at a glance that there is not a single one of the ten essays contained in Dr. Gooch's work, which does not prove an important practical point,—thus adding to the stores of human knowledge, and to the means of alleviating human suffering. No such work has appeared, on the branch of Inedicine professed by our author, since the time of that admirable scholar and profound physician, Dr. William Hunter.
ART. VII.-1. Essai Statistique sur le Royaume de Portugal et d'Algarve, comparé aux autres Etats de l'Europe, et suivi d'un Coup-d'œil sur l'Etat actuel des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts parmi les Portugais des deux hémisphères. Par Adrien Balbi, Ancien Professeur de Géographie, de Physique et de Mathématique, Membre Correspondant de l'Athenée de Trevise, &c. &c. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris. 1822.
2. Sketches of Portuguese Life, Manners, Costume, and Charac
ter; illustrated by twenty coloured Plates. By A. P. D. G. 8vo. London. 1826.
3. Portugal Illustrated; in a Series of Letters. By the Rev. W. M. Kinsey, B. D., Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford; and Chaplain to the Right Hon. Lord Auckland. Embellished with a Map, Plates of Coins, Vignettes, Modinhas; and various Engravings of Costume, Landscape Scenery, &c. Second Edition. Royal Svo. London. 1829.
4. An Historical View of the Revolutions of Portugal, since the close of the Peninsular War; exhibiting a full Account of the events which have led to the present State of the Country. By an Eye-Witness. Svo. London. 1827.
5. Injusta Acclamaçam do Serenissimo Infante D. Miguel; ou
6. Examen Rapide de l'Acte fait par les Prétendus Etats du Royaume de Portugal. Assemblés à Lisbonne le 23 Juin, 1828. Par Jm. A. de Magalhaens, Docteur en Droit, Député aux Cortès de 1826 et 1827; Secrétaire de la Junta Governativa du Porto au Département des Affaires Etrangères. London. 1828.
7. Correio Braziliense. 29 vols. From 1808 to 1822.
HE first book in this list is a useful and laborious work, in which the author has aimed at more than it was possible for him to accomplish, but has accomplished much, giving abundant proof of industrious ability, and of a disposition to see everything in the most hopeful and favourable light. The Sketches of Portugueze Life' come from a person much more intimately acquainted with the people concerning whom he writes; he describes himself as having entered the Portugueze civil service at the age of
twenty, in the year 1793, and having continued in it till 1804, when, unable any longer to resist the torrent of intrigue to which every foreigner in that service is subjected, he quitted for a time both his adopted country and profession. But in 1809, an advantageous situation being offered to him in the victualling department of the British army then in Portugal, he returned to that kingdom, with advantages possessed by few of his nation—a good knowledge of the language and the people. It is principally from his later experience, during this second residence of many years, which terminated only at a recent period, that he has attempted to describe the state of society in Portugal. The disgust once provoked in his mind by unjust treatment has long subsided, and he is conscious rather of partiality for, than prejudice against, the Portugueze and their country.' The tendency to caricature which appears in the prints to this volume might lead a reader to suspect something of a kindred exaggeration in the descriptions; and the anecdotes which he relates might strengthen the suspicion in those who are not acquainted with Portugal: but on that point the author speaks with the confidence of a man who is thoroughly conversant with his subject, and refers those who may entertain such doubts to any one who has resided in Portugal. His account, indeed, accords but too well with that of all travellers who have given the whole dark side of the truth.
Mr. Kinsey's book is of a very different description. That gentleman did not remain long enough in the country to become acquainted with the worst features of its society, nor to lose the pleasure of novelty, and the sense of admiration which its monuments of art and its magnificent scenery may well excite. Blest with the active and useful inclination to collect and communicate whatever information was within his reach, he has faithfully and pleasantly related all that he saw and learnt; and the prints which embellish his book are, most of them, so good, that a more beautiful volume has not issued from the press in this golden, or rather steel, age of engravers.
The View of the Revolutions of Portugal since the Close of the Peninsular War,' is a book of great ability, written with full knowledge of the subject on which it treats, in the best spirit, with sound judgment and perfect discretion. In its author, the late Captain John Murray Browne, the British army has lost a man who was likely to have been one of its brightest ornaments; for he possessed, in an eminent degree, not only the physical and intellectual endowments requisite for his profession, but the gentleness and benignity of disposition which are required to temper it, and those vital principles of morality and religion which can alone secure the
happiest disposition against the evil tendencies of a military life; so that in mature manhood he had no cause to repent having chosen for himself this course in childhood, and persisted in his choice against the wishes of his father. He was the only son of a clergyman at Norwich, who, yielding most reluctantly to the ardent but determined inclination of the boy, obtained a commission for him, while yet a mere youth, in 1809, and he immediately joined the 48th regiment, in Spain. He was in the battle of Busaco, and in that of Albuhera, on which last dreadful day his conduct attracted the favourable notice of his commanding officer. After sharing for some time in the honours achieved by the second division, under Lord Hill, he entered the 13th Portugueze infantry, and in that service was noted by Sir Benjamin D'Urban as an officer of the greatest promise. In that service he crossed the Pyrenees, and bore his part in the victories which terminated the Peninsular war. Soon afterwards, Marshal Beresford appointed him to the situation of assistant quarter-master-general; and from the favourable reports which were made of him, unaccompanied by any solicitations on his own part, the Duke of York promoted him to a captaincy. He performed the duties of his staff situation in a manner which gained for him the esteem and confidence of Sir Archibald Campbell, to whose Portugueze division he was attached. His zeal and fidelity, indeed, were such, that they exposed him to imminent peril; and once he narrowly escaped assassination from some of the revolutionary party, whose purpose, of seducing troops from their allegiance, he had discovered and baffled. When the British officers were dismissed by the ruling party, in 1820, he retired to a quinta, near Torres Novas, and there, being now a married man, farmed a little property, and quietly cultivated his olives. But it was not likely that one so well known in that country, and so thoroughly qualified for public life, would long be left to enjoy retirement; or that he would cease to take a lively interest in public affairs, or, feeling that interest, forbear to take a part in them. Accordingly, when he saw with what cruel indignities the poor old king of Portugal was treated, on his return from Brazil, indignation excited a generous feeling for him, and he entered into his interests with an ardour and a sincerity to which that unhappy king had been little accustomed, but which he perceived and felt, and valued as they deserved. One most important service Captain Browne rendered him, by influencing, at a most perilous time, certain local authorities in his favour; and by his own great exertions, and by rousing the king to an unusual effort. John VI. was so sensible of this, that he wished to make
him his aide-de-camp, being the only requital which, in the state of thraldom wherein he was held, it was in his power to offer; but to have accepted this, he must have given up his British commission, and his ambition was to rise in the service of his own country. In proportion as he had deserved well of the king, had he obtained the ill-will of those by whom the king was beset; they hated him for his English blood, his English principles, and above all, for having frustrated their design. Leaving, at length, a scene of intrigues, baseness, and ingratitude, he returned to England, and the king of Portugal, as a last proof of gratitude, directed his ambassador to solicit promotion for him in his name. The application was not pressed, because Captain Browne wished to complete a course of study at Sandhurst, before he made any further arrangement. John VI., meantime, died. Deeming it necessary, then, not to let such a recommendation be lost, he applied to the Marquess Palmella, and to the Marquess the Duke of York returned a most favourable answer, through Mr. Canning. The death of the Duke and of Mr. Canning, which both, so fatally, soon followed, did not affect his interests; his claims were acknowledged, and in the beginning of 1828 he joined the 75th regiment, at Castlebar, in Ireland, with fairer prospects than were generally understood by those who saw him doing captain's duty with a regiment after all his services. The regiment was removed to Mullingar in the spring; soon afterwards, he went on the lake to fish, missed a stroke when rowing, fell over, and was taken up dead. Such demonstrations of true grief have rarely been witnessed at a military funeral as when this excellent man, in whose society his brother officers delighted, and whom the soldiers loved as much as they respected, was committed to the grave. Not one of the regiment was absent when the service was performed. By this sudden stroke of calamity, a widowed mother was bereft of her only son, a sister of her protector, a most affectionate wife of her husband, and three young children of their father; and the army lost an officer, than whom no one in the service was more likely to have done honour to his country.
. The volume which he published a few months only before his death is not one which will go the way of ephemeral publications-it will always have its place in the Bibliotheca Historica of that kingdom to which it relates; and it is one of those books which no person can ever peruse without a feeling of respect for the author.
Captain Browne begins by describing the condition in which Portugal was left at the termination of the Peninsular war. How