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servations. In the choice of points for remark, he has selected those which have been left either wholly unnoticed, or, as it appears to the Author, imperfectly explained by others. Particular rules for the direction of learners are confessedly necessary, but it has always appeared to the Author most desirable, that these rules should be referred to general principles as their basis, and should be as comprehensive as is consistent with precision and perspicuity.
It might appear foreign from the plan and object of this book, that the Author should touch upon the collocation of words in Latin sentences; but the originality of the plan of dividing sentences into their separate clauses, for the purpose of deciding the mood of the verb to be employed, and its close connection with a proper arrangement of words, suggested to the Author the expediency of directing the student's attention to the principle, upon which such arrangement seems to have obtained in the Latin language.
Blackheath, March 21 st, 1839.
THE RIGHT USE
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Every grammatical sentence, otherwise called a proposition, contains within it certain parts, into which it is capable of being divided ; namely, the subject, the predicate, and the copula.
Grammarians do not commonly speak of the copula, but it is especially necessary for the learner to understand its nature, as will be evident from the sequel. The subject of a sentence 1 is that person or thing, of which something is said ; the predicate that which is said of the subject; the copula is that part of a sentence by which the predicate is affirmed or denied of the subject. Thus, magna vis orationis
! Observe, the subject of a sentence is here spoken of, but this is frequently different from the subject of a verb.
est. Vis orationis is the subject, of which something is affirmed,--magna is the predicate, or what is affirmed of the subject, and the affirmation is expressed by the copula, est. It is called copula, because it unites the two extremes ', or, in other words, expresses that the quality implied by the word magna agrees, or is applicable’ to the subject, vis orationis. If this applicability of the predicate to the subject is denied, the denial is expressed by the insertion of a word implying negation, as non, &c. “ Res tam dissimiles eodem nomine non sunt appellandæ." “ Res tam dissimiles” (subject)
non sunt” (copula)—“ eodem nomine appellandæ” (predicate). Est 3 is called the affirmative copula, non est 4 the negative copula.
1 The subject and predicate are called “extremes," or terms,” (from termini) because the copula naturally stands between them; but this order is frequently changed, as in the example given.
2. It is to be observed, that the use of these terms subject, predicate, and copula, regards solely the form of expression, and has nothing to do with the truth or falsity of the proposition itself. Thus, I may say, “All dogs are stones”.
-"Men are not animals." These assertions are false, but still, as far as the form of expression is concerned, the quality of being stones, in the former example, is said to be applicable to all dogs ; and in the latter, that of being animals is said to be inapplicable to men. In the former example, therefore, the predicate is affirmed (though falsely) of the subject, and in the latter, the predicate is denied (though falsely) of the subject
3 The substantive verb is not only the copula, but frequently is used as a verb of existence, when it contains within it the predicate.
4 To constitute a negative proposition, it is necessary that the negative copula should be either expressed or implied. It frequently happens, that the negative particle is separated from the copula, and blended with the subject. Thus, “no birds are rational animals." “No birds” is commonly called the subject—though, to speak correctly, “all birds” is the logical subject; and it is said of "all birds” (that is, of all the individual animals which compose the class of birds), that they “ are not (cop.) rational animals. (pred.)”
The copula of a sentence is generally contained in the grammatical verb, which comprises within it a part, or, in some cases, the whole of the predicate. Thus, in the sentence, “ venti cadunt,” the grammatical verb contains the copula and the whole predicate. In the following sentence, “ Omnino fortis animus et magnus duabus rebus maxime cernitur," the verb contains the copula and a part only of the predicate.
Now it is to be remembered, that every sentence contains these three parts, subject, predicate, and copula, and that no sentence can contain more. A sentence may consist of several members or clauses, but these are to be attached as parts of the subject or predicate to limit or qualify it.
6 Ea animi elatio, quæ cernitur in periculis et laboribus, si justitia vacat, pugnatque non pro salute communi, sed pro suis commodis, in vitio est.” The predicate of this sentence is “in vitio” (faulty), and the subject, of which it is said, is defined by the several clauses, which are to be attached to “ ea animi elatio." The clauses are constituent parts of the subject, to signify that Cicero does not assert faultiness of every “animi elatio,” but of the one described by the relative clause, “quæ cernitur in periculis et laboribus," and of that only under the supposed case or condition which is expressed by the clauses,“ si justitia vacat,” &c.
Again, “ Nec ulla vis imperii tanta est, quæ, premente metu, possit esse diuturna.” The subject of this sentence is nec ulla vis imperii — the predicate is tanta with the relative clause, quce, premente metu, possit esse diuturna.
The student should be particularly careful to ascertain in every case what is the true subject of the sentence; for it is not always the nominative case to the verb. The subject of the verb in a sentence and the subject of the sentence may be, and frequently are, different: the latter is to be determined by considering the general drift of an author's observations. Thus “non semper idem floribus est honos vernis.” Hor. Od. II. 11. 9. The subject of the verb is idem honos, but the subject of the sentence, that of which something is predicated, is verni flores. “ Inest in eadem explicatione naturæ, insatiabilis quædam e cognoscendis rebus voluptas." The subject of the verb “ inest” is “ voluptas,” but the subject of the sentence is contained in the words “ in eadem explicatione naturæ,” and in order to divide the sentence correctly, we must change the form of expression, “ eadem explicatio naturæ (subject) quandam e cognoscendis rebus voluptatem habet” (copula and predicate) “ Consuetudo exercitatioque capienda, ut boni ratiocinatores officiorum esse possimus, et
? To speak correctly, "omnis vis imperii” is the subject, and the negative is part of the copula ; but no misunderstanding is likely to arise from "nec ulla vis imperii” being called the subject : so it may be added, that as nec is a conjunction, a reference is necessarily made to some previous sentence with which it is connected. Though I have quoted the sentence as an independent sentence, I have not thought it necessary to alter the words of Cicero into nulla,