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and others,—not as Calvinistic opinions, but, I committed, -according to their respective op-
strange to say, anti-Calvinistic. Mr. Grinfield portunities of knowledge both of duty itself and
seems to think, that the declared opinions of of the motives to the performance of it.
the most popular Calvinistic writers, have no “ Now, ought not this to be enough? If any
claim to be regarded as Calvinism; that term are disposed to think that there should be no
being more appropriately given to the opinions such thing as perdition or punishment at all,
of Augustine, Fulgentius, and the schoolmen even on account of sin ;-with such persons, I
who lived before Calvin! It were to no pur- have at present no argument. I must be al-
pose, therefore, to refer to the pages of such lowed to assume it as a settled point in the
modern divines as Fuller or Scott, in order to Divine administration, that sin ought to be,
convict him of having grossly and ignorantly and certainly shall be, visited with punishment.
misrepresented the opinions he professedly at- And supposing this assumed, the question is,
tacks; since the Calvinism which is the ob. can any reasonable objection be offered against
ject of his abhorrence, is not the Calvinism either of the principles so clearly laid down in
either of John Calvin or of John Newton, of the text ?
Isaac Watts or Ralph Wardlaw, but of those • Nor is it in the text only, that these prin-
who hold with Fulgentius, that without the ciples are recognised. The spirit of them per-
sacrament of baptism, none can be saved. vades the sacred volume; and in many places

Still, a difficulty occurs. We have never of it, they aro affirmed with not less explicitheard this Fulgentian dogma advanced as a ness than in the words before us. For instance : reason for missionary exertions. Either, then, Luke xii. 47, 48. John ix. 39-41., xv. 22–24. the exertions which so honourably distinguish Matt. xi. 20—24. From these and other posthe present age, have a most unsuspected ori- sages, we lay it down, without hesitation, as gin, or Mr. Grinfield has very grossly blunder- the doctrine of Scripture, as it is also the evied in attributing to those who stand forward dent dictate of reason, -that responsibility is in the missionary cause, opinions which they according to privilege; that the punishment hold in abhorrence.

of offences by the judgment of a righteous Nor is this the only mistake into which the

God, will be exactly proportioned to the er. author has fallen. He evidently confounds,

tent in which the means have been enjoyed, of throughout, the universality of the Christian

the knowledge both of duty and of the obligadispensation, with its universal efficiency; and

tions to its performance.” universal redemption is spoken of as almost In the following passage, Dr. Wardlaw meets amounting to universal salvation. The anthor explicitly the inquiry relating to the salvability professes to treat of the salvability of the hea. of the heathen. then; but he overlooks the infinite difference

" But a heavy load, I will suppose, still pressbetween salvability and salvation; for he speaks of the heathen nations as if their actual

es upon your minds : you still urge the inquiry

---But may not the heathen br sared ? Is their condition warranted the hope that their final

salvation, without the knowledge of revelation, state would be the glory, honour, and immor- impossible? Is there no hope for themı? tality awaiting those who“ do by nature, the things contained in the law." The actual de.

“ I have no wish to dismiss such questions pravity and crime resulting from their leath. lightly; It would show a want of all becoming somc and debasing idolatry, furnish no bar, ac

sensibility, not to participate in the solicitude cording to the tenor of Mr. Grinfield's reason.

which they express. In attempting any reply ings, to the salvability of the Pagan world.

to them, I must begin by inquirine-What do He will not hear of its being maintained, that you mean when you ask, “May not the beathey are, in fact, “ perishing through lack of then be saved.". There is a vagueness in the knowledge."

question, of which, possibly, you are not sensi

ble. When you say, May not the heathen be From such crude and pernicious tampering saved ?-do you mean to ask whether all the with an awful subject, it is a relief to turn to

heathen may be saved, whatever have been the clear, able, and Scriptural statements of their principles, and whatever their character? Dr. Wardlaw, whose two sermons on the re

I will not suppose that you can mean this. It sponsibility of the heathen we earnestly recom- would be an insult to your good sense. The mend to the attention of our readers. Taking doctrine that would make salvation indepenfor his text the declaration of the apostle, Rom.

dent of present principles and present character ii. 12, 16, the Dr. remarks:

in the case of the leathen, must of necessity “ There are two principles distinctly and (if those who maintain it would be consistent unequivocally recognised in these words, as with themsclves) make salvation independent the principles of Divine judgment. The first of principles and character as to all mankind. is, that no human being, in any situation, under And with a doctrine such as this.-if any shall any variety of circumstances, shall perish' be found so foolish and so presumptuous as (that is, shall suffer future punishment in any to entertain it,-we have at present nothing of its various degrees) except for sin. The

to do. perdition is associated with sin, and with sin · Again, then, I ask-Do you mean by the only:- as many as have sinned, shall perish.' question, whether, if a heathen can be found, Every one then that does perish, perishes on who has thought, and felt, and acted, fully up account of sin. The second is, that the guilt to the light which he has enjoyed, -who has of sin, and consequently the measure of its in every thing lived agreeably to that light, punishment, will be estimated according to the whatever the measure of it may have been,circumstances of those by whom it has been whether that heathen may be saved?--hen I


answer, without the hesitation of a moment, ceed on the ground of bis not being influenced Yes-most assuredly. The text clearly im- by what he had no opportunity to know." plies it. We know that if those who had the law, kept the law perfectly, then they would have been saved by it; for the Scripture expressly saith, “The man that doeth these things, shall live by them.' Such persons

F:om the British Critic. would have been sinless in their circumstances.

A CONNEXION OF SACRED AND And if any one of those who are' without law,'

PROFANE HISTORY, from the Death of were found sinless in his circumstances, he

Joshua to the Decline of the Kingdoms of Is. could not perish; for the text lays down the

rael and Judah. By the Rer. Michacl Rus. principle, that it is only such as have sinned, in

sell, LL.D., Episcopal Minister, Leith. Lon. whatever circumstances, that shall perish. It

don. Rivingtons. 2 rols. 8vo. 1827. 288. clearly follows, that if a heathen be found, who has, in all respects, lived according to the light There are few works in theology of more he has enjoyed, he shall not perish. Point out value to the student than Prideaux's Connexthe man, and we have divine authority for pro- ion; and the popularity which it enjoys is nouncing him safe. The doctrine of the text equal to its merit. The object which it emis, that he is to be judged according to his cir: braces, relates to a period of great interest and cumstances, according to what he hath, and importance, and one which offered materials of not according to what he hath not in the

every kind both for the theologist and the higcase supposed, he comes up to this test :--hetorian. The interval between the restoration cannot, therefore, be condemned,—he cannot of the Jews and the birth of Christ, includes al. perish.

most all that is valuable to be known in Gre. “ But there is still another question. Even cian and Eastern history. Authentic docu. those who believe the gospel, are not by the ments of all kinds are in abundance, so far as faith of it perfectly freed from sin ; they are regards the contemporary Heathen nations; only delivered from its predominant power, and although the original authorities which we from the love and the indulgence of it; so possess for the history of the Jewish people are that, with various degrees of remaining corrup- but scanty, yet the events of that period were tion, prevailing holiness becomes their distin

not numerous or striking; and there is no reaguishing character :—is your meaning, then, son to think that any occurred of which it whether, if a heathen were to be found, under- would be important to be informed, the record standing and believing those views of God of which has been lost. Something, indeed, rewhich nature teaches,-humbly and seriously mains to be desired in that part of their history feeling their influence,-and living according during this period, which relates to their civil ly,—not a life, as in the former supposition, of and ecclesiastical polity; but not much even sinless conformity to his principles, but, as in here. It was the age of the fulfilment of prothe case of the Christian believer, a life of such phecy; but as this regarded the nations around predominant goodness as the lessons which he them, rather than the events of their own hisactually has, the truths which he has learned

tory, this last appears to have been in a kind of from the volume of nature, are fitted to pro- abeyance, until the fulness of time arrived, duce ;-whether, if such a man were found, he when they were themselves to come again upon might not be saved?-I freely answer, I am the scene; and when our information becomes not prepared to deny that he might. And if as minute and particular as it had till then been any shall think these terms, in such a case, un- brief and general. duly cautious and measured,- I will go a step The success which Prideaux's work oblained, further, and say, the spirit of the text appears and which, as we have just observed, was owto imply, if its words do not directly express, ing as much to the happy choice of the subject, a principle that would warrant our answering as to the learning and good sense which was this question too in the affirmative.—Divine in- displayed in his manner of treating it, suggest. struction is contained, if I may so express my. ed io Shuckford the idea of writing an account self, in two volumes,-the volume of nature, of the “ Connexion of Sacred and Profane Hisand the volume of revelation. The text ex- tory” in the interval betrveen the earliest repressly declares, what accords with the dic.cords of the creation, and that period when the tates of reason and with every natural senti. subject was undertaken by Prideaux. But alment of justice,—that they who are not in pos- though this would seem to be only a completion session of the latter, are not to be judged by it. of the same original design, yet practically it If, therefore, any one can be found, who learns was a very different kind of undertaking. Here aright what is taught in the only volume he there were no original records of any kind, exhas, and who is rightly and habitually, though cepting those which were in every body's hands. not perfectly, influenced by what he learns,— With respect to the Jewish nation, little or no(for to insist on the perfection of such influence thing was to be said, beyond what we collect would, as I have just before noticed, be to re- from the brief annals of the Sacred Historians. quire more than is required in the case of the So far from being able to throw light upon the believer of the lessons of the other volume, the narrative which they have left us, by hints bor. volume of revelation,)-I see not, in such a rowed from the history of the Heathen nations

how either the spirit or the letter of my around them, the point to be aimed at, was ratext could justify me in affirming his condem- ther to ascertain what light could be thrown nation; for then, in opposition to what the text upon the Heathen nations around them, by 80 plainly teaches us, his sentence would pro- hints borrowed from the Scriptures.



Now, undoubtedly, this is a subject well de- which flourished before the commencement of serving of attention, and in which much was any authentic records respecting them, exceptrequired to be done; but it is not in the same ing always the brief and broken annals of the proportion a subject susceptible of popular in Jewish Scripture. Without meaning to pass struction and interest. Of all the species of any censure, we may be allowed to say, that learned compilation and research, conjectural | when the whole shall be completed, a very imhistory, i. e. The bistory of what is to be consi- portant work will still remain to be executed: dered as the most probable, is beyond any other we mean a learned and judicious abridgment of dry and uninviting to the common reader; and the whole, so as to present the subject under when the points to be settled or illustrated re- some continuous and more easily understood fer chiefly to the investigation of dates and the arrangement than the works of Dr. Shuckford comparison of chronological systems and cal. and his no less learned and laborious successor culations, respecting persons and things of exhibit. The work of Dr. Russell is a continuwhom nothing whatever is known except the ation of the subject of Dr. Shuckford's“ Conname, the subject becomes dry and uninviting nexion;" but it can hardly be called a continunot only to the common reader, but to every ation of the work itself: so much of the ground class of readers. The writer who chooses such is common to both writers; so many things subjects must be satisfied with the praise of a are repeated; such different views of particufew studious individuals; and excepi where the lar points are taken ; and so little reference is labour itself is the reward that was sought, made in the last of these works to the labours must look to no other recompense than the and views of his predecessor. In a great meaconsciousness of a desire to be useful.

sure this was unavoidable, owing to defects in As Shuckford lived nearly twenty years after Dr. Shuckford's plan; and not unfrequently the publication of his last volume, and yet owing to views and conclusions in which he finished not more than half of his original design, was mistaken; but, be the cause what it may, we are led to presume that it must have been the effect is unfortunate, considering the works the want of encouragement at the time, which as one: the unity of the subject is still prewas the occasion of his relinquishing so pre- served, but there is little else that indicates maturely the labour which he had undertaken. any harmony of design. To speak the truth, there were other reasons in The work before us consists of two Books. his case, besides those which we have mention. In Book I. after a long and able preliminary ed, for his not meeting with any great and sud. dissertation on the true chronology of the Old den success. His work is at least twice as long as Testament in the times preceding the instituhis materials warranted; and these are arranged tion of kingly government in Israel, Dr. Ruswith so little order or method, that the patience sell proceeds to consider in regular order,of the reader is often severely tried. Neither 1. The civil and political constitution of the was his judgment the clearest, or his conclus ancient Hebrews. 2. Their religious belief sions always consistent with each other. Nev- and practices. 3. Their general history, from ertheless, in spite of all disadvantages, added the death of Joshua to the reign of Saul. Book to the almost hostile contempt with which his II. which occupies the whole of the second vowork is treated by Warburton, such is the grave lumo, is employed in examining what is known importance of the subject, and the want of or conjectured concerning the history of the some work, (even if it be only as a book of re- oriental nations, as connected with that of the ference,) by which the early Jewish history Jewish people: comprising the accounts which may be connected with the names of contem. we possess from heathen authors, of the history porary things and persons mentioned by pro of the Babylonians and Assyrians; of the vafane historians, that Shuckford's Connexion rious nations immediately adjacent to the land holds its place in most libraries on the same of Canaan; of the Persian mona

onarchy; and of shelf with Prideaux's, and even in its unfinished the origin of the more remarkable states and state has become a standard book in divinity: kingdoms of ancient Greece; concluding with

That part of his subject which Shuckford dissertations on the Argonautic expeditions, either relinquished or was prevented from com- the capture of Troy, and the return of the Hepleting, it is the object of the work before us raclidæ. to fill up; and we think that the public are From this account of the contents of the much indebted to Dr. Russell for having un. work, the reader will see that the great and dertaken the task. Although Shuckford pro- highly important object, of the connexion of fesses in his title page to bring down his history the Jewish people with the history and learnto the dissolution of the Syrian empire under ing and polity of the Egyptians, is omitted by Sardanapalus, and the declension of the king. Dr. Russell in the volumes which he has now doms of Israel and Judah under the reigns of presented to the public. We presuine that he Pekah and Ahaz, yet the period which he ac. reserves the subject for the volumes that are complished extends only to the conquest of to follow; unless, indeed, he considers that Canaan under Joshua. At this point, then, part of the subject as having been sufficiently the work before us, properly speaking, com- investigated by Shuckford, to whose division mences. It is the intention of the author to of the work it may be said to have more procontinue it until the time when the work of perly belonged. As it is not the part of the Prideaux commences; but the volumes be early history of the world which that learned fore us reach only to the reign of Saul, the writer has laboured with most success, we trust remainder of the period being reserved for two that the department is only reserved in the preconcluding volumes. We shall then have eight sent work, and not intended to be omitted; as unusually large and well filled octavo volumes independently of the many questionable stateof the history of those nations of the world ments which Shuckford has hazarded, so much

light has been thrown upon the subject of hier- | Jews a late and corrupt one, there can be no oglyphical writing since his time by Warbur- reasonable doubt. It is now the received ton, and since Warburton by the recent disco- opinion of all learned men, by none of whom veries of Dr. Young and Mr. Champollion, that has the absurdity of the Hebrew chronology in this part of the subject an almost entirely new been more evidently demonstrated than by our field of inquiry may be said to have been opened. author, in the work before us. The chronology

Our readers will easily see that it would be of the Seventy was that of the whole Christian impossible to follow our author over the long world, until the time of Jerome. It is the same and wide tract of historical disquisition,

which as that which we find in Josephus, in Eusebius, the above outline of his book presents. Indeed in the first Syriac version. But the Rabbinical there are so few points of any importance, on chronology was adopted by the early Reformers which we have much reason to differ from his in opposition to the Church of Rome, who, unconclusions, that even had we the room we til that time, had followed the Septuagint; and should be without the motive. Dr. Russell is the Church of Rome herself was induced to a plain and very straight-forward thinker upon adopt it, at the Council of Trent, because findmost subjects; he never aims at new results, ing it necessary to prescribe some anthorized merely as such; but presents each subject to version, and having determined that this should his reader in that which appears to him to be be the Vulgate, which was corrected and left the simplest point of view, and least to rest in its present state by Jerome, who used the upon conjecture. He takes the best guides Hebrew copy of the Scriptures, it was finally that he can find, and follows them, for the most settled that, from that time, the dates of the part, very steadily, except where he sees rea- Hebrew Scripture should receive the sanction son to distrust their leading. As the work is of the Church, and be authorized as the future from the nature of things a compilation of re- measure of the ancient dates for the time to come. sults and opinions, rather than a search after According to the Hebrew text, the number new and unknown truths, we do not know that of years from the creation to the delage is any more solid praise could be bestowed upon 1656, and from the deluge to the birth of Abrait.' Dr. Russell's strong point appears to be ham, 292—making in all 1,948 years. Now, chronology. It is to this part of his subject according to the Septuagint, the first of these that he returns with most pleasure, and appa. periods includes 2,262 years; and the last 1072 rently with most confidence in himself

. We --in all 3,334; making a difference in the calcannot say that we share with him the opi- culation of 1386 years. nion which he seems to entertain respect. In order to understand the means by which ing the importance of some of the dates this great difference was effected, it is neceswhich he so scrupulously examines; but it is sary to advert to the principle according to soldom we should be disposed to call in ques. which the chronology of the Bible is constructtion his conclusions. To settle dates is almost ed. The eras of the early history of mankind the only business of the historian of the early were measured by the Jews, not by adding totransactions of mankind; and few writers ap- gether the lives of the several patriarchs, but pear to have been more fitted for the task, either by taking the sum of what is called their geneby patience, or industry, or clearness of head,rations. For example, the generation of Enos, than the exact and laborious author to whom at the birth of Cainan, is in the Septuagint 190 we are indebted for the learned volumes now years, and the residue of his life 715 years, in before us.

The reader is perhaps made to all 905 years. Now the Hebrew Bible gives tread the same ground more often over than the same period for the age of Enos; but it the necessity of the subject in all cases required; | makes his generation only 90 years, adding the -an operation not very welcome to any one hundred subtracted to the remainder of his who has trouden it before in the writers them- life, which, according to this calculation, was selves whom Dr. Russell chiefly consults: but 815 years. To lengthen or shorten any period, this is a criticism which will comparatively de- therefore, all that is necessary is to lengthen serve little weight from the general reader, or shorten the proportion between the generawho will find in this work all that can be said tion and the residue of life. By subtracting in upon the subject of ancient chronology, in a this way 100 years from the generation of all form at least as entertaining as in any other of the patriarchs, both before and after the work that is to be found.

flood, a difference was made in the Hebrew The great preliminary point which Dr. Rus- Bibles, amounting to about 1,256 years: the sell labours to establish in his first chapter, as other 130 being occasioned by the insertion of that upon which all his subsequent calculations a second Cainan, in the Septuagint, between are formed, is the truth of the chronology of Arphaxad and Salah. the Septuagint. The reader is perhaps aware, Now, although it be quite certain that the that the difference between this and the chro. whole Christian world, and even the Jews themnological table of the Hebrew Bible, and of all selves, followed the Septuagint in this matthe modern versions, is not less than 1,400 ter, before Christ, yet, strong as this presumpyears. The numbers on the margin of our Bi- tion would be against the modern Hebrew chro. ble were inserted by Usher and Lloyd, and nology, it would perhaps not be final and deadopted by them from the Masorete Jewe. monstrative. The Masoretic Jews might have Tire same chronology was adopted at the Coun- possessed some proofs of the error of the reeil of Trent, and may be said to have been the ceived system of which we are not aware; at received chronology in Europe since the period all events, in our ignorance of their reasons for of the Reformation.

admitting su important an alteration, there That the chronology of the Septuagint is, might have been some ground of doubt and hehowever, the true, and that of the Masorete / sitation of opinion. But though it may not be

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easy to demonstrate that the Septuagint chro- The flood would have been placed in the year nology is right, yet there are strong reasons for of the world 1356; and Jared, who was born in believing that the Masoretic text must un- the year 460, and lived 962 years, would have doubtedly be wrong; and this point cannot be died in the year 1422, which would have been better stated than in the words of our author. 66 years after the flood. Methuselah would

“ It is not to be denied that, from the mutual be born, by the same computation, in the year animosity which was excited between the Jews 587; and, living 969 years, would have died in and Christians, by the recrimination of a long the year 1556, and 200 years after the flood. and sometimes a very bitter controversy, the Lamech, also, would be born in the year 674, charges of corruption advanced by the latter and, living 777 years, would die in the year against the former were occasionally carried 1451, which is $5 years after the flood. On too far. But, at the same time, there is no this account, the Jews, not daring to shorten doubt that, in regard to their genealogical ta- the lives of their patriarchs, left the original blos, the Rabbis of the school of Tiberias made numbers standing before Methuselah and Laconsiderable alterations in the original text; mech, and the Western Jews also before Jared; and nothing proves so unanswerably that such though they took away the century before changes were actually introduced, as the traces Enoch, and added it to the rest of his age after which still remain of the method according to he begat children, because his life was not half which those learned doctors effected their pur. so long as any of the rest of the antediluvians, pose.

he being translated into heaven when he had “For example, in order to diminish, to the lived 365 years. The management here, with extent of six hundred years, the period between respect to Enoch, after having passed over Jathe creation and the deluge, it was only neces. red, is certainly a strong proof of rabbinical insary, as I have already remarked, to subtract a terference.”-vol. i. pp. 86–88. hundred years from the generation of six of the But the rabbinical calcnlation is encumbered antediluvian patriarchs, and to add the same with other difficulties besides those which have to the residue of their lives. But, to accom- been here stated. Jackson, whose words are plish this object without falling into the mon- quoted at the end of the above extract, has restrous absurdity of extending the lives of Noah's marked, that if we follow the Hebrew chronofather and grandfather beyond the flood, it was logy, we must suppose that Abraham died befound indispensable to allow their generations fore Shem, who was born a century before the to remain unaltered; and thus, while Enos is deluge; moreover that he was contemporary represented as becoming a father at 90, Çainan with bim for the half of that period. These at 70, and Malaleel at 65, Methuselah does not are not the only discrepancies that must be rebehold his progeny till he has attained the ma- conciled on the supposition of the Hebrew chroturer age of 187, nor Lamech until he has reach.nology being received,—but it is not necessary cd his 162d year. The management which had to detail them further; the errors which it inbecome necessary to adjust the application of the volves are now generally admitted by all who scheme to the peculiar circumstances of every have turned their attention to the question ; case, betrays the vitiating hand of the Rabbi, the only point about which any difference of The exceptions, in fact, expose the corrupt in opinion can well exist, is as to ihe reasons by tention of the general principle on which the which the Jews must be supposed to have been innovation proceeded; for, as Enos lived to the influenced, in adopting a coniputation so greatly age of 905, Cainan to 910, and Malalcel to 895, at variance with that which was followed, even we can see no cause why they should have by their own nation, before the coming of Christ. married 100 years earlier than Methuselah, Dr. Russell ascribes the change which he whose sum of life was not much greater, and thinks must have been introduced into the Hemore especially than Lamech, who died at the brew text, to wilful corruption on the part of age of 777. We can discover no intelligible the Jews; but, we confess, that we do not very ground for these singularities; but we can per. clearly enter into the reasons which he tates ceive, at the firot glance, a powerful reason for his opinion, and which he probably adopted why the generations of Methuselah ond La- from Vossius, who gave the same explanation. mech should not be shortened, and the residue But the authority of a writer who contended of their lives lengthened; and we conclude, for the divine inspiration of the Septuagint that the hundred years were not taken from translation, is cutitled to no weight, in this the former and added to the latter, mercly be. controversy, beyond what the proofs which he cause such a change would have extended the brings will confer. That the early Christians duration of their lives considerably beyond the believed in the Millennium, there is no doubt; limits of the antediluvian world.

nor can it be doubted that they supposed the “ The same remarks, somewhat modifica, ap. reign of the Saints upon earth was then about ply to the case of Jared. The Jews,' says the to take its commencement. This is very fully author of the Chronological Antiquitics,'had shown by our author, and indeed will not be a mind to have left out a century in the ages questioned; but we do not quite understand by of all the patriarchs before they begat children, what reasoning this delusion is connected with and to have added it to the after-term of their the error of the Jewish chronology. There lives; but they found that, if they dropped the was a persuasion, at the period we are now centuries of the ages of Jared, Methuselah, and speaking of, that “the end of all things was at Lamech, before they begat children, as they hand;" and this was derived among the Chrisbad done of all the rest, and added them to the tians, partly from those expressions of our remainder of their lives, they must by this Lord, in which he predicted the approaching reckoning have extended their lives beyond destruction of Jerusalem, in words which, in a the flood, contrary to the history of Scripture. I secondary application, appear to have signified


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