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1. Of Ornament.

[n] The king, in order to give an immortal testimony of his esteem and friendship for that great general (M. de Turenne), gives an illustrious place to his renowned ashes, among those lords of the earth, who still preserve, in the magnificence of their tombs, an image of that of their thrones; instead of saying simply, gives his ashes a place in the tombs of the kings. [o] C'est-là ce qui l'emporte aux lieux où naît l'Aurore, Où le Perse est brulé de l'astre qu'il adore.


""Tis this transports him to far distant climes, "Where gay Aurora rises, where the Persian "Is scorch'd by the bright planet he adores."

2. To heighten low and common Thoughts.

[p] The eagle had already winged to the mountains to save herself, whose bold and rapid flight had at first terrified our provinces; that is, the German army. Those brazen thunderbolts, which hell invented for the destruction of men, thundered on all sides; that is, the cannon.

S. To soften harsh Expressions.

Cicero finding himself obliged in his defence of Milo, to acknowledge that his slaves had killed Clodius, does not say, interfecerunt, jugulȧrunt Clodium; but, by making use of a circumlocution, he conceals the horror of this murder under an idea which could not offend the judges, but seemed rather to engage them: [g] Fecerunt id servi Milonis (dicam enim non derivandi criminis causâ, sed ut factum est) neque imperante, neque sciente, neque presente domino, quod suos quisque servos in tali refacere voluisset. "Milo's servants were at length obliged to do (I only "tell the thing as it happened) without the knowledge, without the commands of their master, even [2] Mascaron.

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[o] Despr. [P] Flech. [q] Pro. Mil. n. 29.

"in his absence, what every man would wish his ser"vants to do in smilar circumstances.

When Vibus Virius exhorted the Senators of Capua to poison themselves, to prevent their falling alive into the hands of the Romans, he describes, by an elegant periphrasis, the misfortunes from which this draught would deliver them; and by this figure conceals from thein the horror of death, instead of saying, the poison would procure them a sudden one. [r] Satiatis vino ciboque poculum idem, quod mihi datum fuerit, circumferetur. Ea potio corpus ab cruciatu, animum à contumeliis, oculos, aures, à videndis audiendisque omnibus acerbis indignisque quæ manent victos, vindicabit. "When we have been satisfied "with the delights of the table, that cup of which I myself will drink, shall be brought to you. A "draught like this, wili free the body from torments, "the mind from indignities, the eyes and ears from "hearing or seeing all the miseries that fall to the "lot of the conquered."

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Though Manlius knew very well how odious the bare name of a king was to the Romans, and how likely to spirit them up to rebellion, he endeavoured nevertheless to prevail with them to give him that title He did it very dexterously, by contenting himself with the title of protector; but insinuating, at the same time, that that of king, which he was very careful not to name, would enable him to do them greater service. [s] Ego me patronum profiteor plebis, quod mihi cura mea & fides nomen induit. Vos, si inquo signi magis imperii honorisve nomine vestrum appellabitis ducem, eo utemini potentiore ad obtinenda ea quæ vultis. "I confess myself the patron of the com


mons; this is a title that my care and fidelity have "gained me. But you, my countrymen, if you are "willing to honour your general with any higher ti"tle, use it in order to increase the prosperity of your affairs."

[r] Liv. lib. 26. n. 13.

[s] Liv. lib. 6. n. 18.

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Some have justly taken notice of [t] certain turns, which the ancients employed to soften harsh and shocking propositions. When Themistocles saw Xerxes approaching with a formidable army, he advised the Athenians to quit their city; but he did it in the softest terms, and exhorted them to commit it to the care of the Gods. Ut urbem apud deos deponerent: quia durum erat dicere, ut relinquerent. Another was of opinion they should melt down the golden statues raised to Victory, to answer the exigencies of war. He used a turn of expression, and told them it was necessary to make use of victories. Et qui Victorias aureas in usum belli conflari volebat, ita declinavit, victoriis utendum esse.

Repetition is a pretty common Figure, which has different names, because there are various kinds of it. 'Tis very proper to express lively and violent passions, such as anger and grief for example, which are strongly employed on the same object, and see no other; and therefore often repeat the terms which represent it. Thus Virgil paints Orpheus's grief after the death of Eurydice.

[u] TE, dulcis conjux; TE solo in littore secum TE veniente die, TE decedente canebat.

[] Pliny the younger uses the same Figures in bewailing the death of Virginius, who had been his tutor, and whom he considered as his father. Volui tibi multa alia scribere; sed totus animus in hac unâ contemplatione defixus est. Virginium cogito, Virginium video, Virginium jam vanis imaginibus, recentibus tamen, audio, alloquor, teneo. "I intended writing to you upon many things else, but all my mind is employed "upon this alone. I see my Virginius; I think my Virginius in every vain image called up by fancy; "I converse with him, I hear him, I hold him."

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[y] Cicero furnishes us with a prodigious number of examples, Bona, miserum me! (consumptis enim

[t] Celebrata apud Græcos schemata, per quæ res asperas molliùs significant. Quint. 1. 9. c. 2.

[u] Lib. 4, Georg. ver. 465.
[x] Lib. 2. Ep. 1.
[y] 2 Philip. n. 64.


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lacrymis tamen infixus animo hæret dolor) bona, inquam, Cn. Pompeii acerbissimæ voci subjecta præconis. "All the goods, (though my tears are exhausted, yet my grief remains) all the goods of "Pompey were set up to be sold by a brawling auc"tioneer. [2] Vivis, & vivis non ad deponendum, sed ad confirmandam audaciam. "You live, but live, not to lay down, but to confirm your audacious"ness," [a] Cadebatur virgis in medio foro Messanæ civis Romanus, judices.... Cum ille imploraret sæpius usurparetque nomen civitatis, crux, crux, inquam, infelici & ærumnoso, qui nunquam istam potestatem viderat, comparabatur.


66 A Roman citi

zen, O my judges, was whipped with rods in the "forum of Messana. Though he often implored, "and boasted of the name of a Roman citizen, the cross, even the cross, was prepared for him."

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This Figure is likewise vastly proper for insisting strongly on any proof, or any truth. [b] The elder Pliny would make us sensible of the folly of men, who give themselves so much trouble to secure anestablishment in this world; and often take arms against one another, to extend a little the boundaries of their dominions. After representing the whole earth as a small point, and almost indivisible in comparison of the universe: "Tis here, says he, we are endeavouring to establish and enrich ourselves; 'tis here we would govern and be sovereigns; 'tis this that agitates mankind with frequent violence: this is the object of our ambition, the subject of our disputes, the cause of so many bloody wars, even among fellow-citizens and brothers. Hac est materia gloria nostra, hæc sedes: hic honores gerimus, hic exercemus imperia, hic opes cupimus, hic tumultuatur humanum genus : hic instauramus bella etiam civilia, mutuisque cædibus laxiorem facimus terram. All the vivacity of this passage consists in the repetition, which seems in every member or part to exhibit this little spot of earth, for which men torment themselves so far as to fight and kill one another, in order to get some [z] 1 Catil. n. 1. [a] 7 Verr. n. 161. [b] Lib. 2. c. 58.

little portion of it; and at last, what share have they of it after death? Quota terrarum parte gaudeat? cel, cum ad mensuram suæ avaritiæ propagaverit, quam tandem portionem ejus defunctus obtineat ! [c] Rompez, rompez tout pacte avec l'impiété. Daigne, daigne, mon Dieu, sur Mathan & sur elle Répandre cet esprit d'imprudence & d'erreur, De la chûte des rois funeste avant-coureur... Dieu des Juifs, tu l'emportes! . . .

David, David triomphe. Ahab seul est détruit... Englished.

"Your leagues with impious men dissolve, dissolve...

"Deign, deign, my God, on Mathan and on her "To shed the spirit of imprudent error,

"Fatal forerunner of the fall of kings,

"God of the Jews, 'tis thou who dost prevail ! "Great David triumphs. Achab only dies.

[d] L'argent, l'argent, dit-on: sans lui tout est stérile.

La vertu sans l'argent n'est qu'un meuble inutile. L'argent en honnête homme érige un scélérat. L'argent seul au palais peut faire un magistrat. ""Tis money, money: this alone is merit. "Without it, virtue is an useless toy.

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'Money proclaims the knave a man of honour.
"Money, alone, can make a dunce a judge."
[e] Quel carnage de toutes parts!
On égorge à la fois les enfans, les vicillards;
Et la sœur, & le frère ;

Et la fille, & la mère ;
Le fils dans les bras de son père.


What slaughter's all around us!

The murd'ring sword kills ancient men and children, The sister and the brother,

The son too, [c] Racine.

The daughter and the mother;
clasp'd in his fond father's arms.
[e] Racine.

[d] Despreaux.


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